Question Answer
chemoreceptors are specialized tissue that respond to chemicals…. CO2,H+,O2, and pH
___________ are probaly the single most important mechanism by which ventilation is regulated chemoreceptors
what are the two types of chemoreceptors? central and peripheral
what are the 2 types of peripheral chemoreceptors carotid bodies, and aortic bodies
where are carotid bodies located, and what are they stimulated by? they are located at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery and are subject to nervous stimulation
where are aortic bodies located and what are they simulated by? they are located within the arch of the aorta and are stimulated by the vagus nerve
peripheral chemoreceptors will respond to….. increase in CO2, increase in H+, decrease in pH, decrease in PO2, decrease in blood flow, and increase in temp
What is the most important mechanism of peripheral chemoreceptors? there response to a low pO2. This sets them apart from the central chemoreceptors.
When is stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors max? when PO2 is 40-60 torr, stimulation= increase in RR, and increase in tidal volume
peripheral chemoreceptors will be stimulated only with a _____________ in PC02, or ______________ in pH, this stimulation is directly caused by an_____________ in H+ and indirectly caused by CO2 very large increase, decrease, increase
stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors to decreased blood flow will cause an increase in___________and______________ HR and BP
where are the central chemoreceptors located? In the medulla ( not in the medullary respiratory center!)
What are the central chemoreceptors in contact with? CSF and arterial blood
central chemoreceptors do not respond to what levels in the blood? O2
central chemoreceptors respond directly to what concentration in the CSF H+ concentration (ph)
When central chemoreceptors are stimulated due to H+ increase(decrease ph) in CSF what happens increase in ventilation
when H+ are low (high pH) chemoreceptors cause ventilatory drive and volume to diminish
Blood brain barrier protective mechanism for the brain that seperates CSF and blood
blood brain barrier membrane extremly selectively permeable, relatively impermeable to ions and readily permeable to gases (CO2)
what diffuses easily across the blood brain barrier CO2
H+ and HCO3 can get by the blood brain barrier slowly with active transport
an increase in PCO2 in the blood of the in the blood brain barrier leads to an increase in PCO2 in CSF and increase of H+ in CSF
an increase in PCO2 and H+ in CSF will stimulate the central chemoreceptors to do what increase their respiratory rate and tidal volume
Factors influencing PCO2 of CSF cerebral blood flow, CO2 production rate, CO2 content in artery/vein, and alveolar ventilation
Interaction between the central and peripheral chemoreceptors ventilation normally under control by central chemoreceptors, in presence of disease peripheral c.r may play the dominant role
Hering-Breuer Reflex not normally activated, activated in response to over or under inflation of the lungs, impacts VT and RR, activated to decrease WOB
2 reflexes of Hering Breuer Reflex inflation reflex and deflation reflex
inflation reflex inhibits inspiration
deflation reflex stimulates inspiration when lung volume is low, my be responsible for hyperventilation seen in patients with restrictive lung diseases
J receptors located in the interstitial tissue of the alveolar capillary membrane, they are stimulated by an increase in AC membrane thickness(PNA,pulmonary edema, fibrosis) resutls in increase RR possible hyperventilation or hypocarbia
3 basic function of the kidneys 1) excrete fixed acids (H+)2) Regulate electrolyte concentrations (HCO3-,Na+,Ca+,Cl-)3) regulate blood and fluid volumeall accomplished via nephron network in the kidney
electrolyte charged particle within a solution
Urine formation 3 steps 1) glomerular filtration2)tubular reabsorption3)tubular secretion
Glomerular filtration depends on the adequacey of_____________ to the kidneys perfusion (because it is a hydrostatic process)
kidneys need what percentage of cardiac output, because they have a high O2 consumption, and high metabolic rate, anything that effects cardiac output will affect the filtrate ( ex. diuretics, epi) 20%
Tubular reabsorption happens via active or passive transport
what pe is percentage of fluid that passes into the glom. filtrate is reabsorbed back into the tubular cells of the kidney and then back into blood 99%
Tubular secretion happens via active transport
Tubular secretion is a process by which renal tubular cells secrete electrolytes into the filtrate in exchange for the reabsorption of other electrolytes that the body demands
What is the most abundant electrolyte? Sodium
Question Answer
What are Erythrocytes? Erythrocytes are Red Blood Cells or call RBC. They are formed in bone marrow.
What is the Function of RBC? RBC are the principal carriers of oxygen in the body. RBC is a membrane-lined sac of hemoglobin, which has a powerful affinity for oxygen.
What is Hemoglobin HB? Carries O2 on the red blood cell. It is know as the tranporter. 12-16 grams.
What is Anemia? When the hemoglobin is less than 12 grams.
What is Polycythemia? When the Hemoglobin is higher than 16 grams.
What is Hematocrit? Hematocrit is the ratio of RBC volume to that of whole blood. It is determined by spinning a blood sample in a centrifuge to separate the blood cells from the plasma.
What are Leukocytes? Leukocytes are white blood cells or WBC. They are the defenders against infection.
What are the granular leukocytes? Neutrophil, Eosinophils, Basophils
What are Neutrophil? 65% of the total WBC. Bands are immature cells and Segs are mature cells.
What are bands? They are known as immature neutophils. The majority of bands are located in the bone marrow where they continue to mature.
What are Segs? Segs are mature neutophils.
What are Eosinophils? They are 3% of the WBC. Their concentration rises during allergic reactions.
What are Basophils? They are 1% of WBC. Releases histamine-inflammation & heparin.
What are NonGranular Leukocytes? Nongranular are called Lymphocytes & Monocytes.
What are Lymphocytes? Makes up about 30% of the leuckocyte numbers. Lymphocytes secrete antibodies and assist in rejection of foreign tissue transplants. They are an essential part of the body defense system.
What are Monocytes? Monocytes are the largest of the leukocytes. They can readily enter and leave the cirulatory system, and are capable of ingesting bacteria voraciously
What are Platelets? Platelets are also known as thrombocytes. They are small bits of cytoplasm from giant cells of the bone marrow and found in the circulatory system at about 200,000 to 400,000. Less than 200,000 may be internal bleeding.
What are electrolytes? Electrolytes are essential for homeostasis, and many different abnormalites can occur when their concentration deviates from normal.
What is Natremia? It is the sodium level in blood.
What is the normal level of sodium (Na+) in blood? Sodium (Na+) Normal – 137 to 147.It is a cation
What is Hypoatremia of Sodium? It is a low Na+ level and it may occur with diuretic therapy, diarrhea, or certain kidney problems.
What can occur with sever Hypoatremia of Sodium? It may cause developement of confusion, decreased mental alterness, muscle twitching, and possible seizures.
What is Hypernatremia of Sodium? It occurs with renal diseases and excessive water loss. It is a elevation of the serum Na+ levels.
What is the normal level of Potassium (k+) in the blood? The Normal is 3.5 to 4.8. It is also for cardiac function (heart arrythmia)
What is Hypokalemia of Potassium? It is when K+ containing fluids are lost in excessive amounts, such as with vomiting, diarrhea, or the administration of diuretics. It also leads to weakening of the cardiac muscle, which reduce cardiac output.
What is Hyperkalemia of Potassium? Abnormal elevation of the serum of K+. It occurs as renal disease and tissue trauma.
What are some symptoms of hyperkalemia? May cause the patient to feel tired, weak, and nauseated.
What is the normal level of chloride (Cl-) in the blood? The normal is 98-105. It is also anion.
What is Hypochloremia of chloride of the blood? Reduced Cl- occurs with prolonged vomiting, resulting in the loss of HCl, chronic respiratory acidosis, and certain renal diseases.
What is Hyperchloremia of chloride? It is a increase of chloride and it occurs with prolonged diarrhea, certain kidney diseases, and some cases of hyperthyroidism. Renal disease
What are cardiac enzymes? Troponin T, Troponin I, and CK (Creatine Kinase) If elevated (heart attack)
What is the Sweat Chloride Test? It is very specific test to diagnos Cystic Fibrosis. Patient will have abnormally elevated Cl- levels in their sweat (more than 60 to 80).
What is blood glucose? Normal levels blood glucose is 70-100 mg/dl
What is Type 1 Diabetes? It is a reduced insulin production by the pancreas and presents most often in younger patients.
What is Type 2 Diabetes?


Hint Answer
Name the 3 Granulocytes. Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils.
The nongranular Leukocytes are? Lymphocytes and Monocytes.
Normally what percentage of blood is RBC 45%
Normally what percentage of blood is plasma? 55%
Myeloid tissue is also know as? Red bone marrow.
This type of Anemia can be caused by a lack of vitamin B12. Pernicious Anemia
The formation of new blood cells is known as? Hematopiesis
Which type of lymphocytes make antibodies? B-lymphocytes
These lymphocytes directly attack bacteria. T-lymphocytes
What are the formed elements in blood? RBC’s, WBC’s, and Platelets.
Platelets are also known as? Thrombocytes
White blood cells are also known as? Leukocytes
Red blood cells are also known as? Erthrocytes
Normal adult blood volume is? 4 to 6 liters
How long can donated blood be stored? 6 weeks
Thalassemia Major A hemolytic anemia found most frequently in people of Mediterranean descent, causes abnormal hemoglobin resulting in low hemoglobin numbers. Also causes low oxygen content in tissue, swelling of spleen and liver, and crippling skeletal deformity
What type of WBC is the most numerous in the body? Neutrophils
What is the life span of a RBC? 80 to 120 days
Anemia Low oxygen carrying ability of the blood. Body produces defective or low numbers of RBC’s. Normal adult hemoglobin numbers range from 12 to 14 g/100ml. Less than 9 g/100ml indicates anemia.
Polycythemia The overproduction RBC’s
Myeloid tissue is found in what bones? Sternum, ribs, and hip bones
Hepatic Portal Circulation Unique blood flow from the intestines to the liver. Hepatic Portal Vein carries blood from 2 capillary beds in the intestine.
Hemostasis The prevention of blood loss
Hemostasis is maintained by? 1-Vascular Spasm 2-Platelet formation 3-Coagulation
RBC’s in 1 cubic millimeter 5,000,000
WBC’s in 1 cubic millimeter 7500
Platelets in 1 cubic millimeter 300,000
Sickle Cell Anemia Genetic disease causing sickle shaped hemoglobin. Causes reduction of blood flow.
What WBC’s have the longest life? Lymphocytes
Umbilical Vein Carries oxygenated blood to the placenta. There is only 1.
Umbilical Arteries Carries oxygen-poor blood from the placenta back to the mother. There is 2.
Ductous Venosus A shunt that allows blood to bypass the liver in a fetus.
Foramen Ovale Hole/shunt allowing blood to pass from right atrium directly into left atrium. Allowing blood to bypass fetal lungs.
Ductous Arteriosus Conects the aorta and pulmonary artery. Aids in the bypassing of blood to fetal lungs.
What percentage of total body weight is blood? 7% to 9%
Size of a RBC 7-9 micrometers
Leukopenia Low WBC count (below 5000 WBC/cubic millimeter)
Leukocytosis High WBC count (above 10,00/cubic millimeter)
Differential WBC count Measures proportions of each type of WBC.
Leukocytes in blood Neutrophils 60-70%, Lymphocytes 20-25%, Monocytes 3-8%, Eosinophils 2-4%, Basophils 0.5-1%.
What’s in plasma? 7% protein, 91% water, 2% other solutes.
Vitamin K Promotes the formation of prothrombin by the liver.
Megakarocytes Produce platelets. Known as platelet mother cells.
Albumin A protein that expands plasma.
Serum Plasma minus it’s clotting factors
Globulin A protein containing antibodies that help protect us from infections.
Thrombus When a clot stays in the place where it formed.
Embolis A dislodged clot in the bloodstream.
Type A blood RBC antigen type A. Antibodies in plasma anti-B
Type B blood RBC antigen type B. Antibodies in plasma anti-A.
Type AB blood RBC antigen type AB. Antibodies in plasma none. Universal recipient.
Type O blood RBC antigen none. Antibodies in plasma anti-A and anti-B. Universal donor.
Ischemia Decreased blood supply to tissue.
Necrosis Tissue death due to lack of blood supply to tissue.
Gangrene The decay of necrotic tissue.
Veins Carry blood to the heart. Veins have valves.
Layers of blood vessels Tunica intima, tunica media, tunica externa. The media/muscle layer is thicker in arteries. Externa layer thicker in veins.
Atherosclerosis Hardening of the inside of an artery
Arteriosclerosis Hardening of outside of artery