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QuestionAnswer
What are the steps in CPR adults and children 8 years oldertap and shout, call for help, establish airway head tilt chin lift, check breathing, give 2 breaths, check for pulse, if no pulse chest compressions, provide 100% o2, draw abg
What are the complications of CPRgastric distentions, pneumothorax, gastric rupture, cross contamination, aspiration
What are the complications of external cardiac compressionsrib fractures, fractured sternum and clavicle, contusions to heart and or lungs, lacerated liver and or spleen due to xiphoid compression, pulm/fat embolism, pneumothorax/hemothorax
How do you evaluate the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitationcarotid pulse should be felt during compressions, color normal
What are the various methods of emergency ventilationmouth to mouth, mouth to nose, mouth to tube or mask, mouth to valve/mask, bag and mask, cricothyrotomy and transtracheal catheter, intubation/tracheotomy
When trouble shooting problems with manual ventilation high resistance/low compliance a pneumothorax presentsair in the pleural space, trachea deviated to opposite side, hyperresonant percussion note and decreased breath sounds on the affected side, recommend insertion of chest tube
When trouble shooting problems with manual ventilation high resistance/low compliance a hemothorax presentsblood in the pleural space, trachea deviated to opposite side, dull percussion note and decreased breath sounds on the affected side recommend insertion of the chest tube
When trouble shooting problems with manual ventilation high resistance/low compliance endotracheal tube obstruction presentsunable to pass suction catheter, decreased breath sounds, remove tube and use alternative form of ventilation (bag valve mask unit)
When trouble shooting problems with manual ventilation high resistance/low compliance, right mainstem intubation presentstrachea deviated to the left, hyper resonant on the right, dull on the left, increased chest movement on the right, decreased on the left, withdraw tube slightly and listen for bilateral breath sounds
What are the steps for CPR for unwitnessed cardiopulmonary arrest in children 1 to 8 years oldtap and shout, establish airway, check breathing, 2 full breaths, check pulse, compressions and ventilations for 1 minute or 20 cycles, 100% o2 abg
What are the steps for CPR for infants less than a year oldtap and shout, establish airway, check breathing, give 2 breaths, mouth to mouth and nose ventilation, check pulse brachial, if no pulse compressions 1 minute or 20 cyles 5:1 ratio with a pause after 5th compression, call for help, 100% o2 abg
How do you perform resuscitation birth to 1 month airwaysniffing position
How do you perform resuscitation birth to 1 month breathing3-5 seconds listen for sounds of ventilation at the neonates mouth and nose while looking at the chest and abdomen for movement, give 2 slow breaths
How do you perform resuscitation birth to 1 month cardiac compressionsuse thumbs or 2 fingers perpendicular on the lower third of sternum below nipple line neonate, 1/2-3/4 inch at 90/min and 30 ventilations
What is the ratio for neonate3:1
Adult 8 yrs to adult CPRhead tilt ching lift, 10-12 breaths per min every 5-6 sec, heel bottom of hand 1 1/2-2 inches, 100/min ratio 30:2
Child 1-8 years old CPRhead tilt chin lift, 12-20 breaths, heel of 1 hand, 1-1 1/2 inches 100/min ratio 15:2
Infant under 1 year CPRhead tilt chin lift, 12-20 breaths per min, 2-3 fingers 1/2-1 inch 100/min ratio 15:2
Newborn birth to 1 month CPRhead slightly extended, 40-60 breaths, 2 fingers or thumbs 1/2-3/4 inch 90/min ratio 3:1
What is hypotensionlow blood pressure, poor capillary refill, weak thready pulse
What do you treat hypotension withfluid, dopamine, dobutamine
What is bradycardiahr less than 60 adult, less than 100 in infant
What is bradycardia treated withatropine, dopamine and epinephrine for an adult, epinephrine and atropine for children, external pacemaker
What is ventricular arrhythmiasPVC treat with oxygen and lidocaine, ventricular tachycardia treat with defibrillation 360 joules or epinephrine, amiodarone, or lidocaine
What do you treat ventricular fibrillation withdefib 360 joules, epinephrine, amiodarone, or lidocaine, if patient has metabolic acidosis administer sodium bicarbonate
What asystoleconfirm 2 leads treat with epinephrine, atropine, DO NOT defibrillate
What is cardioversiontherapeutic procedure that involves administering a low voltage current to the heart tissue in an attempt to convert a cardiac dysrhythmia to normal sinus rhythm, synchronizing switch is on, 50-100 joules, o2 should be present
In cardioversion, if ventricular fibrillation occurs thencheck pulse first, then turn off synchronizing switch, increase to 200 joules and defibrillate
What strong short acting sedative is given prior to the cardioversionmidazolam(versed)
What is defibrillationused when emergency cardiac dysrhythmias are present
What are the indications for defibrillationpulseless ventricular tachycardia, ventricular flutter, ventricular fibrillation
How many joules are sufficient for defibrillation360 joules
Criteria for the ideal resuscitation bag self inflating, ideal stroke volumeadult 800 ml(1000-1800) infant 200 ml
What are the safety features for the self inflating resuscitation bagtrue non rebreathing valve, universal connector with a 22 mm OD and 15 mm ID, patient valve that does not jam at 15 liters per minute, oxygen inlet flow to provide that highest FIO2 possible
What does the mask look like for a self inflating resuscitation bagwell fitting, shapeable, transparent
What does the reservoir give95-100% oxygen (at 15 L/min), quick attachment, non bulky
When trouble shooting a self inflating bag excessively high flow may causevalves to jam, use 15 L/min or low range of flush
What are the advantages of the mouth to valve mask ventilationeliminates direct contact with the patient, supplemental o2 can be administered up to 50% oxygen concentration with a flow rate at 10L/min, a one way valve between the mask and the practitioners mouth eliminates the exposure to exhaled air
What is the criteria for pneumatically pwered resuscitation deviceflowrate of 100 LPM, pressure relief set at 50 cmH2O(audible alarm), 100% oxygen delivered from gas source, inspiration can be started by using a manual button or by the patient generating negative pressure
What are the limitations of pneumatic resuscitation devicesno detect changes in patients lung compliance and resistance, possible self triggering and premature termination of inspiration during chest compressions, high turbulent flows may create high resistance to ventilation, gastric insufflation, 50 psi
What equipment is needed for the transport of a patientintubation equipment, portable o2, resuscitation device, transport vent if patient in on ventilator, pulse ox, medications, portable ECG monitor, stethoscope and spirometer for tidal volume assessment
For land air transport usehelicopter for >150 miles fixed wing aircraft
What happens to the oxygen during air transporto2 partial pressure will decrease as altitude increases during air transport
What is pulmonary edema/CHFleft ventriculat failure and lung reaction, excessive fluids in the lungs that affect ventilation and oxygenation
What is the assessment of pulmonary edema/CHForthopnea, pitting edema, distended neck veins and increased respiratory distress, pink frothy watery secretions, fine crepitant audible rales or crackles
What is the treatment for pulmonary edema/CHF100% os via non rebreather, IPPB with 100% o2 and ethanol, PEEP/CPAP if necessary, increase the strength of the heart contraction(inotropy) by giving digitalis, decrease venous return by giving lasix, body position fowlers
What is pulmonary embolideadspace disease ventilation without perfusion, clood clots in the lungs and will affect oxygenation and circulation
How do you assess pulmonary embolisudden onset of dyspnea, tachypnea, patient appears to be hyperventilating but in not, anxious, chest pain, ventilation/perfusion scan shows no perfusion with ventilation=deadspace disease
What is the treatment for pulmonary embolianticoagulation therapy, heparin and coumadin, o2 therapy, thrombolytic drugs/screens/surgery
What is pneumothoraxpresence of gas in the pleural space that can seriously affect ventilation
How do you assess pneumothoraxsudden onset of dyspnea with decreased breath sounds and tracheal shift away from the affected side, decreased vocal fremitus, percussion is hyperresonant or tympanic, xray shows hyperlucency without vascular markings and a flattened diaphragm
What is the treatment for a pneumothorax100% o2 via non rebreather, immediate chest tube/thoracentesis, relieve pressure with needle and tubing inserted into a glass of water
What is co poisoninginability of hemoglobin to bind with oxygen due to the binding of carbon monoxide
What is the assessment of CO poisoningpresent illness, redness of the skin, breathing labored and deep(tachypnea, hyperpnea), tachycardia with normal ABG, increase COHb on co-oximeter >20%, DO NOT rely on pulse ox
What is status asthmaticussustained asthma attack unresponsive to bronchodilator therapy, marked affect on ventilation and oxygenation
How do you assess status asthmaticusdiagnosis made by history, retractions and pulsus paradoxus, abg indicating respiratory acidosis or respiratory failure (PCO2>45)
What is the treatment for status asthmaticus100% o2 therapy via non rebreather, subcutaneous epinephrine x 3, mechanical ventilation(sedate, paralyze, control), bronchodilator therapy and steroids
What is traumaHead trauma, chest trauma, neck trauma, vurn victums, near drowning
What is the treatment for traumastart airway breathing and circulation, administer 100% o2, drugs and fluids based upon bedside and lab assessment, remainder based on patient assessment
QuestionAnswer
Identify the basic steps for performing one-rescuer resuscitation for an unwitnessed cardiopulmonary arrest in an adult or child 8 years of age and olderDetermine unresponsiveness, Call for help Check for pulse, If pulseless begin chest compressions,if definite pulse is present give one breath every 5-6 sec recheck pulse in 2 min,Use AED or defibrillator,Continue CPR until other emergency comes
Identify the indications,rationale (why the method works), complications and contraindications for Head-tilt/Chin-liftPreferred method of establishing the airway during CPR. + Easy to perform,Permits control of loose dentures,Successful with all age groups. – Fractured neck,or suspicion of neck fracture
Identify the indications,rationale (why the method works), complications and contraindications for JAW THRUST/MODIFIED JAW THRUST+ Aloows for establishing patent airway in PT with suspected neck fracture. – Difficult to perform, Difficult to obtain a good seal during mouth to mouth ventilation, Tiring for operators wrists,PT loose dentures not controlled
Identify three complications of external cardiac compressionsRib fractures, Fractured sternum/clavicle,Contusions to heart and/or lung
Identify three complication of ventilationGastric distention most common, Pneumothorax,Gastric rupture
Which pulse should be used to assess the effectiveness of CPR?Carotid pulse should be present during copressions- Best Method
Identify and briefly desribe four methods of emergency ventilation.Mouth to mouth (FIO2 16% -17%), Mouth to nose Mouth to tube or Mask, Mouth to Valve/Mask,
List the signs of a MILD airway obstructionGood air exchange Responsive and can cough forcefully May wheeze between coughs
List the treatment for a MILD airway obstructionEncourage the vitim to continue spontaneous coughing and breathing efforts,Do not interfere with victims attempts to expel foreign body, Stay with victim, Call 911 if mild airway obstruction continues
List the signs of a SEVERE Airway ObstructionPoor or no airway exchange,Weak-Ineffective Cough,High pitched noise while inhaling,
List the treatment for a SEVERE Airway Obstruction for an infant if the infant is responsiveinfant is straddled over the resuer arm face down (prone), Deliver 5 back blows with the heel of Hand, turn infant over and apply 5 chest thrust, repeat until obstruction is relieved or the infant becomes unresponsive
List the treatment for a SEVERE Airway Obstruction for an infant if the infant is unresponsiveActivate emergency response system, lower victim to floor begin CPR, Before attempting to ventilate look for a foreign object in mouth and remove it, Continue CPR for 5 cycles or about 2 min
List the treatment for a SEVERE Airway Obstruction for a PT 1 year an older if the PT becomes UNRESPONSIVEActivate emergency response system, lower victim to floor begin CPR, Before attempting to ventilate look for a foreign object in mouth and remove it, Continue CPR for 5 cycles or about 2 min
Hypotension is Characterized by;By low blood presuure Poor Capilary Refill Weak Thready Pulse
Hypotension Should be treated withFluid Challenge (1-2 Lnormal saline or Lactated Ringers) Vasopressor Infusion (Dopmine,Dobutamine)
List the signs of a MILD airway obstructionGood air exchange Responsive and can cough forcefully May wheeze between coughs
List the treatment for a MILD airway obstructionEncourage the vitim to continue spontaneous coughing and breathing efforts,Do not interfere with victims attempts to expel foreign body, Stay with victim, Call 911 if mild airway obstruction continues
List the signs of a SEVERE Airway ObstructionPoor or no airway exchange,Weak-Ineffective Cough,High pitched noise while inhaling,
List the treatment for a SEVERE Airway Obstruction for an infant if the infant is responsiveinfant is straddled over the resuer arm face down (prone), Deliver 5 back blows with the heel of Hand, turn infant over and apply 5 chest thrust, repeat until obstruction is relieved or the infant becomes unresponsive
List the treatment for a SEVERE Airway Obstruction for an infant if the infant is unresponsiveActivate emergency response system, lower victim to floor begin CPR, Before attempting to ventilate look for a foreign object in mouth and remove it, Continue CPR for 5 cycles or about 2 min
List the treatment for a SEVERE Airway Obstruction for a PT 1 year an older if the PT becomes UNRESPONSIVEActivate emergency response system, lower victim to floor begin CPR, Before attempting to ventilate look for a foreign object in mouth and remove it, Continue CPR for 5 cycles or about 2 min
Hypotension is Characterized by;By low blood presuure Poor Capilary Refill Weak Thready Pulse
Hypotension Should be treated withFluid Challenge (1-2 Lnormal saline or Lactated Ringers) Vasopressor Infusion (Dopmine,Dobutamine)
List two drugs that are indicated in the treatment of braycardia in the ADULTAtropine,Dopamine and epinephrine for an ADULT
List two drugs that are indicated in the treatment of Ventricular Tachycardia or Ventricular Fibrillation that is Unresponsive to DefibrillationIf defibrillation in unsuccessful Administer; Epinephrine Amiodarone
Complete the following outline the treatment procedure for Ventricular Fibrillation/Pulseless Ventricular TachycardiaVentricular Fibrillation/Pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia—-> Defibrillate/Shock
The treatment procedure for Ventricular Fibrillation/Pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia—-> Defibrillate/Shock Then If Pulse Returns—> thenIf Pulse Returns—> then Universal Algorithm
Fibrillation/Pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia—-> Defibrillate/Shock If Rhythm Shockable?—>thenPersistent V Fib or V Tach then –> CPR,Intubate,IV, Epinepherine,Defibrillate Amiodarone Defibrillate—>Amiodarone Defibrillate
Fibrillation/Pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia—-> Defibrillate/Shock If Rhythm Not Shockable?—>thenPEA/Asystole—>PEA/Asystole Algorithm
Asystole OR PEA (Pulseless Electrical Activity)—>Confirm Asystole in 2 leads—> High Quality CPR,IV Access,Intubate,Pacing (for asystole) consider causes
Describe what the cardioversion procedure is used for?Therapeutic prodcedure that involves administering a low voltage current to the heart tissue in an attempt to convert a cardiac dysrhythmia to normal sinus rhythm. The electric current is synchronizing with the PT own rhythm
The synchronizing switch must be ____ to perform CARDIOVERSION?ON –> Electric shock is delivered on the R wave of ECG
Biphasic defibrillators are indicated to treat what arrhythmias?Unstable ATRIAL FIBRILLATION: initial dose is 2120-200 joules Unstable SVT or Unstable ATRIAL FLUTTER; initial energy dose is 50-100 joules
What should be done if defrillation occurs during the producere?Check pulse,then turn off sychronizing switch, increase energy setting, snd immediately defibrillate
What medications should be given pior to procedure?Midazolam (Versed) is a strong, short acting sedative given prior to cardioversion
Defibrillation is recommended to treat what type of ARRHYTHMIAS?It is used when Life-threatening cardiac dyrhythmias are persent
List the indications fo DefibrillationPulseless Ventricular Tachcyardia Ventricular Fibrillation
At what energy dose should the first defibrillation attempt be made?Biphasic Defibrillator; 120— 200 Joules Monophasic Defibrillator; 360 Joules
An AED will recommmend shock delivery only if the victims heart rhythm is ___?Only if the Victims heart rhythm is one that a shock can treat
List three indications for using and AEDNO RESPONSE NO BREATHING NO PULSE USE AED ONLY WHEN A VICTIM HAS ALL OF THESE CLINICAL FINDINGS
A manual resuscitator bag used for an adult PT should ideally provide what tidal volume?ADULT- 800 mL average (1000-1800 max) INFANT- 200 mL
List the three safety features the ideal resuscitation bag should haveA true non-rebreathing valve Universal connector with a 22mm OD and 15mm ID Patient valve that does not jam at 15 L per min
What purpose does the reservoir serve?To provide 95-100% 0xygen (at 15 L/min) Quick attachment/non-bulky
Describe the features of the ideal resuscitation mask?Well fitting- covers PT mouth and nose Shapeable,Transparent
Using excessively high flows during manual resuscitation may cause what problem?may cause valves to jam. Use 15L/min or low range of flush
While manually ventilating a PT via endotracheal tube, the respiratory therapist noctices that it is getting harder to compress the resuscitation device. Why might this occcur?PT valve may be stuck open or closed
List three advantages of mouth-to-valve mask ventilation versus mouth-to-mouth ventilationEliminates direct contact with the PT Supplemental oxygen can be administered; up to 50% oxygen with a flow rate at 10L/min A one-way valve between the mask and the practitioners mouth eliminates the exposure to exhaled air.
Complete the following describing the ideal critera for oxygen powered resuscitation devices: FLOWRATEImmediate flowrate of 100 L/min
Complete the following describing the ideal critera for oxygen powered resuscitation devices:PRESSURE RELIEFSet at 50 cmH20 (audible alarm)
Complete the following describing the ideal critera for oxygen powered resuscitation devices: %OXYGEN100% oxygen delivered from gas source
Complete the following describing the ideal critera for oxygen powered resuscitation devices:INSPIRATION IS INITIATED BYInspiration can be started by using a manual button or by the PT generating negative pressure
 
QuestionAnswer
What are the limitations of pneumatic resuscitation devices?Inability to dectect changes in PTs Lung compliance and resistance,Possible self-triggering and premature termination,High turbulent flows/create high resistance,High risk of gastric insufflation,Must have 50 psi gas source,Cannot be used for infants
Describe the role of the respiratory thearphy department in the case of an internal or external disater:Have established call-in list,keep supply of humidifers,cannulas,masks and flowmeters,Be prepared to assist,Keep resusciation equipment in working order and accessable, Be prepared to obtain additional equipment
Describe a medical emergency team and their responsibiltiesGroup of healthcare workers who respond tp PTs with declining conditions and can prevent potential emergencies before they occur.
List the equipment required for a safe transport of a PT?Intubation equip,Portable Oxy,Manual Resusitation device,Transport Vent,Pulse Ox,Appropriate Meds,Portable ECG monitor.Stethoscope and spirometer for tidal vol. assessment
During air transport of a mechanially ventilated PT the FIO2 measured with an in-line analyzer is less than the set oxygen percentage. Why might this occurt?Oxygen partial pressure decreases as altitude increases
For each of the emergency Pathologies listed, give a brief description;explain how it would be recognized,and how to treat the problem PULMONARY EDEMA/COGESTIVE HEART FAILURE DESCRIPTIONLeft Ventricular and lung reaction. Excessive fluid accumulates in lungs and affects ventilation and especially oxygenation
For each of the emergency Pathologies listed, give a brief description;explain how it would be recognized,and how to treat the problem PULMONARY EDEMA/COGESTIVE HEART FAILURE ASSESSMENTOrthopnea,Pitting Edema, Distended neck veins and increased respiratory distress Pink/Frothy/Watery Secretions, Fine crepitant audible rales or crackles; Chest X-ray: Fluffy Infiltrates, Butterfly or Batwing Pattern.
For each of the emergency Pathologies listed, give a brief description;explain how it would be recognized,and how to treat the problem PULMONARY EDEMA/COGESTIVE HEART FAILURE TREATMENTImprove gas exchange- give 100% 02 via non-rebreather,IPPB with 100% 02 and PEEP or CPAP if necessary, Increase strength of heart contraction (inotropy) – give digitals, Decrease Venous return-Give lasix (diuretic), body position (Fowlers)
For each of the emergency Pathologies listed, give a brief description;explain how it would be recognized,and how to treat the problem PULMONARY EMBOLI DESCRIPTIONDeadspace disease (ventilation without perfusion). Caused by blood clots in the lungs and will affect oxygenation and circulation
For each of the emergency Pathologies listed, give a brief description;explain how it would be recognized,and how to treat the problem PULMONARY EMBOLI ASSESSMENTSudden onset of dyspna,tachypnea,PT appears to be hyperventilating(tachypnea) but is not normal PaC02,Anxious,Chest Pain,CHEST X-RAY Periphearal Wedge shaped infilitrate Ventilation/Perfusion(V/Q)scan or spiral CT shows no perfusion/ventilation=deadspace
For each of the emergency Pathologies listed, give a brief description;explain how it would be recognized,and how to treat the problem PULMONARY EMBOLI TREATMENTOxygen 100%, Anticoagulation theraphy (heparin & coumadin), Thrombolytic drugs/screens/surgery
For each of the emergency Pathologies listed,give a brief description;explain how it would be recognized,and how to treat the problem PNEUMOTHORAX DESCRIPTIONPresence of air in the pleural space that can seriously affect ventilation
For each of the emergency Pathologies listed, give a brief description;explain how it would be recognized,and how to treat the problem PNEUMOTHORAX ASSESSMENTSunden onset of dynpnea with decreased breath sounds and tracheal shift away from the affected side, Decreased vocal fremitus,percussion note is hyperresonant or tympanic, X-RAY shows hyperlucrncy without vascular markings and a flattened diaphragm
For each of the emergency Pathologies listed, give a brief description;explain how it would be recognized,and how to treat the problem PNEUMOTHORAX TREATMENTGive 100% 02 via non-rebreathing mask, Immediate chest tube/thoracentesis, or relieve pressure with needle and tubing inserted into pleural space (needle aspiration)
For each of the emergency Pathologies listed,give a brief description;explain how it would be recognized,and how to treat the problem STATUS ASTHMATICUS DESCRIPTIONSustained asthma attack unresponsive to bronchodilator therapy. Will have marked affect on ventilation and oxygenation.
For each of the emergency Pathologies listed, give a brief description;explain how it would be recognized,and how to treat the problem STATUS ASTHMATICUS ASSESSMENTDiagnosis made by history,Retractions and pulsus paradoxus,ABG indicating respiratory acidosis or respiratory failure (PCO2.45).
For each of the emergency Pathologies listed, give a brief description;explain how it would be recognized,and how to treat the problem STATUS ASTHMATICUS TREATMENT100% 02 therapy via non-rebreathing mask,Continuous bronchodilator therapy (albuterol and ipratropium, Corticosteroids-IV and oral,Mechanical ventilation-sedate,paralyze,contol if necessary
For each of the emergency Pathologies listed,give a brief description;explain how it would be recognized,and how to treat the problem TRAUMA ExamplesHead Trauma,Chest trauma,Neck trauma,Burn victims,Near drowning,
For each of the emergency Pathologies listed, give a brief description;explain how it would be recognized,and how to treat the problem TRAUMA TREATMENTAlways start Basic Life Support; Compressions-Airway_Breathing,Administer 100% Oxygen,Administer drugs/or fluids based upon bedside and laboratory assessment,Remainder of treatment is based upon careful PT assessment
For each of the emergency Pathologies listed,give a brief description;explain how it would be recognized,and how to treat the problem CO POISONING DESCRIPTIONThe inability of hemoglobin to bind with oxygen due to binding of carbon monoxide. This can seriously affect oxygenation
For each of the emergency Pathologies listed, give a brief description;explain how it would be recognized,and how to treat the problem CO POISONING ASSESSMENTHistory of present illness will be important,Redness of the skin,Breathing labored and deep(tachypnea,hypernea),Tachycardia with normal ABG,Increase COHb on co-oximeter (>20%, DO NOT rely onpulse oximetry (Sp02)
For each of the emergency Pathologies listed, give a brief description;explain how it would be recognized,and how to treat the problem CO POISONING TREATMENT100% 02 Via-non-rebreathing mask,CPAP mask,Hyperbaric Oxygen
QuestionAnswer
How do you gain expreesed consent?-Say your name -Say your trained -Ask if you can help
Why do you tell people that are choking to keep coughing?They may be able to cough the object up on their own. When they are coughing, they are still gettig air at that point.
What do you do if you come arcoss someone choking?1. Tell them to keep coughing 2. Have someone call 9-1-1 3. Stay with them
What is Respiratory Distress?When someone is struggling to get air.
What is Respiratory Arrest?When someone is NOT getting ANY air.
What does it mean when they stop coughing?They are now in Respiratory Arrest.
How do you do an upper thrust?Find their navel and place two fingers above it, place your fist where your fingers are with your thumb against their stomach, reach around them with your other hand and hold your fist.
Why call 9-1-1?Even if the person is still coughing and getting air, at some point they could stop getting air.
What is the diaphram, and where is it located?The Diaphram is a muscle, that is below the lungs and above the stomach.
How do you know how when to stop the 5 and 5 technique?1: If the object is forced out 2: If the person becomes unconscious
What is the “5 and 5 technique?”5 back blows and 5 abdominal thrust.
How do you perform a back blows?1: Place the heel of one hand between their shoulder blades 2:You should hear a hollow sound when you are hitting the right spot 3:Stand the person back up straight