4 ways to know that the ET Tube is in the proper positionBilateral Chest Movement, Bilateral Breathing sounds, CO2 detector, X Ray
5 conditions that may slow the function of the epiglottisDrugs and Alcohol, stroke, glossopharyngeal nerve damage, CNS damage, ET Tube, Head injury, Depression
List 5 conditions that may slow the function of the mucociliary escalatorcigarette smoke, dehydration, positive-pressure ventilation, endotracheal suctioning, high inspired oxygen concentrations, hypoxia, atmospheric pollutants, general anesthetics
What nerve innervates the submucosal glandParasympathetic Nerve
Function of the sol and Jel layerscilia move in the sol layer and propel mucous toward the oropharynx sol layer watery jel layer sticky
5 chemical mediators of the airwaysHistamine, heparin, SRS-A Slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis, PAF Platelet-activating factor, ECF-A Eosinophilic chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis, Leukotrienes
List 5 effects of the release of those chemical mediatorsIncreased vascular permeability, smooth muscle contraction, increase mucous secretion, vasodilation with edema, Inflammation
What is Lung Parenchyma?Functional units of the lung. All gas exchange areas.
Failure to heat and humidify gasses inspired in the patient with an ET Tube will lead to what 3 problemsDrying of the sol, mucous ciliator to become slow, dehydration
List 5 anatomic landmarks for intibationvocal cords, epiglottis, glottis, esophagus, trachea
4 characteristics of a strong caughDeep breath, strong Valsalva maneuver, strong abdominal muscle contractions, forceful exhalation
describe Valsalva maneuverforceful exhalation against a closed glottis
2 structures in the airway that secretes mucoussubmucosal gland, goblet cells
list the structures of the lungs in descending orderTrachea, main stem bronchi, lobar bronchi, segmental bronchi, subsegmental bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs
Name the structures of the lungs that are considered Conducting zoneTrachea, mainstem bronchi, lobar bronchi, segmental bronchi, subsegmental bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles,
Name the structures of the lungs that carry on gas exchangeRespiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs
What gasses are exchanged in the lungsOxygen in, Carbon Dioxide out
Between what two structures are gases exchanged?lungs and bloodstream
the pores of kohn connect what two structures?Adjacent aveoli
What are two compartments of the interstitium?Tight space, Loose space
What is the function of the pulmonary capillary?gas exchange
what is the function of the lymphatic systemremoves excess fluid and protein molecules that leak into the pulmonary capillaries
where is the hilum or hilar region located?Where mainstem bronchi, vessels, and nerves enter the lung
what is the primary neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system?epinephrine, norepinephrine
what is the primary neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous systemacetylcholine
what is atropine’s effect on the heart and whyincreases the heart rate because it blocks the parasympathetic nervous system
name two tissues that make up the alveoliType I (squamous pneumocyte, alveolar epithelium, Type II (granular pneumocytes, atelectasis)
What is between the alveolar epithelium and capillary endothelium?Interstitial space.
What is the tight space made up of?collegin fibers
Which nervous system does albuterol effect?sympathetic nervous system
Which nervous system doepropranololol effect?Parasympathetic
what does colateral ventilation allow forAir to move up and down, and side to side.
what does beta I effectHeart rate
What does beta II effectLungs
cross sectional area does what as air passes into the lungs?Increases
Name the sites for gas exchangeRespiratory bronchioles, aveolar ducts, aveolar sacs
3 primary functions of the noseheats, humidifies, filters air
3 cartilages of the larynxepiglottis, cricoid cartilage (Signet ring), Thyroid cartilage (Adams apple)
What is the larynx refered asvoice box
what is the space between the thyroid and cricoid cartilagecricothyroid membrane
the upper airway extends from where to where?nares to the glottis
what nerve supplies the epiglottisglossopharyngeal nerve
what is aspirationsucking something other than air into the trachea
What is nasal septumdividing walls between the nares
what lines the trachea and lower airways?pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium
where should the tip of th eeno tracheal tube be located?Middle 1/3rd of the trachea
what is below the left hemidiaphragmStomach
What is below the right hemidiaphragmliver
how many C shaped cartilages make up the trachea16 to 20
how long is the trachea in cm’s?11 to 13
what is a hole between the trachea and esphagustracheal esophigeal fistula
what is the point where the main stem bronchi meet?carina
anatomically where is the carina located?at the level of the 4th or 5th thorasic vertibrae
What is loose spacearea that surrounds the bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles, aveolar ducts, aveolar sacs, and lymphatic vessels. neuro fibers are found in this area
name the noncartilaginous airwaysbronchioles, terminal bronchioles
Name the cartilaginous airwaystrachea, main stem bronchi, lobar bronchi, segmental bronchi, subsegmental bronchi
collectively the sites for gas exchange are namedlung parenchyma, primary lobule, functional units, terminal respiratory unit, acinus
what is the nasopharynxposterior portion of nasal cavity
pharynx means?throat
oropharynx located whereposterior portion of oral cavity
laryngopharynx located wherebase of tongue, to entrance into the espohagus
upper airway includesnose, mouth, pharynx
What covers epithelial liningmucous blanket
What are the canals of lambertconnect terminal bronchioles and alveoli, provide for collateral ventilation
Where is surfactant situatedbetween the air and liquid of the alveoli
What does surfactant play a major role indecreasing surface tension of the alveoli
What are type III cellsAlveolar macrophage
What do Type III cells play a major role inremoving bacteria
Alveolar-capillary clusters are surrounded, supported and shaped by whatinterstitium
Interstitium is a weblike network of whatcollagen fibers
Where is the tight space locatedbetween alveolar epithelium and capillary endothelium
pulmonary capillariessurround the alveoli where gas exchange occurs
what are pulmonary capillaries composed ofcapillary endothelium
alveolar capillary membrane =gas exchange sites
Where do lymphatic vessels endlymph nodes
where are lymph nodes locatedjust inside/outside lung parenchyma
lymph nodes producelymphocytes, monocytes
lymph nodes do what?keep bacteria from gaining entrance into bloodstream
What are the 2 divisions of the autonomic nervous systemsympathetic, parasympathetic
the canals of lambert are found in theterminal bronchioles
what lines the anterior one-third of the nasal cavitystratified squamous epithelium
forms the nasal septumethmoid bone, vomer
prevents the aspiration of foods and liquidsepiglottis
eustachian tubes are found in thenasopharynx
the inferior portion of the larynx is composed ofcricoid cartilage
has the greatest combined cross-sectional areaterminal bronchioles
the left main stem bronchus angles off from the carina at about40 to 60 degrees
ninety-five percent of the alveolar surface is composed oftype I cells (squamous pneumocytes)
released when the parasympathetic nerve fibers are stimulatedacetylcholine
released when the sympathetic nerve fibers are stimulatedepinephrine, norepinephrine
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium lines thetrachea, nasopharynx
What are the accessory muscles of inspirationscalenus muscles, sternocleidomastoid muscles, pectoralis major muscles, trapezius muscle, external intercostal muscle
What are the accessory muscles of expirationrectus abdominus muscle, external abdominus obliquus muscle, internal abdominus obliquus muscle, transversus abdominis muscle, internal intercostal muscle
Supply the motor innervation of each hemidiaphragmPhrenic nerve, lower thoracic nerves
Located in the thoracic cage between the right and left lungmediastinum
The bronchial arteries nourish the tracheobronchial tree down to, and includingterminal bronchioles
What are the 3 layers of the tissue in the airwayEpithelium, Lamina propria, cartilaginous layer
called resistance vesselsarterioles
what type of tissue make up the tracheobronchial treepseudostratified epithelium
gas exchanges between the alveoli and the capillary by way of a process calleddefusion
list the effects of the sympathetic nervous systemincrease Heart rate, relax bronchial smooth muscles, decrease bronchial secretion
List the effects of the parasympathetic nervous systemdecrease heart rate, constrict bronchial smooth muscles, increase bronchial secretion
What effect will a parasympatholytic like atropine have on bronchial secretiondecrease secretion
vegas nerve is deeply rooted inparasympathetic nervous system
What nerve innervates the vocal cordsrecurrant laryngeal nerve
Block Beta 1 =heart rate goes down
block beta 2 =bronchoconstriction
beta-blocker drugpropranolol
stimulation of beta 1heart rate goes up tachycardia
stimulate beta 2bronchial smooth muscle relaxation, bronchodilation
stimulate alphavasoconstriction of blood vessels, drying of mucosa, increase BP
left lung is divided into upper and lower lobes byoblique fissure
visceral pleura is whatLining of the surface of the lung
parietal pleura is whatlines the interior portion of the thoracic cavity.
what is pneumothoraxair or gas is introduced into the pleural cavity the intrapleural pressure rises to atmospheric pressure and causes the pleural membranes to separate
What are true ribsfirst 7 ribs because they are attached directly to the sternum
What are false ribs8th, 9th, and 10th ribs because the cartilage attaches to the cartilage of the ribs above
What are floating ribsribs 11 and 12 float freely anteriorly
what is intercostal spaces22 intercostal spaces between ribs that contain blood vessels, intercostal nerves, and the external and intercostal muscle
what is the diaphragmmajor muscle of ventilation.
where ist he diaphragm locatedbetween the thoratic cavity and the abdominal cavity
the administration of a beta blocker like propranolol to an asthmatic will likely result in…bronchoconstriction
What are the three categories for chemical release causes?Inflamation, Smooth muscle contraction, Increase mucous production
what are the categories of inflamationvascular permeability, bronchialademia, vasodilation with edema
What drug is used for inflamationcortical steroids (Anti-inflammatory)
What drug is used to dialate the airwayalbuterol (Epinephrine/adrenaline)
In the presence of lung infection what cell will migrate to the aveoli from the bloodstreamalveolar macrophages Type III