A nebulizer treatment delivers what kind of medication to the respiratory tract? DWAersolized
racemic epinephrine as an aerosolized medication is known as what? (2 answers)MGVaponefrin or Micronefrin
An aerosolized medication is a liquid medicine that is converted into a fine ______?DWmist
What is the most common used Beta 2 in the U.S. and comes in solution, MDI, or oral dosages?MGAlbuterol
Levabuterol is also known as __________?DWXopenex
Xopenex is twice as strong Albuterol, making it’s dosage _____ to ___________mg.MG.63-1.5mg
Pirbuterol, a SABA, is also known as________.DWMAXAIR
This is a pro drug, delivered in a non-active phase, also known as Tornalate. MGBitolterol
Aerosol drug administration is also known as ____________ therapy. DWInhalation
This drug is Beta 2 LABA specific used twice a day for maintenance of bronchospasms and it’s trade name is Serevent.MGSalmeterol
Formoterol, a LABA, and beta 2 specific is known as ___________ when used as a DPI and as a solution is known as Performist. DWForadil
LABA, long acting beta adrenergic, are NOT for acute asthma or ___________.MGBronchospasms
Aerosol administration of drugs is indicated in circumstances where rapid absorption and localization effects of the drug are required to produce the appropriate response. TRUE/FALSE DWTRUE
What is a preferred anti-cholinergic drug for bronchodilation?MGIpatropium
Atrovent is a short acting parasympatholytic also known as.DWIpatropium Bromide
Tiotropium is a long acting parasympatholytic known as Spiriva, this drug has a slow onset, but is only used once a day because why?MGIt lasts 24 hours
Aerosol medication administration is used commonly in patients that have___________.DWAsthma
A side effect of aerosolized corticosteroids might include_______________________.MGfungal infection of the mouth
Chromolin Sodium, Intal, can be used for what?DWExcercise induced asthma
It is very important that when delivering a steroid via inhalation you have the patient to ___________ after medication has been delivered. MGrinse their mouth
Combivent is a combination of _______ and ___________ to prevent wheezing, difficulty breathing, chest tightness, and coughing in pts. with COPD. DWAlbuterol and Ipratropium
If you have a patient with shortness of breath with bilateral wheezing with a diagnosis of asthma, what is the most appropriate aerosol treatment drug?MGAlbuterol
Swallowing of an aerosolized medicine will (increase or decrease) the side effects of that medicine. DWIncrease
What is the appropriate adult dosage of albuterol?MG2.5mg
Rehydration of retained secreton can cause what hazard? sdMucus pluging
Not changing out the water in the reservoir of a humidifing divce every 24 hours will cause this hazord…sdcross contamination
A patient reacts to aerosol therapy by coughing and having trouble catching his breath. What is going on in this patient’s lungs? sdBrochospasms
What hazord can develop as water evaporates from an aerosol therapy delevery system? sddrug reconscentration
True, False: Humidification of medical gas is needed when the flow is greater than 4L/min. sdTrue
True, False: humidification is indicated if the upper airway is by passed. sdTrue
what are two consequences of humidity deficity? sdDried secretions and Atelectiasis
A possible cause of humidity deficity that aerosol therapy can correct is? sda by passed airway
Name for a mesured amount of humidity that does NOT change with temprature? sdAbsolute Humidity
what is the formula for relitve humidity? sd(Absolute Humidity/capcity)*100
what is the formula for humidity deficity? sdBody Humidity – Absolute Humidity
What is the potential humidity at body temprature (37*C)? sd44 mg/L or 47 mmHg
Refers to molecular water in a gas. JCHumidity
What is the humidity of air when it reaches the carina? JC100%
What is another name for a HME? JCArtificial Nose
A cause of humidity deficit. JCMouth breathing
What is an aerosol? JCsuspension of solid or liquid particles in a gas
A hazard of aerosol therapy. JCbronchospasm
Which uses a baffle: Atomizer or Nebulizer? JCNebulizer
What has the smallest particle size? JCUltrasonic Nebulizer
What uses piezoelectric crystals? JCUltrasonic nebulizer
What is used to deliver pentamadine? JCRespiragard
Penetration JCMaximum depth that suspended particles can be carried in the tracheobronchial tree
What heats and humidifies inspired air? JCTurbinates
Aerosolsuspension of solid or liquid particles in gas
Goals of aerosol*drugs delivered directly to site of action * Therapeutic action with minimal side effects * Greater efficacy and safety
MDIMetered dose inhaler
DPIDry powder inhaler
SVNSmall volume nebulizer
USNultrasonic nebulizer
hand-bulb atomizernose spray
vibrating mesh nebulizerlike the USN ultrasonic nebulizer
Jet Nebulizergas powered directed through a restricted orifice (the jet) – incorporates baffles to decrease the number of large aerosol particles
Peak flowa small, hand held device used to monitor a person’s ability to breath OUT
Spacersimple valueless extension
Chamberincorporates a valve resulting in higher resirable drug dosage (will have musical note if you breath to fast)
LVNLarge volume nebulizer
SPAGSmall particle aerosol generator
instabilitytendancy for particles to be removed from suspension
penetrationrefers to the maximum depth that suspended particles can be carried into the pulmonary tree by inhaled tidal air
depositionresult of an aerosol’s eventual instability; particles “fall out” on a nearby surface
Retentionproportion of particles deposited within the respiratory tract
clearanceremoval, the fact that some particles are exhaled
coalescenetwo particles form one larger particle
nebulizera device that generates aerosol of uniform size
gravitylarge particles are deposited before smaller particles
physical nature of particlesome particles absorb water, become large and rain-out, while others evaporate, become smaller and are conducted further into respiratory tree.
Hygroscopicparticles tend to absorb water from the resp tract, and become larger and rain out
Hypertonicparticles add water, increase size, and decrease deposition to smaller airways
hypotonicparticles lose water and increase deposition to small airways
isotonicsolutions will remain fairly stable in size until they are deposited
For maximal depositionslow deep breath, inhale through an open mouth, end inspiration, pause, follow with a slow, complete exhaustion
Proventil or Ventolin SVN/2.5mg, MDI/2 puffsAlbuterol Sulfate
Xopenex SVN/0.63mg or 1.25mg tidLevalbuterol
Serevent MDI/2 puffs bidSalmeterol xinafoate
Isuprel Stimulates the heart – Rarely used for inhalationIsoproterenol
Foradil DPI/12 mcg bidFormoterol
Tornalate SVN/1.25mg MDI/2 puffs bid-qidBitolterol
Not FDA approved for inhalationAtropine
Atrovent SVN/0.50mg MDI/2 puffs qidIpratropium bromide
Spiriva DPI/ 18 mcg qdTiotropium bromide
Adrenaline SVN/as ordered qid Primatene mist MDI/prn, 0.2mg/puffEpinephrine
Vaponephrine or S2 SVN/as orderedRacemic epinephrine
Rx was replaced by TiladeIntal
Tilade MDI/2 puffs qidNedocromil sodium
Mucomyst 2-4ml of 10% or 20% solution Given with a bronchodilator Used as diluent/solventAcetylcysteine
TOBI SVN, Use separate nebulizer, pre-suction if needed, avoid post-suctionTobramycin
Colistin Pre-suction if needed, avoid post-suctionColomycin
Vancocin Pre-suction if needed; avoid post-suction Used to increase MRSAVancomycin
Virazole 2% (20mg/ml solution by SPAG-2 deviceRibavirin
Aero-Bid MDI/2 puffs bidFlunisolide
Flovent MDI 2 Puffs DPI bidFluticasone propionate
Pulmacort SVN 0.25 or 0.50mg/2mlBudesonide
Advair DPI bidFluticasone propionate and salmeterol
Combivent MDI 2 puffs qidIpratropium bromide and albuterol
DuoNeb SVN Ipratropium bromide 0.50mg and albuterol 3mgIpratropium bromide and albuterol
Belcovent/VancerilBelcomethasone Corticosteroid
AzmacortTriamcinalone Corticosteroid
SymbicortCombo – Pulmacort (Budesonide) & Foradil (Formoterol) Long acting B2 (MDI)
HPA-axisendogeneous corticosteroid production regulator HPA = Hypothalamus – Pituitary – Adrenal
NebupentPentamidine Antimicrobial given via respiraguard nebulizer system
VirazoleRibavirin Antimicrobial given via SPAG-2 device
RelenzaZanamivir; Antimicrobial given via DPI Tx influenza
Nondepolarizing agentsSkeletal muscle paralysis occurs, but no neurological effect: Must be given with a sedative.
CurareTubocurarine; Nondepolarizing agent; Reversible with Tensilon (Edrophonium)
PavulonPancuronium; Nondepolarizing agent; Reversible with Tensilon (Edrophonium)
NorcuronNorcuronium; Nondepolarizing agent; Reversible with Tensilon (Edrophonium)
Depolarizing AgentsMaintain muscle tissue in a refractory state after depolarization; Indicated for short-term neuromusucular relaxation (5 mins for intubation).
BrovanaArformoterol; Long acting B2; Competes commercially w/ Serevent
Used as pallitive tx to reduce dyspnea; and as analgesicFentanyl; Opiod (narcotic), analgesic
LasixFurosemide; Diuretic; Used only at certain hopitals; to reduce dyspnea.
ExuberaA form of insulin
Anti-leukotrienesNone available in MDI