Cardio A&P Chapter 6 Practice Questions:

1. In methemoglobin, HB is unstable to transport O2 due to drugs/chemicals. This use changes the iron molecule in heme group from a ferrous state to a ferric state. This change eliminates the HB molecule’s ability to bind to O2.

2. Where does the bronchial venous drainage shunt drain to? Pulmonary Veins

3. Where does the Thesbian Venous drainage shunt drain to? Left atrium

4. What is the normal adult female HB value? 12-15g%

5. What is the normal adult male HB value? 14-16g%

6. What is the normal for C(a-v)O2 or arterial venous content difference? 5 vol%

7. What is the normal value of grams% in Fetal hemoglobin(HBF)? 14-20g%

8. What can each g% HB carry of O2? 1.34 mL of O2

9. What do these factors increase: exercise, seizures, shivering, hyperthermia: Answer: C(a-v)O2 and VO2

10. Approximately 0.003 mL of O2 will dissolve in 100 mL of blood for every 1 torr of PO2.

11. What must be added together to determine total amount of O2 in 100 mL of blood? Dissolved O2 and O2 bound to hemoglobin

12. Increasing PO2 beyond 100mmHg will add very additional 2 to HB. Once PO2 increases enough to saturate the HB to 100%, HB molecules can no longer accept any additional O2molecules even if PO2 increases. These increases in PO2 will increase the amount that can be dissolved.

13. What are some examples of increased O2 consumption that causes increased C(a-v)O2? Exercises, seizures, shivering, and hyperthermia



14. What does normal adult hemoglobin (HbA) consist of? 4 heme groups and globin (4 amino acid chains)

15. Most O2 that diffuses into pulmonary capillary blood rapidly moves into RBC’s and chemically attaches to hemoglobin.

16. SaO2 is only 97% due to which 3 normal physiologic shunts? Thesbian venous drainage, bronchial venous drainage, alveoli that are under ventilated

17. Graphically illustrates the % of HB (left side) that is bound to O2 at each O2 pressure. Nomogram

18. In henry’s law what is the amount of dissolved gas in liquid at given temp. proportional to? Partial pressure in gas

19. What does the P50 represent? The partial pressure (pO2) at which HB is 50% saturated with O2.

20. Also known as deoxyhemoglobin, hemoglobin is not bound with oxygen. Reduced hemoglobin

21. When Pao2 is in the blood it is a normal shift in the curse and doesn’t affect eh Hb’s ability to continue to transport O2 to the tissues

22. What is the amount of O2 extracted by the peripheral tissues divided by amount of O2 delivered to peripheral cells? What is the normal average value? O2ER, 25%

23. What is the normal range of Po2 in arterial blood? 80-100 torr (Pa02)

24. Po2 can fall from 60 torr to 100 torr and hemoglobin will still be 90% saturated with O2. This is called an excellent safety zone.

25. What is the normal range of PCO2 in arterial blood gas (PaCo2)? 35-45 torr

26. What is the normal range of HCO3 in arterial blood? 22-28

27. Approximately how many Hb molecules do each RBC contain? 280 million

What is the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve also known as? HBO2 equilibrium

28. When the curve is shifted to the left what has to happen to the Po2 to unload O2 at the tissues? Po2 has to drop significantly

29. How does pH affect 2, 3, BPG? If pH increases= 2, 3, BPH increases if pH decreases= 2, 3, BPH decreases

30. Decreased HBF? Left shift

31. Po2 can fall from 60 to 100 torr and hemoglobin will still be 90% saturated with O2 excellent safety zone. Flat portion of curve

32. As Hb moves through A-C system, significant partial pressure difference continues to exist between alveolar gas and blood even after most O2 has transferred enhances diffusion of O2? Flat portion of the curve

33. Po2 reductions below 60 mmHg produce a rapid decrease in the amount of O2 bound to Hb. Steep portion of curve

34. Reveals that as Hb moves through capillaries to the cells, a large amount of O2 can be released for only a small decrease in Po2. Steep portion of the curve

35. Common point of reference on the O2 dissociation curve that represents the partial pressure (pO2) at which Hb is 50% saturated with O2. P50

36.. Decreased CoHb? Left shift

37. Increased temperature? Right shift

38. Increased DPG? Right shift

39. Decreased PCO2? Left shift

40. Decreased temp? left shift

41. Decreased DPG? Left shift

42. Decreased pH? Right shift

43. Increased PCO2? Right shift

44. Increased pH? Left Shift

45. Does the P50 shift to the right or left if the affinity of Hb to O2 decreases? Right shift

46. What type of shift is there when P50 decreases? Left shift

47. What type of shift is there when Hb is more saturated at any PO2? Left shift

48. Affinity of Hb to O2 increases, Hb is more saturated at any PO2, P50 decreases. Left shift

49. What type of shift is there when Hb is less saturated at any Po2? Right shift

50. What type of shift is there when P50 increases? right shift

51. Does P50 shift to the right or the left if affinity of Hb to O2 increases? Left shift

52. Hb will “let go” of O2 more readily more O2 is released from Hb and available for tissue use? Right shift

53. Hb will “hang on” to O2 less O2 is available for tissues? Left shift

54. Affinity of Hb to O2 decreases Hb is less saturated at any PO2, P50 decreases? Right shift

55. This factor decreases Ht and Co2 ion concentration and enhances loading of O2 to Hb? Increased pH

56. How does stored blood affect the O2 dissociation curve? Left shift

57. How does anemia affect the O2 dissociation curve? Right shift

58. How does hypoxia affect the O2 dissociation curve? Right shift

59. In an anemic patient if there is an increased 2, 3, BPG then Hb is___? Decreased

60. In an anemic patient if Hb is decreased what happens to the 2, 3, BPG? Increases

61. What will anemia do to the 2, 3, BPG level? How will it shift the O2 dissociation curve? How will it affect Hb? Increase, right shift, Hb decreases

62. What will hypoxia do to the 2, 3, BPG level? How will it shift the dissociation curve? Increases, right shift

63. Without this, Hb affinity to O2 would be so great that normal O2 unloading to the tissues would be impossible? 2, 3, BPG

64. When the O2 Dissociation curve shifts to the right, Hb’s affinity for O2 decreases, therefore, more O2 will be available for tissue use

65. Satbilizes the Hb molecules in the deoxygenated state (when Hb is in the deoxygenated state, its less attracted to O2 thereby decreasing its affinity for O2? 2, 3, BPG

66. When the oxygen dissociation curve shifts to the left, Hb’s affinity for O2 increases, therefore less O2 will be available for tissue use

67. In which portion of the oxygen dissociation curve does a decrease in pO2 result in very little exchange in Hb saturation? Flow portion

68. When the oxygen dissociation curve shifts to the right, the P50? Increases

69. A low Po2 is very dangerous to the patient and we should again be very aggressive in treating patient and administer O2 if needed.

70. How does pH change affect the O2 dissociation curve? Left shift

71. List the 6 variables that can shift the oxygen dissociation curve to the left: Increase pH, decreased temp, decreased PCO2 level, decreased levels of 2, 3, BPG, fetal Hb, carbon monoxide hemoglobin- CoHb

72. When the oxygen dissociation curve shifts to the left the P50? Decreases

73. List the 4 variables that can shift the oxygen dissociation curve to the right: decreased pH of the blood, increased temp, increased PCO2, increased 2, 3, BPG

74. This factor results in greater oxyhemoglobin saturation since there is less CO2. More Hb is available to bind with O2. –decreased PCO2 levels

75. If PaO2 should decrease below normal range these shifts in the curve can affect Hb’s ability to? Pick up & release O2

76. When the curve shifts to left what happens to the loading of O2 onto Hb at any given PO2? What Does this result in? increases, greater loading of O2 onto Hb in lungs

77. In which portion of the O2 dissociation curve does a decrease in PO2 result in less Hb saturation? Steep portion

78. Hb is unable to transport O2 due to use of various drugs & or chemicals? Methemoglobin

79. Afterbirth HbF is gradually replaced with HbA during the 1st year of life.

80. RBC shape is changed abnormal Hb & has a tendency to form clots? Sickle cell Hb

81. Means that gas maintains its precise molecular structure? Dissolve

82. Quantity of O2 that dissolved in plasma is a function of which law? Henry’s Law

83. Has a greater affinity to O2 and this enhances transfer of maternal O2 across the placenta to the fetus? HbF

84. What is the equation for O2 bound to Hb? Hb + O2 ↔ Hb02

85. What constitutes a globin? 4 amino acids

86. What two forms is o2 carried in the blood? Dissolved o2 in plasma & bound to Hb (in RBC’s)

87. Exposure to this is a very serious condition & must be treated aggressively & quickly? CO

88. Carbon Monoxide has about 210 times the affinity for Hb as O2. A small amount of CO can tie up large amounts of Hb.

89. This factor has greater affinity to O2 and results in greater O2 saturation? Fetal Hb

90. This law states that the amount of gas that dissolves in liquid at given temp is proportional to partial pressure of gas? Henry’s Law

91. What does the arterial-venous O2 content difference (c(a-v)O2) provide info about patient?

Cardiopulmonary status

92. Hemoglobin bound with O2? Oxyhemoglobin

93. In what form is a relatively small % of O2 transported in? dissolved O2

94. Since Hb is bound to CO little is left to bind to O2 & there is little O2 transfer to the tissues. Also when COHb is present the affinity of what little Hb is available to O2 increases and shifts the curve to the left. When this occurs the O2 molecules that do bind to Hb are unable to load at the tissues.

95. What happens to Do2 if there is a decrease in blood, oxygenation, Hb concentration, & CO? decreases

96. Transportation of O2 between lungs and cells of body is a function of? Blood and heart

97. If there is a decreased CO what happens to the C(a-v)O2? Increase

98. What is the function of blood and heart? Transport of O2 between lungs and cells of body

99. PaO2 of 100 mmHg .3mL of O2 would be dissolved in every 100 mL of blood plasma.

100. What is the normal pH for an arterial blood gas? 7.35-7.45

101. PO2 can fall from 60-100 torr and Hb will still be 90% saturated with 02

102. What percentage of o2 is saturated when 3 o2 molecules are bound to one Hb molecule? 75%

103. What percentage of o2 is saturated when 4 o2 molecules are bound to one Hb molecule? 100%

104. At normal PaO2 of 100 torr however, Hb saturation (SaO2) is only 97% due to three normal physiologic shunts.

105. What is PaO2 at normal? 100torr

106. What is SaO2 at normal? 97%

107. What is normal P50? 27mmHg

108. PaO2 of 40 mmHg, .12mL of O2 would dissolve in every 100 mL of blood plasma

109. Since there are 4 heme/iron groups a total of 4 O2 molecules can combine with each Hb molecule

110. In the steep portion of the curve PO2 reductions below 60 mmHg produce a rapid decrease in the amount of O2 bound to Hb

111. What PO2 represents a normal P50? 27 mmHg

112. Pigmented iron-containing nonprotein portions of Hb molecule? 4 heme groups

113. Each g% of Hb can carry 1.34 mL of O2. Thus if Hb level is 15g% and if Hb is fully saturated, approximately 20.1 vol% of O2 will be bound to Hb

114. What are some O2 dissolved in the blood pressure written as? .3 (vol%)

115. What are some factors that can affect the amount of 2, 3, and BPG? Hypoxia, anemia, pH changes, stored blood

116. What is the equations for )2 dissolved in the blood plasma? 100x.003=.3mL vol%=mLO2/100mL

117. Amount of O2 extracted by the peripheral tissue during the period of 1 minute? What is the average normal value? VO2 (O2 consumption) 250 mL/min

118. When an individual’s blood PaO2 is normal a shift in the curve doesn’t significantly affect? Hb’s ablilty to transport O2 to tissues

119. What is the weight measurement of Hb, in reference to 100mL of blood is referred to as? G%HB; g/dL

120. What does the total amount of o2 delivered to tissues depend on? Bodys ability to oxygenate blood, hb concentration, Cardiac output

121. What will increasingly PO2 beyond 100 mmHg do? Add very additional 2 to Hb

122. Represents amount of O2 in 100 mL of blood? Vol%

123. What is the normal value of total O2 delivery (DO2)? 1000 mLO2/min

124. How much mL of O2 is extracted from each 100 mL of blood? What is that for? 5 mL, tissue metabolism

125. What can happen when po2 falls below 60 mmHg? Quantity of O2 delivered to tissue cells may be reduced

Cardio A&P Chapter 6 Study Guide:

Questions:

1. What are the two ways oxygen is carried to the tissues?

2. What does the term dissolve mean?

3. The quantity of oxygen that dissolves in the plasma is a function of what?

4. What does Henry’s law state?

5. At normal body temperature, how much oxygen will dissolve in 100 ml of blood for every 1 torr of PO2?

6. What does volume percent (vol%) represent?

7. Most of the oxygen that diffuses into the pulmonary capillary blood rapidly moves into the RBCs and chemically attaches to what?

8. Each RBC contains approximately how many hemoglobin molecules?

9. How is adult hemoglobin designated?

10. What does a normal adult hemoglobin consist of?

11. If four oxygen molecules are attached to one Hb molecule what is the Hb?

12. What is oxyhemoglobin?

13. What is another name for reduced hemoglobin?

14. What is reduced hemoglobin?

15. What are the arterial values for pH?

16. What are the arterial values for PCO2?

17. What are the arterial values for HCO3?

18. What are the arterial values for PO2?

19. What is methemoglobin?

20. What can change hemoglobin to methemoglobin?

21. What is the normal Hb values for the adult male?

22. What is the normal Hb values for the adult female?

23. What is the normal Hb values for the average infant?

24. How much percent of RBC weight does hemoglobin constitute?

25. Grams percent of hemoglobin is also known as what?

26. Each grams percent of hemoglobin (g % Hb) is capable of carrying how much oxygen?

27. At a normal arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2) of 100 torr the hemoglobin saturation is only what?

28. What causes the hemoglobin saturation to only be 97%?

29. What is the Hb equation/reversible reaction?

30. How is the total amount of oxygen in 100 mL of blood determined?

31. What is the globin portion of each Hb molecule made up of?

32. When will hemoglobin be abnormal?

33. What is another name for the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve?

34. What does the dissociation curve illustrate?

35. The steep slope of the curve shows what?

36. The flat portion of the curve shows what?

37. What happens as the hemoglobin moves through the alveolar capillary system to pick up oxygen?

38. What is P50?

39. What is the normal P50?

40. If the dissociation curve shifts what are the normal values for P50?

41. What factors cause the dissociation curve to shift to the right?

42. What factors cause the dissociation curve to shift to the left?

43. How does a shift to the left or right have a significance?

44. What happens to the loading of oxygen when the curve shifts to the right?

45. What happens to the unloading of oxygen when the curve shifts to the right?

46. What happens to the loading of oxygen when the curve shifts to the left?

47. What happens to the unloading of oxygen when the curve shifts to the left?

48. What is the total oxygen delivery (DO2)?

49. What is total oxygen delivery dependent on?

50. What is the equation for DO2?

51. What is the arterial-venous oxygen content difference?

52. What does the arterial-venous oxygen content difference represent?

53. What is the equation for the arterial-venous oxygen content difference?

54. What is oxygen consumption?

55. What is another name for oxygen consumption?

56. What is the equation for oxygen consumption?

57. What is oxygen extraction ratio?

58. What is other names for oxygen extraction ratio?

59. What is the equation for oxygen extraction ratio?

60. What is pulmonary shunting?

61. What is the equation for pulmonary shunting?

62. What are absolute shunts?

63. What are anatomic shunts?

64. What are common abnormalities that cause anatomic shunting?

65. What are the common causes of a capillary shunt?

66. What percent of the cardiac output in a healthy lung in there a normal anatomic shunt?

67. What is the significance in calculating shunts?

68. How do you treat a shunt like effect?

69. What is a shunt like effect?

70. What are some causes of a shunt like effect?

71. What patients is calculating a degree of pulmonary shunting is not reliable?

72. What is hypoxemia?

73. What is hypoxia?

74. How is hypoxia characterized?

75. What is another name for hypoxic hypoxia?

76. What is hypoxic hypoxia?

77. What are common causes of hypoxic hypoxia?

78. What is anemic hypoxia?

79. What are common causes of anemic hypoxia?

80. What are other names for circulatory hypoxia?

81. What is circulatory hypoxia?

82. What are common causes of circulatory hypoxia?

83. What is histotoxic hypoxia?

84. What is a common cause of histotoxic hypoxia?

85. What is hypoventilation caused by?

86. What are diffusion defects?

87. What factors increase the arterial venous oxygen content difference?

88. What factors decrease the arterial venous oxygen content difference?

89. What factors increase the oxygen consumption?

90. What factors decrease the oxygen consumption?

91. What factors increase the oxygen extraction ratio?

92. What factors decrease the oxygen extraction ratio?

93. What factors decrease the mixed venous oxygen saturation?

94. What factors increase the mixed venous oxygen saturation?

95. What are the values for hypoxemia?

96. What is cyanosis?

97. What is PaO2 a reflection of?

98. What is polycythemia?

Answers:

1. oxygen is carried to the tissues either as dissolved oxygen in the blood plasma or by chemically binding to the hemoglobin that is encased in the erythrocytes/red blood cells

2. dissolve means that when a gas like oxygen enters the plasma it maintains its precise molecular structure and moves freely throughout the plasma in its normal gaseous state



3. Henry’s law

4. the amount of gas that dissolves in a liquid at a given temperature is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas

5. .oo3mL of Oxygen

6. volume percent represents the amount of oxygen in milliliters that is in 100mL of blood

7. Hemoglobin molecules

8. 280

9. Hb A

10. four heme groups which are pigmented, iron containing non protein portions of the hemoglobin molecule and four amino acid chains which are polypeptide chains that collectively constitute globin which is a protein

11. it is 100 percent saturated

12. Hemoglobin bound with oxygen (HbO2)

13. deoxyhemoglobin

14. hemoglobin not bound with oxygen (Hb)

15. 7.35-7.45

16. 35-45 torr/ mmHg (PaCO2)

17. 22-28 mEq/L

18. 80-100 torr/mmHg (PaCO2)

19. It is the Hemoglobin changed from the ferrous state to the ferric state which means the ability of hemoglobin to transport oxygen is eliminated

20. various drugs and chemicals, such as nitrites

21. 14 – 16 g%

22. 12- 15 g%

23. 14 – 20 g%

24. 33 percent

25. grams per deciliter (g/dL)

26. 1.34 mL of oxygen

27. 97%

28. Thebesian venous drainage into the left atrium, bronchial venous drainage into the pulmonary veins, or alveoli that are underventilated relative to pulmonary blood flow

29. Hb + O2 ↔ HbO2

30. Add the dissolved oxygen and the oxygen bound to hemoglobin normal is 20

31. two identical alpha chains each with 141 amino acids and two identical beta chains with 146 amino acids

32. When the précis number, sequence, or spatial arrangement of globin amino acid chains is altered such as with sickle cell hemoglobin

33. oxyhemoglobin equilibrium curve

34. the percentage of hemoglobin that is chemically bound to oxygen at each oxygen pressure

35. oxygen rapidly combines with hemoglobin as the PO2 increases, it illustrates that as the PO2 continues to fall below 60 torr the oxygen delivered to the cells may be significantly reduced reducing hemoglobin saturations rapidly leaving no safety net/zone, also a large amount of oxygen is released from hemoglobin as PO2 decreases

36. the flat portion illustrates hemoglobin has an excellent safety zone for the loading of oxygen in the lungs, also the diffusion of oxygen during the transit time of the hemoglobin in the alveolar capillary system is enhanced, and the hemoglobin will no longer accept any additional oxygen molecules

37. a significant partial pressure difference continues to exist between the alveolar gas and the blood

38. it is a point of reference representing the partial pressure at which the hemoglobin is 50 percent saturated with oxygen

39. normal value is 27 torr

40. If the curve shifts to the right P50 increases and it’s normal value is about 40, If the curve shifts to the left P50 decreases and it’s normal value is about 10

41. decreased pH, increased PCO2, increased temperature, increased bisphosphoglycerate (BPG)/diphosphogycerate (DPG)

42. increased pH, decrease PCO2, decreased temperature, decreased BPG/DPG

43. When PaO2 is normal (80-100) a shift does not significantly affect hemoglobin’s ability to transport oxygen to the tissues. However, if an individual’s blood PaO2 falls below the normal range shifts can have a remarkable effect on hemoglobin’s ability to pick up or release oxygen because shifts below normal pressure occur on the steep portion

44. as blood passes through the alveolar capillary system oxygen loads to hemoglobin when the alveolar tension is moderately low about 60 torr when PaO2 is 60 torr and pulmonary capillary blood is 60 torr if there is a right shift the hemoglobin would only be 75% saturated (hemoglobin is less saturated than normal 90%) so remember the total oxygen delivery may be much lower than indicated by a particular PaO2 value when a disease proves is present that causes the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve to shift to the right

45. when there is a shift to the right the plasma PO2 at the tissue sites does not have to fall as much to unload oxygen from the hemoglobin

46. When there is a shift to the left hemoglobin will be about 95% saturated so it is higher than normal

47. The plasma PO2 at tissues must decrease more than normal in order for oxygen to dissociate from the hemoglobin

48. it is the total amount of oxygen delivered or transported to the peripheral tissues

49. the body’s ability to oxygenate blood, the hemoglobin concentration, and the cardiac output

50. Qt x (CaO2 x 10) normal 1,000mL

51. the difference between the arterial oxygen content and the venous oxygen content it is directly related to oxygen consumption and inversely related to the cardiac output

52. A balance between oxygen consumption and cardiac output

53. C(a-v)O2 = CaO2-CvO2 normal 4-6

54. the amount of oxygen extracted by the peripheral tissues during the period of 1 minute it is directly related to cardiac output and arterial venous content difference

55. oxygen uptake

56. VO2= Qt(CaO2-CvO2)x10 normal 200-350

57. it is the amount of oxygen extracted by the peripheral tissues divided by the amount of oxygen delivered to the peripheral cells

58. oxygen coefficient ratio or the oxygen utilization ratio

59. O2ER= CaO2 – CvO2 ÷ CaO2 normal 20-28

60. portion of the cardiac output that moves from the right side to the left side of te heart without being exposed to alveolar oxygen

61. CcO2 = Hb x 1.34 + PaO2 x .003

normal is less than 10

62. aka true shunts they are subdivided into two categories called anatomic and capillary shunts it is the sum of the anatomic shunt and capillary shunt

63. anatomic shunts exists when blood flows from the right side of the heart to the left side without coming in contact with an alveolus for gas exchange

64. congenital heart disease, intrapulmonary fistula, and vascular lung tumors

65. alveolar collapse/atelectasis, alveolar fluid accumulation, or alveolar consolidation

66. 3 percent

67. the significance is knowing if the shunt is normal or not and how severe the problem is so less than 10 % is normal nothing would need to be done 10 to 20% is indicative of an intrapulmonary abnormality but is rarely clinically significant, 20 to 30% denotes significant intrapulmonary disease and may be life threatening in patients with limited cardiovascular function, and finally when the shunt is greater than 30% a potential life threatening situation exists aggressive cardiopulmonary supportive measures are necessary

68. with oxygen therapy because they are not refractory to oxygen therapy

69. it occurs when pulmonary capillary perfusion is in excess of alveolar ventilation

70. hypoventilation, ventilation/perfusion mismatches including chronic emphysema, bronchitis, asthma, and excessive airway secretions, and alveolar capillary diffusion defects including alveolar fibrosis or alveolar edema

71. a questionable perfusion status, a decreased myocardial output,, or an unstable oxygen consumption demand

72. abnormally low arterial oxygen tension PaO2/ low oxygen in the blood

73. inadequate level of tissue oxygenation or low oxygen for aerobic cellular metabolism

74. by tachycardia, hypertension, peripheral vasoconstriction, dizziness, and mental confusion

75. hypoxemic hypoxia

76. inadequate oxygen at the tissue cells caused by low arterial oxygen tension PaO2

77. Low PAo2 caused by hypoventilation or high altitude, Diffusion Impairment is caused by interstitial fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, pulmonary edema, pneumoconiosis, and Ventilation perfusion mismatch (VQ mismatch) or pulmonary shunting

78. PaO2 is normal but the oxygen carrying capacity off the hemoglobin is inadequate

79. Decreased hemoglobin concentration such as anemia or hemorrhage, or abnormal hemoglobin such as carboxyhemoglobin or methemoglobin

80. stagnant or hypoperfusion hypoxia

81. blood flow to the tissue cells is inadequate thus oxygen is not adequate to meet tissue needs

82. slow or stagnant(pooling) peripheral blood flow arterial venous shunts

83. impaired ability of the tissue cells to metabolize oxygen

84. cyanide poisoning

85. numerous conditions like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, central nervous system depressants, head trauma, and neuromuscular disorders

86. abnormal anatomic alterations of the lungs that result in an impedance of oxygen transfer across the alveolar capillary membrane

87. decreased cardiac output, periods of increased oxygen consumption which are exercise, seizures, shivering, and hyperthermia

88. increased cardiac output, skeletal muscle relaxation, peripheral shunting, certain poisons, or hypothermia

89. exercise, seizures, shivering, hyperthermia

90. skeletal muscle relaxation peripheral shunting, certain poisons, and hypothermia

91. decreased cardiac output, periods of increased oxygen consumption, exercise, seizures, shivering, hyperthermia, anemia, or decreased arterial oxygenation

92. increased cardiac output, skeletal muscle relaxation, peripheral shunting, certain poisons, hypothermia, increased hemoglobin concentration, increased arterial oxygenation

93. decreased cardiac output periods of increased oxygen consumption, exercise, seizures, shivering, hyperthermia

94. increased cardiac output, skeletal muscle relaxation, peripheral shunting, certain poisons, and hypothermia

95. normal is 80-100, mild is 60-80, moderate is 40-60, severe is less than 40

96. the blue gray or purplish discoloration seen on the mucous membranes, fingertips, and toes whenever the blood in these areas contains at least 5% of reduced hemoglobin per dL (100mL)

97. it is the arterial oxygen partial pressure it reflects how many mL of O2 will dissolve in 100 mL of blood for every 1 torr of PO2 which is .003mL

98. abnormally high red blood cell count occurring when the bone marrow is stimulated to make more RBCs in response to chronically low arterial blood oxygen levels (secondary polycythemia)