Cardio A&P Chapter 18 & 19 Practice Questions:

 

1. Activation of sympathetic nervous system: Increases heart rate and contractility

2. Activation of the parasympathetic heart rate: Decreases heart rate but has little effect on contractility

3. Aldosterone: Hormone that enhances renal reabsorption of sodium

4. Antidiuretic hormones(vasopressin): Is produced by the hypothalamus and stimulates the kidneys to conserve water

5. Angiotensin II: Stimulates intense vasoconstriction promoting rapid rise in systemic blood pressure and it also stimulates the release of aldosterone and ADH.

6. Anterior cerebral artery: Supplies the medial surfaces of the frontal and parietal lobes of cerebral hemisphere on its side

7. Aorta: Largest artery in the body

8. Aortic arch: Is deep to the sternum begins and ends at sternal angle (T4 level)

9. Arteries: Pressure reservoirs and conduits

10. Arteries: Carry oxygenated blood away from the heart

11. Arteries transport?: Oxygen rich blood from the heart

12. Arterioles: Resistance vessels that control distribution

13. Arterioles: Smallest of the arteries. As they constrict blood tissue bypassed and as they dilate blood flow into local capillaries dramatically increase

14. Ascending aorta: Runs posterior to the and to the right of pulmonary trunk

15. Atrial natriuretic peptide: Causes blood volume and blood pressure to decline and generated vasodilation

16. Baroreceptors: Neural receptors located in the carotid sinuses

17. Blood enters the right atrium and passes into?: The right ventricle which pumps it to the lungs via the pulmonary trunk.

18. Blood flow: The volume of blood flowing thru a vessel, or organ, an organ, or the entire circulation in a given period

19. Blood pressure: The force per unit area exerted on a vessel wall by the contained blood expressed in millimeters of mercury

20. Blood vessel diameter: The smaller the tube the greater the resistance

21. Blood viscosity: The internal resistance to flow that exists in all fluids and is related to thickness or stickiness of a fluid

22. Body sites where pulse is easily palpated: Superficial temporal artery, facial artery, common carotid artery, brachial artery, radial artery, femoral artery popliteal artery, posterior tibial artery, and dorsalis pedis artery

23. Capillaries: Exchange sites

24. Capillary hydrostatic pressure: Tends to force fluids through capillary walls (filtration) leaving behind cells and most proteins

25. Cargiogenic shock: Pump failure occurs when heart is so inefficient it cannot sustain adequate circulation

26. Cardiac cycle: Events occurring during on heart beat

27. Cardiovascular center: Integrates blood pressure controls by altering cardiac output and blood vessel diameter

28. Cardiac output: The amount of blood pumped out by each ventricle in one minute

29. Carotid sinus: Contains baroreceptors that assist reflex blood pressure control

30. Carotid sinus reflex: Baroreceptors taking part that protect the blood supply to the brain

31. Chemoreceptors: Include carotid & aortic bodies, and carotid sinuses and the aortic arch

32. Chronic hypotension: May indicate poor nutrition

33. Circulatory shock: Any condition in which blood vessels are inadequately filled and blood cannot circulate normally

34. Colloid osmotic pressure: The force opposing hydrostatic pressure created by the presence in a fluid of large molecules such as plasma that are too large to pass thru

35. Continuous capillaries: Abundant in the skin and muscle and most common.

36. Diffusion: Movement occurs along a concentration gradient moving area of higher concentration to area of lower concentration

37. Drugs used to treat hypertension: Diuretics, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, angiotension-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and angiotension II receptor blockers

38. Elastic arteries: Thick walled arteries near the heart, aorta, and its major branches. Largest arteries in diameter. Has more elastin

39. Endothelins: Most potent vasoconstrictor

40. Factors influencing heart rate: Age, sex, exercise, and body temperature

41. Fenestrated capillaries: More permeable to fluids and small solutes than continuous capillaries

42. First soft tapping sound heard when blood spurting thru the constricted artery: Systolic pressure

43. Formula for cardiac output: heart rate x stroke volume

44. Four chamber of the heart: Two superior atrium and two inferior ventricles

45. The freshly oxygenated blood is carried by the pulmonary veins to?: Back to the left side of
the heart

46. Heart: pump

47. Hemorrhoids: Varicosites in the anal veins

48. How can hormones help regulate blood pressure?: Short term via peripheral resistance an long term in changes in blood volume

49. How many pulmonary veins enter the left atrium and transport blood from the lungs to the heart?: Four-right inferior and right superior, left inferior and left superior

50. How much blood supply is found in the veins at any time?: 65%

51. How much fluid is filtered out of the capillaries each day before returning to the blood: Approximately 20 L almost 7 times the total plasma volume

52. Hydrostatic pressure: Force exerted by fluid passing against a wall

53. Hyperemia: Increased blood flow

54. Hypertension: High blood pressure

55. Hypotension: Low blood pressure

56. The hypothalamus also mediates?: The redistribution of blood flow and other cardiovascular responses that occur during exercise and changes in body temperature

57. Hypovolemic shock: Most common form of shock resulting from low blood volume as result of loss of blood

58. Internal carotid arteries: Supply the orbits and more than 80% of cerebrum

59. Interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure: Acts outside the capillaries and pushes fluid in

60. Larger molecules such as proteins: Actively transported in pinocytotic vesicles or caveolae

61. Left heart failure results in ?: Pulmonary edema

62. The left ventricle pumps?: Blood into the aorta

63. Lipid soluble: Diffuse through the lipid bilayer of endothelial cell plasma membranes. Ex-respiratory gases

64. Long term control of blood pressures: Altering blood volume

65. Maxillary artery: Supplies the upper and lower jaws and chewing muscles, teeth, and nasal cavity

66. Mean arterial pressure (MAP): The pressure that propels the blood to the tissues. Diastole last the longest.

67. Metabolic controls: Include H+ (from CO2 and lactic acid), K+, adenosins and prostaglandins

68. Muscular arteries: Deliver blood to specific body organs. Have thickest tunics media of all vessels

69. Muscular pump: Second and most important adaption of venous pressure consisting of skeletal muscle activity

70. Net filtration pressure: Net gain or net loss of fluid from the blood

71. Nitric oxide: Powerful vasodilator which acts via cyclic GMP second messenger system

72. Orthostatic hypotension: Temporary low blood pressure and dizziness noted why arising from seated position

73. P wave: Atrial depolarization

74. Pressure points: They are compressed to stop blood flow in distal tissues during hemorrhage

75. Pressure results?: When flow is opposed by resistance

76. The pulmonary circuit served by the right ventricle has a?: short low-pressure circulation

77. Pulmonary circulation: The short loop that runs from heart to the lungs and back to heart

78. Pulse: Pressure wave

79. Pulse pressure: The difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures

80. The pumping action of the heart?: Generated blood flow

81. QRS complex: Ventricular depolarization

82. Radial pulse: Artery surface of the wrist

83. Reabsorption: Driving fluid into capillary bed

84. Reactive hyperemia: Dramatically increased blood flow into a tissue that occurs after the
blood supply to the area has been temporarily blocked

85. Renin-angiotensin mechanism: When arterial blood pressure declines the kidneys release renin

86. Resistance: Opposition to flow and is a measure of the amount of friction blood encounters as it passes thru the vessels

87. Right and left coronary arteries: Supply the myocardium

88. Right heart failure leads to?: Systemic edema

89. The right side of the heart ?: The pulmonary circuit that contains blood returning from the body and is oxygen poor and carbon dioxide rich.

90. The right ventricle discharges blood?: Into the pulmonary trunk

91. Secondary hypertension: Due to obstruction of renal arteries, kidney disease, and hyperthyroidism and Cushing’s syndrome

92. Sinusoids: Found only in liver, bone marrow, spleen, and adrenal medulla

93. Small water soluble: Pass thur fluid-filled intercellular capillary clefts(fenestrations). Ex-Amino acids and sugar

94. Sounds of Korotkoff: Sounds produces as the cuff pressure is reduced further

95. Stroke volume: The amount of blood pumped out by a ventricle with each contraction

96. Subclavian arteries: Supply upper limbs

97. The systemic circuit associated with the left ventricle takes a?: long pathway thru the entire heart and encounters 5 times friction or resistance to blood flow.

98. Systemic circulation: Routes blood thu a long loop to all parts of the body before returning it to the heart

99. Systolic pressure: Pressure peak

100. T wave: Ventricular repolarization

101. Three groups of arteries: Elastic arteries, muscular arteries, and arterioles

102. Three important sources of resistance: Blood viscosity, vessel length, and vessel diameter

103. Three major types of blood vessels: Arteries, capillaries, and veins

104. Three things maintain blood pressure: Cardiac output, peripheral resistance, and blood volume

105. Three types of capillaries: Continuous capillaries, fenestrated capillaries, and sinusoids

106. Tissue perfusion: Blood flow thru body tissues

107. Total blood vessel length: The relationship between total blood length and resistance. The longer the vessel the greater the resistance

108. Tunica extern: Outer most layer composed largely of loosely woven collagen fibers that protect and reinforce the vessel and anchor it to the surrounding structures.

109. Tunica intima: Innermost layer contains simple squamous endothelium forming slick surface that minimizing friction as blood move thru the lumen

110. Tunica media: Middle tunic mostly circularly arranged smooth muscle cells and sheets of elastin assists in either vasoconstriction or vasodilation

111. Two type of vessels in capillary beds: Vascular shunt and true capillaries

112. Varicose veins: Veins that have become tortuous and dilated because of leaky valves

113. Vascular anastomosis: When vascular channels unite and form interconnections

114. Vascular shock: Blood volume is normal but circulation is poor as results of abnormal expansion of vascular bed caused by extreme vasodilation

115. Vasomotor center: A cluster of neurons in the medulla

116. Vasomotor tone: Moderate constriction

117. Veins: Conduits and blood reservoirs

118. Veins: Carry oxygen-poor blood toward the heart

119. Veins carry?: Oxygen poor blood to the heart

120. Venous blood collected by cardiac veins (great, middle, and small) goes where?: It is emptied into the coronary sinus

121. Venous blood pressure: Steady and changes very little during the cardiac cycle

122. Venous valves: Formed from folds of the tunica intima and resemble the semilunar valves of the heart in structure and function

123. Ventricular systole: Consists of isovolumetric contraction phase and the ventricular ejection phase

124. Venules: Formed when capillaries unite

125. Vital signs: Blood pressure, respiratory rate, and body temperature

126. What are abnormal heart sounds called?: Murmurs and they are usually reflect valve problems

127. What are elastic arteries?: Pressure reservoirs expanding and recoiling as blood is ejected from the heart

128. What are the baroreceptors in carotid sinus and aortic arch sensitive to?: Changes in arterial pressure

129. What are the blood vessels that carry blood to and from the lungs form which serves gas exchange?: Pulmonary circuit

130. What are the blood vessels that carry the functional blood supply to and from all body tissues called?: Systemic circuit

131. What are the risk factors for cardiac disease?: Dietary factors, excessive stress, cigarette smoking, and lack of exercise

132. What are the two factors of arterial blood pressure?: How much the elastic arteries close to the heart can be stretched and the volume of blood forced into them,

133. What can defects in the intrinsic conduction system cause?: Arrhythmias, fibrillation, and heart block

134. What can determine a persons circulation?: Can be assessed by taking pulse and blood pressure

135. What do venules form?: Veins

136. What does arterial blood pressure increase in response to?: Increasing stroke volume, increase in heart rate, arteriosclerosis, and rising blood volume

137. What does blood flow thru the skin accomplish?: Supplies nutrients to the cells; aids in body temperature regulation; provides blood reservoir

138. What does pressure change promote?: Blood flow and valve opening and closing

139. What does the adrenal medulla release during periods of stress?: The adrenal glands release norepinephrine and epinephrine and both hormones enhance the sympathetic fight or flight response

140. What happens when the heart contracts?: It forces blood into the large arteries leaving the ventricles

141. What innervates the heart?: Autonomic nervous system

142. What is included in the conduction system of the heart?: SA and AV nodes, the AV bundle, bundle branches, and Purkinje fibers

143. What is necessary to sustain life?: Blood must be kept circulating

144. What is the difference in the 3 blood vessel types?: Vary in length, diameter, and wall thickness

145. What is the energy requirements for cardiac muscle?: It has abundant mitochondria and depends almost entirely on aerobic respiration to form ATP

146. What is the most metabolically active organ in the body?: Brain

147. What is the shortest circulation in the body?: Coronary circulation

148. What is tissue perfusion involved in?: Delivery of oxygen and nutrients to and removal of wastes from tissue cells; gas exchange in lungs; absorption of nutrients from digestive tract; urine formation in the kidneys

149. What makes blood flow in the capillaries steady despite the rhythmic pumping of the heart?: Elasticity of the large arteries

150. What prevents backflow into the atria when the ventricles are contracting?: Atrioventricular valves (tricuspid and mitral)

151. What prevents backflow into the ventricles when the muscles are relaxing?: The pulmonary and aortic valves (semilunar valves

152. What provides the arterial supply of blood to head, neck, upper limbs, and part of the thorax wall?: Right common carotid artery, Right subclavian artery, and left subclavian artery

153. What provides the arterial supply of coronary circulation?: The left and right coronary arteries both arise front eh base of the aorta and encircle the heart in the coronary sulcus.

154.What provides the major blood supply to the brain: Carotid sinuses(dilations in the internal carotid arteries

155. What regulated the relative amount of blood entering a capillary bed?: Local chemical conditions and arteriolar vasomotor nerve fibers

156. What supplies most tissues of the head except the brain and orbit?: External carotid arteries

157. What supplies pelvis and lower limbs?: Left common iliac arteries

158. What supplies the abdominal walls and viscera?: Abdominal aorta

159. When does blood delivery to the myocardium occur?: During heart relaxation

160. When does CHF occur?: When the pumping ability of the heart is inadequate to provide normal circulation to meet body needs

161. Where are arterial anastomosis found?: Around joints, abdominal organs, the brain, and the heart

162. Where are reflexes that regulate blood pressure regulated?: In the medulla oblongata of the brain stem

163. Where are venous valves the most abuntant?: Veins of the limbs where the upward flow of blood is opposed by gravity

164. Where can you feel the pulse?: In any artery that lies close to the body surface

165. Where does the myocardium receive it blood supply directly?: Coronary arteries

166. Which 3 veins does blood enter the right atrium via?: Superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and coronary sinus