Question Answer
what are the respiratory components of the medulla oblongata dorsal and ventral respiratory groups
what are the pontine resp. centers? apneustic and pneumotoxic center
the drugs consist of mostly inspiratory neurons
the DRGS receive inspiratory impulses from what monitoring systems central chemoreceptors, peripheral chemoreceptors, stretch receptors, peripheral proprioceptors and higher brain centers
what can cause a temp. cessation of breathing sudden pain and sudden cold
what will readily diffuse across the blood-brain barrier CO2 molecules
when the blood pressure increases the aortic bodies and carotid bodies initiate reflexes that cause what? heart rate and resp rate to decrease to balance out the delivery of oxygen to the tissues
when are the peripheral chemoreceptors significantly activated? low PaO2 (60 mmhg) SaO2 90%
peripheral chemoreceptors are sensitive to low PO2, decreased pH, increased PCO2 and increase the temperature
stimulation of the peripheral chemoreceptors cause? peripherial vasoconstriction, increased pulmonary vascular resistance, systemic arterial hypertension, tachycardia, and left the ventricular performance
when are the peripheral chemoreceptors suppressed? when the PaO2 falls below 30 mmhg
where are the peripheral chemoreceptors located? outside the CNS usually in the wall of the blood vessel.
what are the reflexes that influence ventilation? Hering-Breuer Reflex, Deflation Reflex, Irritant, Extrapulmonary capillary, peripheral proprioceptor, hypothalamic controls, cortical controls, reflexes from the aortic and carotid sinus baroreceptors
peripheral proprioceptor reflexes maintain and initiate increased resp rate. i.e increases resp rate during exercise
where are the peripheral proprioceptors located muscle, tendon,j oints, pain receptors in the muscle and skin,
cortical controls voluntary control; conscious control to change the rate and depth of breathing
what is the role of the cerebral cortex in the regulation of ventilation conscious control of ventilation
which nerves are used to transmit signals to the resp components in the medulla glossopharyngeal nerve (9 cranial nerve) & the vagus nerve (10 cranial nerve)
which nerve innervates the aortic bodies vagus nerve
which nerve innervates the carotid peripheral chemorecptors glossopharyngeal nerve
what is the most powerful stimulus known to influence the resp components of the medulla an increased H+ hydrogen ion in the cerebrospinal fluid
Hering-breuer reflex called the inflation reflex; via the vagus nerve, a reflex triggered to prevent over-inflation of the lungs; causes inspiration to cease.
where is the hering-breuer reflex located in the visceral pleura and in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles
extrapulmonary-capillary receptors triggers a rapid shallow breathing pattern
what stimulations the j receptors alveolar inflammation, pulmonary capillary congestion andedemas, pulmonary emboli
when the systemic blood pressure increases the aortic and carotid sinus barorecptors initiate reflexes that cause decreased vent and heart rate
hypothalamic controls excitement causes increase resp rate and increase body temp causes a decrease resp rate
what factors cause an increase pulmonary vascular resistance decreased pH (acidemia) Epinephrine, dopamine, norepinephrine, histamine, mech vent, serotonin
what factors cause a decrease pvr OXYGEN, calcium-channel blocking agents, acetylcholine, bradykinin
what factors increase systemic vascular resistance? dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, hypovolemia, decreased PC02
what factors decrease svr nitroglyverin, morphine, septic shock (early stages), increased PCO2
pathological factors that increase pvr pulmonary emboli, tumor mass, emphysema, pneumothorax
what determines stroke volume preload, afterload, and myocardial contractility
stroke volume volume of blood ejected by the ventricles with each contraction
stroke volume formula sv= CO/HR= beats/min
which hemodynamic values are measured? cardiac output, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, central venous pressure, right atrial pressure, mean pulmonary artery pressure
which hemodynamic values are calculated? strok volume, stroke volume index, cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance, pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricle stroke work index, left ventricle stroke work index
what is the normal range for central venous pressure? 0-8 mmhg
what is the normal range for right atrial pressure 0-8 mmhg
what is the normal range for cardiac output 4-8 l/min
normal range for mean pulmonary artery pressure 9-18 mmhg
normal range for pcwp 4-12 mmhg
normal range for stroke volume 60-130 ml
normal range for SVI 30-65 mL/beat/m^2
normal range for cardiac index 2.5-4.2 L/min/m^2
normal range for RVSWI 7-12 g m/m^2
normal range for LVSWI 40-60g m/m^2
normal range for PVR 20-120 dynes x sec. cm ^-5
normal range for svr 800-1500 dynes.sec.cm^ -5
normal range for BSA 1.5-2 m^2
stroke volume index equation SVI= SV/BSA
what is the calc measurement that reflects the afterload on the right ventricle PVR
what is the calc measure the afterload of the left ventricle SVR
hemodynamics study of forces that influence the circulation of blood
SVI reflects contractility of the heart, overall blood volume status, and the amount of venous return
what is the cardiac index heart performance to the size of the individual
cardiac index equation CI= CO/BSA
what factors will increase SV, CO, RVSWI, LVSWI? Epinepherine, norepinephrine, hyperthermia, dopamine, hypervolemia, decreased vascular resistance
what factors will DECREASE SV, CO, RVSWI, LVSWI? drugs ending in “lol” hypovolemia, mech vent, pulmonary emboli, increased vascular resistance
equation for PVR PVR= (PA-PCWP/CO)x 80
SVR SVR= (MAP-CVP/CO) x80
RVSWI RVSWI= SVI*(PA-CVP)*0.0136
LVSWI LVSWI=SVI*(MAP-PCWP)*0.0136
at what altitude is the barometric pressure approx half of the sea level value 18000-19000 ft
is the O2 diffusion capacity of high altitude natives higher or lower than lowlanders? by how much? higher by 20-25%
what are the symptoms of acute mountain sickness palpitation, dizziness, insomnia, nausea, fatigue,