Cardio A&P Test 1 Practice Questions:

1. A/C membrane: surfactant layer, pneumocytes, interstial space, and capillaries

2. Acinus unit: Bellow terminal bronchioles. Respiratory Bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveolar sacs

3. Carcoid: Narrowist portion in an infant & is unpaired cartilage

4. Carina: Where Trachea divides into left and right

5. Cricothyroid membrane: Space between cricoid and thyroid

6. Epiglotis: Covers glottis (associated w/ inflammation)

7. FEMS: Frontal, Ethmoid, maxilary, and Sphenoid

8. First line of defense: Vibrissae (nose hairs)

9. generations of the lung: 28

10. Hilum: Roof of lung

11. Larynx: 9 Cartilages

12. Left mainstream: 45-55 degrees

13. Lining of trachea: Pseudo stratisfied ciliated columnar epithelium

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14. Mediastinum: Central portion of chest cavity

15. Mucociliary escalator: helps remove particles that were inhaled. Gell 1st layer, soul bottom

16. Mucus: 95% water, glycoproteins, and carbohydrates

17. Nasal septum: Divides into the left and right airways

18. Paired cartilages in larynx: arytenoid, corniculate, and cuneform

19. Parietial pleura: Lines cavity

20. Pharynx: Space behind nasal cavity and extends down to larynx

21. Pleural rub: sounds like sand paper

22. Right mainstream: 20-30 Degrees

23. Right Upper Loab: Apical, Posterior, and Anterior

24. Sinuses: Lighten head

25. Surface tension: Intermolecular force caused by water surface contracting

26. Surfactant: Decreases surface tension, keeps lungs moist, and makes lungs compliant

27. Thorax: Protects the lungs, helps for point of attachment, and pinpointing sites for landmarks

28. Thyroid: Bigger in men

29. Tonsils: Fight bacteria; Palentine (can see), Lingual (under tongue), Pharyngeal (adenoids)

30. Trachea: 8-20 rings

31. Turbinates: Increase nasal surface area (soft and spongy)

32. Unpaired cartilages in larynx: Epiglottis, thyroid, and carcoid

33. Visceral pleura: Lines organ

Questions:

1. What is the main purpose of the conducting airways?

2. What is the upper airway composed of?

3. What are the functions of the nose?

4. What kind of patient suffers from nasal flaring more commonly and why?

5. Where is the stratified squamous epithelium found?

6. Where is the pseudostatified ciliated columnar epithelium found?

7. Where is the simple cuboidal epithelium found?

8. Where is the simple squamous epithelium found?

9. What are the paranasal sinuses?

10. What makes up the paranasal sinuses?

11. What makes up the pharynx?

12. What is the nasopharynx made up of?

13. What makes up the oropharynx?

14. Where is the pharyngeal reflex found?

15. What is the arytenoid cartilage?

16. What is the cuneiform cartilage?

17. What are the corniculate cartilages?

18. What are the extrinsic muscles of the upper airway?

19. What are the intrinsic muscles of the upper airway?

20. What do the lateral cricoarytenoid muscles do?

21. What do the transverse arytenoids muscles do?

22. What do the thyroarytenoid muscles do?

23. What do the cricothyroid muscles do?

24. What is the oral cavity made up of?

25. What is bolus?

26. Does the tongue consist of both intrinsic and extrinsic muscles?

27. What is the functions of the Larynx?

28. What is the interior of the larynx lined with?

29. What is the cartilages of the Larynx?

From here start with number 3 on the study guide from teacher

30. What is the purpose of the cilia?

31. What slows down the mucociliary transport system?

32. What is the function of the epiglottis?

33. What is the primary lobule made up of?

34. Where are the Eustachian tubes (aka pharyngotympanic tubes) located?

35. What is the thyroid cartilage?

36. What is the cricoids cartilage?

37. What is the trachea?

38. What is the characteristics of the right main stem bronchus as compared to the left?

39. What are the alveolar cells?

40. What are the functions of the alveolar cells?

41. Where are the tight and lose spaces of the alveolar interstitium located?

42. What occurs between these spaces?

43. What are the accessory muscles of inspiration?

44. What are the accessory muscles of expiration?

45. What innovates the nerves of the diaphragm and hemidiaphragm?

46. What is the diaphragm?

47. What is bilateral effusion? How are lymphatic vessels different in lungs?

48. What structures of the tracheobranchial tree contain cartilage?

49. What is another name for arterioles?

50. What structures do the bronchial arteries nourish?

51. What are the functions of the nose?

52. Where is the hilum?

53. What are visceral and parietal pleural?

54. How do the accessory muscles of exhalation help offset increased resistance?

55. What do the nasal turbinates do?

56. What is the function of the larynx?

57. What are the 4 paranasal sinuses?

58. What are mast cells?

59. What structures make up the respiratory zone?

60. What are the canals of Lambert?

61. What is the purpose of the lymphatic vessels?

62. What chemical transmitters are released with SNS and PNS?

63. How is mucus produced?

64. What is the composition of the mucus blanket?

65. What is pneumothorax?

66. Where are the narrow points in the larynx?

67. What are true cords?

68. What are false cords?

69. What is the rima glottis?

70. What is the pharyngeal reflex?

71. How do vocal cords move during inspiration and expiration?

72. What layers of tissue make up an artery?

73. What are the symptoms of an asthma attack?

74. What are the rib markings at the base of the lungs?

75. What ribs are false?

76. What ribs are true?

Answers:

1. The main purpose of the conducting airways is to provide a passageway between ambient (atmospheric) air and the gas exchange membrane of the lung (the aveoli), it only provides a passageway where air can reach the aveoli it has nothing to do with gas exchange.

2. The upper airway is composed of the nose, epithelium, 3 paired cartilages, the pharynx, paranasal sinuses, intrinsic muscles, the larynx, and the oral cavity. 3. The functions of the nose include to filter, warm, and humidify.

4. A new born is the most common patient seen with nasal flaring because infants want to use their mouth to suck causing respiratory distress and an overuse of breathing through the nasal causing nasal flaring.

5. The stratified squamous epithelium is made up of several cells and is found in the nasal cavity, the oral cavity, the oropharynx, and the laryngopharynx it is also nonciliated.

6. The pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium is a tissue lining the posterior two thirds of the nasal cavity and the trancheobronchial tree this tissue contains mucous producing goblet cells.

7. The simple cuboidal epithelium is found in the bronchioles the tissue consists of a single layer of cube shaped cells

8. The simple squamous tissue form the walls of the aveoli and the pulmonary capillaries surrounding the aveoli. This tissue consists of a single thin flattened layer of cells with abroad thin nuclei with oxygen and carbon readily passing through

9. The paranasal sinuses are air filled cavities in the bones of the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity their purpose is to drain mucous from sinuses into the nose

10. The maxillary, sphenoid, ethmoid, and frontal

11. The pharynx is made up of the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and the laryngopharynx

12. The nasopharynx contains pharyngeal tonsils/adenoids wich are lymph nodes and Eustachian tubes which equalize the pressure of the middle ear



13. The oropharynx is mad up of the lingual tonsil which is located at the base of the tongue and the paletine tonsils which are the tonsils

14. It is found in the laryngopharynx it is the gag reflix which is controlled by the vagus nerve

15. The arytenoids cartilage is paired its shaped like a pyramid and attached to the vocal process which are attached to vocal ligaments and eventually attach to the vocal cords

16. The cuneiform cartilages are paired and embedded in the aryepiglottic folds that act to stiffen the folds

17. The corniculate cartilages are paired and found on top of the arytenoid cartilages

18. The infrohyoid group which pull the larynx and the hyoid bone down to a lower position in the neck and suprahyoid group which pull the hyoid bone forward, upward, ad backward can be seen when a person swallows

19. The lateral crcoarytenoid muscles the transverse arytenoids muscles the crcothyroid muscles and the thyroarytenoid muscles

20. They cause the vocal cords to move together

21. They casue arytenoids cartilages to move together generating the sounds for speech or singing

22. They contract pulling the arytenoids cartilages forward causing a lower frequency of phonation

23. They swing the entire thyroid cartilage anteriorly this action allows changes in the frequency of phonation

24. It consists of the vestibule which is the outer portion between the teeth gums and lips and the tongue

25. Compact mass formed from food and saliva

26. Yes the intrinsic are not attached to bone allowing it to change shape become thinner/thicker, the extrinsic are attached to bone allowing to move/change position

27. It acts as a passageway of air between the pharynx and the trachea it serves as a protective mechanism against the aspiration of solids and liquids and it generates sounds for speech

28. A mucous membrane

29. There are 3 single cartilages which are the epiglottis the thyroid cartilage and cricoids cartilage and 3 paired cartilages which include arytenoids corniculate and cuniform cartilages.

30. The purpose of the cilia is to move mucus toward the larynx the process: the cilia move in wave like fashions through the sol layer and continually strike the innermost portion of the gel layer (1500 times per minute) which propels the mucus layer with any foreign particles stuck to the gel layer toward the larynx at 2 cm per minute the cause of the cilia movement is unknown from the larynx the cough mechanism moves secretions farther up into the oropharynx

31. Conditions that can slow down the mucociliary transport system include excessive bronchial secretions associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis also smoking, dehydration, positive pressure ventilation, endotracheal suctioning, high inspired oxygen concentration, hypoxia, occupational dusts, irritating chemical vapors, indoor air pollution, outdoor air pollution, general anesthetic, and parasympatholytic drugs can all cause irritation or inflammation.

32. The epiglottis prevents the aspiration of foods and liquids by covering the opening of the larynx during swallowing

33. The respiratory bronchioles, aveolar ducts and aveolar clusters

34. The eustachian tubes/pharyngotympanic tubes are located on the lateral surface of the nasopharynx they run downward to connect to the middle ears to the nasopharynx

35. The thyroid cartilage is commonly called the Adam’s Apple it is the largest cartilage off the larynx

36. the cricoid cartilage is shaped like a signet ring it is located inferior to the thyroid cartilage and forms a large portion of the posterior wall of the larynx its attached to the first c shaped cartilage of the trachea

37. The adult trachea is about 11 to 13 cm long and 1.5 to 2.5 cm in diameter it extends vertically from the cricoid cartilage of the larynx to the level of the second costal cartilage or the 5th thoracic vertebra from here the trachea divides into the right and left main stem bronchi

38. The right main stem branches of the trachea at about a 25 degree angle where as the left main stem bronchus forms an agle of about 4o to 60 degrees with the trachea. Also the right main stem bronchus is wider more vertical, and about 5 cm shorter than the left main stem bronchus this should be remembered when inserting an endotracheal tube because the tube could advance into the right main stem bronchus

39. alveolar type 1 cells which are found in the epithelium, alveolar type 2 cells also found in the epithelium, and type 3 cells which originate in the bone marrow and progress through the bloodstream to the lungs where they are reproduced

40. Alveolar type 1 cells are composed of a cytoplasmic ground substance the type 1 cells are thin and broad and they form about 95 percent of alveolar surface type one cells are unable to reproduce.Alveolar type 2 cells have microvilli and are cuboidal in shape they form the remaining 5% of the total alveolar surface. Alveolar type 2 cells are the primary source of pulmonary surfactant. Alveolar type 3 cells(macrophages) play a major role in removing bacteria and other foreign particles that are deposited within the activi

41. Tight spaces are found between the alveolar epithelium and endothelium of the pulmonary capillaries. The lose spaces are found surrounding the bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveolar sacs

42. Gas exchange occurs mostly in the tight spaces.

43. The external intercostal muscles, the scalenus muscles, the sternocleidomastoid muscles, the pectoralis major muscles, and the trapezius muscles

44. The rectus abdominis muscles, the external abdominis obliquus muscles, the internal abdominis obliquus muscles, the transversus abdominis muscles, and the internal intercostal muscles.

45. Terminal branches of the phrenic nerves and the lower thoracic nerves supply innervation of each hemidiaphragm.

46. the diaphragm when contracted activates quite inspiration it is a major muscles of ventilation located between the thoracic cavity and the abdominal cavity the diaphragm is composed of 2 separate muscles the right and left hemidiaphragm.

47. The escape of fluid from blood vessels that collects around the lungs; there are more lymphatic vessels on the surface of the lower lung lobes than on that of the upper or middle lobes causing more fluid in the right lower lobe when patients experience bilateral effusion.

48. The generations of the conducting zone which are the trachea (generation 0), the main stem bronchi ( generation 1), the lobar bronchi ( generation 2), the segmental bronchi (generation 3), subsegmental bronchi (generations 49).

49. Another name for arterioles is the resistance vessels

50. The bronchial arteries nourish the tracheobronchial tree

51. To filter, humidify, and warm

52. The hilum is where the main stem bronchi, vessels, and nerves enter

53. read page 58

54. when the accessory muscles contract they increase the intrapleural pressure which offset the increased airway resistance

55.The turbinates are also called conchae the turbinates separate inspired gas into several different air streams this increases the contact area between the inspired air and the warm moist surface of the nasal mucosa

56. The larynx acts as a passageway of air between the pharynx and trachea,, it serves as a protective mechanism against aspiration of solids and liquids, it also generates sound for speech

57. the maxillary, sphenoid, frontal, and ethmoid

58. Mast cells are found in the lamina propria when activated numerous substances are released from the mast cells (read page 34)

59. The respiratory zone is made up of respiratory bronchioles alveolar ducts alveolar sacs and the alveoli

60. The canals of Lambert are small channels that begin to appear between the inner luminal surface of the terminal bronchioles and the adjacent alveoli that surround them (appears as the terminal bronchioles become thinner)

61. The lymphatic vessels remove the excess fluid and other foreign masteroids that gain entrance into the interstitial space of the lung parenchyma it emmpties into the left brachial vein. These vessels are located adjacent to the alveoli

62. When the SNS ( the sympathetic nervous system ) is activated the neural transmitters such as epinephrine and norepinephrine are released these transmitters cause relaxation in the airway musculature when the parasympathetic nervous system (pns) is activated the neural transmitter acetylcholine is realeased and causes constriction in the bronchial sstem muscle

63. ( Study table 12 page 52)

64. 95% of the mucous blanket is composed of water 5% is glycoproteins, carbohydrates, lipids, DNA, some cellular debris , and foreign particles it is produced by goblet cells and submucosal/bronchial glands. the blanket is made up of a gel layer, sol layer, cilia, and surface goblet cells

65. Pneumothorax is the introduction of gas into the pleural cavity through an opening in the chest wall or a rupture of the lung this occurs in the chest

66. In an infant the cricoid cartilage is the narrow point of the larynx and in an adult the glottis is the narrow point

67. The true cords are the lower pair of folds formed by the mucous membrane in the larynx

68. The false cords are the upper pair of folds formed by the mucous membrane in the larynx

69. The rima glottis (glottis) is the space between the true vocal cords

70. This is the gag reflex which helps prevent aspiration of foods and liquids

71. rapid movement

72. The tunica intima which is the innermost layer of the artery and consists of endothelium, connective tissue, and elastic. The tunica media which is the middle layer of the artery and consists of elastic and smooth muscle the tunica adventitia which is the outermost layer of the artery and consists of connective tissue

73. Systems can include constriction called bronchospasm, airway inflammation, excessive production of white thick bronchial secretions, mucous plugging, and air trapping and hyperinflation of the alveoli

74. Study page 55 figure 140

75. The false ribs include ribs 810. Yhey are considered false because they are attached to cartilage

76. The true ribs include ribs 17. They are considered true because they are directly attached to the sternum.