Question Answer
4 ways to know that the ET Tube is in the proper position Bilateral Chest Movement, Bilateral Breathing sounds, CO2 detector, X Ray
5 conditions that may slow the function of the epiglottis Drugs and Alcohol, stroke, glossopharyngeal nerve damage, CNS damage, ET Tube, Head injury, Depression
List 5 conditions that may slow the function of the mucociliary escalator cigarette smoke, dehydration, positive-pressure ventilation, endotracheal suctioning, high inspired oxygen concentrations, hypoxia, atmospheric pollutants, general anesthetics
What nerve innervates the submucosal gland Parasympathetic Nerve
Function of the sol and Jel layers cilia move in the sol layer and propel mucous toward the oropharynx sol layer watery jel layer sticky
5 chemical mediators of the airways Histamine, heparin, SRS-A Slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis, PAF Platelet-activating factor, ECF-A Eosinophilic chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis, Leukotrienes
List 5 effects of the release of those chemical mediators Increased vascular permeability, smooth muscle contraction, increase mucous secretion, vasodilation with edema, Inflammation
What is Lung Parenchyma? Functional units of the lung. All gas exchange areas.
Failure to heat and humidify gasses inspired in the patient with an ET Tube will lead to what 3 problems Drying of the sol, mucous ciliator to become slow, dehydration
List 5 anatomic landmarks for intibation vocal cords, epiglottis, glottis, esophagus, trachea
4 characteristics of a strong caugh Deep breath, strong Valsalva maneuver, strong abdominal muscle contractions, forceful exhalation
describe Valsalva maneuver forceful exhalation against a closed glottis
2 structures in the airway that secretes mucous submucosal gland, goblet cells
list the structures of the lungs in descending order Trachea, main stem bronchi, lobar bronchi, segmental bronchi, subsegmental bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs
Name the structures of the lungs that are considered Conducting zone Trachea, mainstem bronchi, lobar bronchi, segmental bronchi, subsegmental bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles,
Name the structures of the lungs that carry on gas exchange Respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs
What gasses are exchanged in the lungs Oxygen in, Carbon Dioxide out
Between what two structures are gases exchanged? lungs and bloodstream
the pores of kohn connect what two structures? Adjacent aveoli
What are two compartments of the interstitium? Tight space, Loose space
What is the function of the pulmonary capillary? gas exchange
what is the function of the lymphatic system removes excess fluid and protein molecules that leak into the pulmonary capillaries
where is the hilum or hilar region located? Where mainstem bronchi, vessels, and nerves enter the lung
what is the primary neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system? epinephrine, norepinephrine
what is the primary neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system acetylcholine
what is atropine’s effect on the heart and why increases the heart rate because it blocks the parasympathetic nervous system
name two tissues that make up the alveoli Type I (squamous pneumocyte, alveolar epithelium, Type II (granular pneumocytes, atelectasis)
What is between the alveolar epithelium and capillary endothelium? Interstitial space.
What is the tight space made up of? collegin fibers
Which nervous system does albuterol effect? sympathetic nervous system
Which nervous system doepropranololol effect? Parasympathetic
what does colateral ventilation allow for Air to move up and down, and side to side.
what does beta I effect Heart rate
What does beta II effect Lungs
cross sectional area does what as air passes into the lungs? Increases
Name the sites for gas exchange Respiratory bronchioles, aveolar ducts, aveolar sacs
3 primary functions of the nose heats, humidifies, filters air
3 cartilages of the larynx epiglottis, cricoid cartilage (Signet ring), Thyroid cartilage (Adams apple)
What is the larynx refered as voice box
what is the space between the thyroid and cricoid cartilage cricothyroid membrane
the upper airway extends from where to where? nares to the glottis
what nerve supplies the epiglottis glossopharyngeal nerve
what is aspiration sucking something other than air into the trachea
What is nasal septum dividing walls between the nares
what lines the trachea and lower airways? pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium
where should the tip of th eeno tracheal tube be located? Middle 1/3rd of the trachea
what is below the left hemidiaphragm Stomach
What is below the right hemidiaphragm liver
how many C shaped cartilages make up the trachea 16 to 20
how long is the trachea in cm’s? 11 to 13
what is a hole between the trachea and esphagus tracheal esophigeal fistula
what is the point where the main stem bronchi meet? corina
anatomically where is the corina located? at the level of the 4th or 5th thorasic vertibrae
What is loose space area that surrounds the bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles, aveolar ducts, aveolar sacs, and lymphatic vessels. neuro fibers are found in this area
name the noncartilaginous airways bronchioles, terminal bronchioles
Name the cartilaginous airways trachea, main stem bronchi, lobar bronchi, segmental bronchi, subsegmental bronchi
collectively the sites for gas exchange are named lung parenchyma, primary lobule, functional units, terminal respiratory unit, acinus
what is the nasopharynx posterior portion of nasal cavity
pharynx means? throat
oropharynx located where posterior portion of oral cavity
laryngopharynx located where base of tongue, to entrance into the espohagus
upper airway includes nose, mouth, pharynx
What covers epithelial lining mucous blanket
What are the canals of lambert connect terminal bronchioles and alveoli, provide for collateral ventilation
Where is surfactant situated between the air and liquid of the alveoli
What does surfactant play a major role in decreasing surface tension of the alveoli
What are type III cells Alveolar macrophage
What do Type III cells play a major role in removing bacteria
Alveolar-capillary clusters are surrounded, supported and shaped by what interstitium
Interstitium is a weblike network of what collagen fibers
Where is the tight space located between alveolar epithelium and capillary endothelium
pulmonary capillaries surround the alveoli where gas exchange occurs
what are pulmonary capillaries composed of capillary endothelium
alveolar capillary membrane = gas exchange sites
Where do lymphatic vessels end lymph nodes
where are lymph nodes located just inside/outside lung parenchyma
lymph nodes produce lymphocytes, monocytes
lymph nodes do what? keep bacteria from gaining entrance into bloodstream
What are the 2 divisions of the autonomic nervous system sympathetic, parasympathetic
the canals of lambert are found in the terminal bronchioles
what lines the anterior one-third of the nasal cavity stratified squamous epithelium
forms the nasal septum ethmoid bone, vomer
prevents the aspiration of foods and liquids epiglottis
eustachian tubes are found in the nasopharynx
the inferior portion of the larynx is composed of cricoid cartilage
has the greatest combined cross-sectional area terminal bronchioles
the left main stem bronchus angles off from the carina at about 40 to 60 degrees
ninety-five percent of the alveolar surface is composed of type I cells (squamous pneumocytes)
released when the parasympathetic nerve fibers are stimulated acetylcholine
released when the sympathetic nerve fibers are stimulated epinephrine, norepinephrine
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium lines the trachea, nasopharynx
What are the accessory muscles of inspiration scalenus muscles, sternocleidomastoid muscles, pectoralis major muscles, trapezius muscle, external intercostal muscle
What are the accessory muscles of expiration rectus abdominus muscle, external abdominus obliquus muscle, internal abdominus obliquus muscle, transversus abdominis muscle, internal intercostal muscle
Supply the motor innervation of each hemidiaphragm Phrenic nerve, lower thoracic nerves
Located in the thoracic cage between the right and left lung mediastinum
The bronchial arteries nourish the tracheobronchial tree down to, and including terminal bronchioles
What are the 3 layers of the tissue in the airway Epithelium, Lamina propria, cartilaginous layer
called resistance vessels arterioles
what type of tissue make up the tracheobronchial tree pseudostratified epithelium
gas exchanges between the alveoli and the capillary by way of a process called defusion
list the effects of the sympathetic nervous system increase Heart rate, relax bronchial smooth muscles, decrease bronchial secretion
List the effects of the parasympathetic nervous system decrease heart rate, constrict bronchial smooth muscles, increase bronchial secretion
What effect will a parasympatholytic like atropine have on bronchial secretion decrease secretion
vegas nerve is deeply rooted in parasympathetic nervous system
What nerve innervates the vocal cords recurrant laryngeal nerve
Block Beta 1 = heart rate goes down
block beta 2 = bronchoconstriction
beta-blocker drug propranolol
stimulation of beta 1 heart rate goes up tachycardia
stimulate beta 2 bronchial smooth muscle relaxation, bronchodilation
stimulate alpha vasoconstriction of blood vessels, drying of mucosa, increase BP
left lung is divided into upper and lower lobes by oblique fissure
visceral pleura is what Lining of the surface of the lung
parietal pleura is what lines the interior portion of the thoracic cavity.
what is pneumothorax air or gas is introduced into the pleural cavity the intrapleural pressure rises to atmospheric pressure and causes the pleural membranes to separate
What are true ribs first 7 ribs because they are attached directly to the sternum
What are false ribs 8th, 9th, and 10th ribs because the cartilage attaches to the cartilage of the ribs above
What are floating ribs ribs 11 and 12 float freely anteriorly
what is intercostal spaces 22 intercostal spaces between ribs that contain blood vessels, intercostal nerves, and the external and intercostal muscle
what is the diaphragm major muscle of ventilation.
where ist he diaphragm located between the thoratic cavity and the abdominal cavity
the administration of a beta blocker like propranolol to an asthmatic will likely result in… bronchoconstriction
What are the three categories for chemical release causes? Inflamation, Smooth muscle contraction, Increase mucous production
what are the categories of inflamation vascular permeability, bronchialademia, vasodilation with edema
What drug is used for inflamation cortical steroids (Anti-inflammatory)
What drug is used to dialate the airway albuterol (Epinephrine/adrenaline)
In the presence of lung infection what cell will migrate to the aveoli from the bloodstream alveolar macrophages Type III