Cardio A&P Test 4 Practice Questions:


1. ___ million RBCs in females: 4

2. ___ million RBCs in males: 5

3. ________ of the body can significantly change the gravity-dependent portion of the lungs:

4. ____% of blood volume is systemic: 75

5. ___% of blood volume is heart: 15

6. ___% of blood volume is pulmonary: 10

7. ___% of body’s total blood is in the venous system: 60

8. The % of RBCs in relation to total blood volume is known as: hematocrit (Hct)

9. 3 types of pressures are used to study blood flow: intravascular, transmural, driving

10. actual amount of BP in the lumen of any vessel: intravascular pressure

11. agranulocytes:: lymphocytes, monocytes

12. the alveolar pressure is greater than blood pressure: zone 1 of the lungs

13. apex of heart points inferiorly toward the: left hip

14. arterial supply: blood supply of heart originates directly from the ______ by means of two arteries: aorta

15. atria separated by: interatrial septum

16. base of heart is broad and flat and points toward the: right shoulder

17.begins with aorta and ends in the right atrium: systemic vascular system

18. begins with the pulmonary trunk and ends in the left atrium: pulmonary vascular system

19. blood cells contain: RBCs, WBCs, and platelets

20. blood consists of: numerous cells that are suspended in plasma

21. blood flow decreases from: base to apex

22. blood flow is greater than alveolar pressure: zone 2 of the lungs

23. blood flow is greater than alveolar pressure, so blood flow is constant: zone 3 of the lungs

24. blood is a heavy substance, so it is ________ dependent, it moves to parts of lungs that are
closest to the ground: gravity

25. both the systemic and pulmonary vascular system are composed of: arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins

26. cardiac output equation: SV * HR

27. carry blood away from the heart: arteries

28. carry blood to the heart: veins

29. circulatory system consists of: the blood, the heart, and the vascular system

30. circulatory system is divided into: systemic and pulmonary vascular system

31. composed of a single sheet of squamos epithelial cells overlying delicate connective tissue: epicardium

32. decrease in arterial pressure causes the medulla to increase its sympathetic activity which increases: heart rate, myocardial function, arterial constriction, venous constriction

33. difference between the pressure at one point and pressure at any other point downstream: driving pressure

34. difference of intravascular and the pressure surrounding the vessel: transmural pressure

35. distribution of blood is a function of: gravity, cardiac output, pulmonary vascular

36. an elevated count is commonly seen in allergic patients: eosinophils

37. erythrocytes: RBC

38. erythrocytes are produced in: bone marrow

39. example of baroreceptor: when ______ _____decreases, the neural impulses transmitted from the baroreceptors to the vasomotor and cardiac centers in the medulla decrease also: arterial pressure

40. force against which the ventricles must work to pump blood: ventricular afterload

41. force generated by the myocardium when the ventricular muscles shorten: myocardial contractility

42. gas exchange occurs in: capillaries

43. glistening white sheet of epithelium that rests on a thin connective tissue layer. This lines the heart chambers: endocardium

44. granulocytes:: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils

45. heart functions as two separate pumps: left atrium and ventricle pumps _________ blood to the systemic circulation: oxygenated

46. heart functions as two separate pumps: right atrium and ventricle pumps ___________ blood to the lungs: unoxygenated

47. the heart is a ______ ______ structure: cone shaped

48. the heart is a four chambered, muscular organ that consists of: R/L atria and R/L ventricle

49. heart is enclosed in a double wall sac called the: pericardium

50. the heart is enclosed in the: mediastinum

51. the heart weighs: 250-300 grams

52. increase in chronic infections: monocytes

53. left coronary artery divides into the: circumflex and anterior interventricular branch

54. leukocytes: WBC

55. leukocytes are grouped in two major groups: granulocytes and agranulocytes

56. leukocytes: primary function is to protect the body against: viruses, parasites, toxins, and tumors

57. leukocytosis is seen in: bacterial and viral infections

58. life span of a RBC is _____ days: 120

59. lowest pressure reached: diastolic pressure

60. lymphocytes are found mostly in: lymph nodes

61. lymphocytes fight against: viruses

62. the major constituent of the RBCs is: hemoglobin

63. major portion of the blood: erythrocytes

64. the maximum pressure reached: systolic pressure

65. mean arterial pressure: systolic + (diastolic * 2) / 3

66. mean arterial pressure is measured in: mm Hg

67. monocytes also effective against: viruses and certain parasites

68. the most numerous of the WBCs: neutrophils

69. neutrophils are found at: sites of inflammation

70. normal Hct in female: 42%

71. normal Hct in male: 45%

72. normal pulmonary BP: 25/8

73. normal stroke volume: 40 – 80 ml

74. normal systemic BP: 120/80

75. normal thrombocyte (platelet) range: 250,000 – 500,000 mm of blood

76. normal WBC count: 4,000 – 11,000 cells/mm

77. perfuses the heart structure itself: left and right coronary arteries

78. plasma constitutes about ___% of the total blood volume: 55

79. prevents blood loss from site of inflammation: thrombocytes (platelets)

80. primary function of the pericardium: protect the heart, anchor the heart to surrounding structures, prevents heart from overfilling

81. refers to the degree that myocardial fiber is stretched prior to contraction: ventricular preload

82. regulate the amount of blood pressure by initiating reflex adjustments to changes in blood pressure: baroreceptors

83. right coronary atrium divides into: marginal branch and posterior interventricular branch

84. second most numerous WBC in the body: lymphocytes

85. smallest group of WBCs; also combat allergic reactions: basophils

86. supplies the left atrium: left coronary artery

87. supplies the right atrium: right coronary artery

88. thick middle layer, which forms bulk of the heart. This layer actually contracts: myocardium

89. this results in decrease in arterial pressure: increase CO, increase in total peripheral resistance, returns BP back to normal

90. thrombocytes: platelets

91. thrombocytes (platelets) use an activator called ______ _______, which is a sticky substance that causes blood to clot: platelet factor

92. tiny veins connected to capillaries: venules

93. total blood volume in the adult is around ___ liters: 5

94. total volume of blood discharged in one minute: cardiac output (CO)

95. ventricles separated by: interventricular septum

96. visceral pericardium: epicardium

97. volume of blood ejected from ventricle during each contraction: stroke volume (SV)

98. wall of the heart is composed of 3 layers: epicardium, myocardium, endocardium

99. WBC can leave the capillary blood vessels when needed for: inflammatory or immune response

100. a WBC count of >11,000 is called ____________: leukocytosis

101. when ______ relax, the pressure drops: ventricles

102. when _______ contract, blood is forced into the pulmonary artery and aorta and pressure
rises sharply: ventricles

103. when all cells are removed from the blood, a straw-colored liquid remains: plasma