Question Answer
External Respiration Exchange of gas molecules btwn blood and alveolar air.
Internal Respiration Exchange of gas molecules btwn blood and tissues at the cellular level.
Structures in the Upper Airways Nose, Mouth, Pharynx, Larynx (Transitional)
Conducting airways in the Lower Airways Trachea, Mainstem Bronchi, Lobar Bronchi, Segmental Bronchi, Subsegmantal Bronchi, Bronchioles, Terminal Bronchioles (last conductor)
Gas Exchange Airways Respiratory Bronchioles(Starts Diffusion Process,) Alveolar ducts, Alveolar Sacs, Alveoli (Diffusion)
Primary Regions of Nose Vestibular, Olfactory, Respiratory
Vestibular Epithelium & Structures Alae, Vibrissae, Septum Stratified Squamous (No Cilia) Vestibule represents anterior 3rd of nose
Respiratory Epithelium & Structures Turbinates/Conchae Choanae (opens to Nasopharxynx) Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar. posterior 2/3rd of nose
Pharynx Nasopharynx-Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Oropharynx-Stratified Squamous Laryngo/Hypopharynx-Stratified Squamous
Stratified Squamous is in: Vestibular Area, Oropharynx, Laryngo/Hypopharyxn, Above Vocal Cords (Larynx),
PSC Columnar is in: Respiratory Area, Nasopharynx, Below Vocal Cords(Larynx), Conducting Airway,
Cubodial is in: Respiratory Bronchiole,
Simple Squamous is in: Type I in Alveoli,
Cartilages that support & protect the Larynx Epiglottis- Attaches to the medial surface of the thyroid cartilage. Thyroid- (Adams Apple) gives the larynx its triangular shape. Cephalad (above) the cricoid. Cricoid- only complete cartiliginous ring
Trachea & Internal Dimensions 15-20 C Shaped Cartilages Length: 11-13 cm Diameter: 1.5-2.5 cm
Proximal to Trachea Cricoid
Distal to Trachea Carina (21-23cm from lips)
Right Bronchi 20-30 degree angle Length: 2.5 cm Diameter: 1.4 cm
Left Bronchi 40-60 degree angle Length: 5 cm Diameter 1.0 cm
Composition of Lower Airways PSC Goblet Cells/Submucosal Glands: Produce Mucus Basal Cells “reserve cells” replace depleted goblet or cilia cells
Compostion of Lamina Propria Lymphatic Vessels(pull extra fluid out,) Smooth Muscle(structural support,) Mast Cells, Vagal Nerve Branches- No Epithelial
First area of Gas Exchange Respiratory Bronchiole (simple cubodial)
2 Pathways of collateral Vent Canals of Lambert / Pores of Kohn
Type I Squamous Pneumocyte- Structural Support and gas exchange
Type II Granular Pneumocyte- Inclusion Bodies produce surfactant
Type III Alveolar Macrophage- “scavenger” cleans bacteria and debris from mucus
Layers of Alveolar Capillary Membrane Alveolar Epithelium, Alveolar Basement Membrane, Interstitium, Capillary Basement Membrane, Capillary Endothelium
Composition of Interstitium Tight Space- gas exchange Loose Space- Collagen for support and lymphatic vessels for fluid drainage
Thoracic Cage Clavicles, Sternum, Ribs True Ribs- vertebrosternal- 1-7 False vertebrocostal- 8-10 Floating- no attachment 11, 12
Pleural Cavity Visceral Pleura (on organ) Parietal Pleura (lines ribs, diaphragm, mediastinum) Pulmonary Ligament (root of the lung- where the visceral & parietal fuse)
Mediastinum Trachea, Mainstem Bronchi, Heart, Ascending Aorta, Pulmonary Artery, Thoracic Duct, Esophagus, Phrenic and Vagus Nerves
Right Lobes Upper, Middle, Lower
Right Segments Upper: Apical, Posterior, Anterior Middle: Lateral, Medial Lower: Superior, Medial Basal, Anterior Basal, Lateral Basal, Posterior Basal
Left Lobes Upper, Lower
Left Segments Upper: Apical, Posterior, Anterior Lower: Superior, Anterior Medial, Lateral Basal, Posterior Basal *Left/Lingual* Superior Lingualar, Inferior Lingualar
Right Fissures Horizontal: Separates Upper & Middle Oblique: Separates Middle & Lower
Left Fissures Oblique: Separates Upper & Lower
Bronchiole Blood Supply 1/3rd of venous flow returns to the R Atrium via the Azygos, Hemiazygos, and intercostal veins. 2/3rds form Bronchopulmonary anastomoses that go back to the L Atrium via the pulmonary veins.
Pulmonary Lymphatic System that drains pleural fluid Superfical: below visceral Pleura
Lymphatic System AKA Deep/peribronchovascular Take from Hilum & Dump to the Thoracic Duct (10-50 ml/hour)
Nonspecific Defenses Sneeze-induced by trigeminal nerve, Cough- induced by glossopharyngeal or vagus nerve, Mucociliary Escalator- cholinergic stimulation, Alveolar Clearance- macrophages
Specific Defenses (Immunoglobulins) IgA: Antiviral IgE: Assoc. w/ Type I hypersensitivity rxs (asthma) IgG and IgM: Antibacterial/Antiviral
Specific Defenses (Lymphocytes) B: Originate in Bone Marrow- Produce gamma globulin antibodies T: originate in Thymus Gland- T4 helpers, t8 suppressors
Larynx Functions Speech, Prevent Aspiration
Paired Cartilages Arytenoids- vocal cords attched via the the vocal proccesses @ Base. Corniculates- along the posterior wall of the larynx, lay on top of arytenoids. Cuneforms- anterior and lateral to corniculates.

Question Answer
What are the four types of pulmonary epithelium? Straitifed Squamous, Pseudostratified Columnar, Cuboidal, Simple Squamous
What are the major structures of the upper airways? Nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx
What are the conducting airways of the lower airways? *Trachea (1) *Mainstem bronchi (2) *Lobar bronci (5) *Segmental bronchi (18/19) *Subsegmental bronchi (<40) *Broncioles (<1mm in diam.) *Terminal bronchioles (0.5mm in diam.)
What are the gas exchange airways? Respiratory bronchioles, Alveolar ducts, Alveolar sacs, & Alveoli
What are the types of epithelium in the pharynx? Nasopharynx – pseudostratified ciliated columnar Oropharynx – stratified squamous Laryngo/hypopharynx – stratified squamous
What are the types of epithelium in the larynx? *Above chords – stratified squamous *Below chords – pseudostratified ciliated columnar
Identify the cartilages that comprise the larynx? Epiglottis, Thyroid, Cricoid
What are the internal dimensions of the trachea? Length: 11-13 cm. 15-20 C-shaped cartilages Diameter: 1.5 – 2.5cm
What are the proximal and distal landmarks of the trachea? C-5 to T-5; Cricoids cartilage to carina; Carina is 21-23cm from the lips
Distinguish the anatomical differences of the primary bronchi. *Right: 20-30 degree angle, Length: 2.5cm, Diameter: 1.4cm *Left: 40-60 degree angle, Length: 5cm, Diameter 1.0cm
What is the composition of the epithelium which lines the lower conducting airways? Pseudostratified ciliated columnar
Identify the composition of the lamina propria Lymphatic vessels; Smooth muscle; Mast cells: also found in the submucosal glands; Vagal nerve branches
Identify two pathways by which collateral ventilation can occur across adjacent bronchioles and alveoli. Canals of Lambert & Pores of Kohn
What type of epithelium is in the respiratory bronchioles? Simple Cuboidal
What is Type I cell? Squamous pneumocyte – (they do most of the work) structural support & gas exchange
What is Type II cell? Granular pneumocyte – inclusion bodies produce surfactant – hold open alveoli
What is Type III cell? Alveolar macrophage – phagocytic “scavenger” cleans bacteria & debris
List the primary layers which constitute the alveolar-capillary membrane. Alveolar epithelium; Alveolar basement membrane; Interstitium (space between); Capillary basement membrane; Capillary endothelium.
Describe the composition of the interstitium within the alveolar-capillary membrane. *Tight space – gas exchange *Loose space – collagen for support & lymphatic vessels for fluid drainage
Identify the gross structures composing the thoracic cage. Clavicles; Sternum; Ribs
Identify the components of the pleural cavity. Visceral Pleura: lungs; Parietal Pleura: ribs, diaphragm, mediastinum; Serous membranes of cuboidal epithelium derived from mesoderm; Pulmonary Ligament: where the pleurae fuse @ the hilum
List the major organs, vessels, and nerve found in the mediastinum. Trachea & mainstem bronchi; Heart; A. aorta & pulmonary artery; Thoracic duct; Esophagus; Phrenic & Vagus nerves
List the 3 lobes of the right lung. Upper, Middle, Lower
List the 10 segments of the right lung. *Upper – apical, posterior, anterior *Middle – lateral, medial *Lower – superior, medial basal, anterior basal, lateral basal, posterior basal
List the 2 lobes of the left lung. Upper, Lower
List the 8 segments of the left lung. Upper – apical-posterior, anterior; Lingular Segments – superior lingular, inferior lingular ; Lower – superior, anterior medial, lateral basal, posterior basal
Identify the fissures of the right lung. Horizontal: separates Upper & Middle; Oblique – separates Middle & Lower
Identify the fissures of the left lung. Oblique – separates Upper & Lower
Describe the bronchial blood supply. Bronch arts perfuse lower conduct airways;1/3 of venous flow from large airways returns to R atrium via Azygos, Hemiazygos, & Intercostal veins;2/3 of venous flow from small airways form;BP Anastomoses drain into pulm circ & return to L Atrium via PVs.
Describe the pulmonary lymphatic system. Superficial: lay just below the visceral pleura. Drains excess pleural fluid
Describe the four major NON-SPECIFIC defense mechanisms of the lung. Sneeze: induced via irritation of Trigeminal Nerve;Cough: induced via irritation of Glossopharyngeal or Vagus Nerves;Mucociliary Escalator: stimulated by cholinergic stimulation ;Alveolar Clearance: macrophages (Type III cells) clear out inhaled or infe
Describe the three major SPECIFIC defense mechanisms of the lung. Immunoglobulins: IgA: antiviral; IgE: associated w/ Type I (eosinophils) hypersensitivity reactions (asthma); IgG & IgM: antibacterial & viral (anti-bodies).