what is a stable mixture of two or more substances in a single phase, that cannot be separated by centrifuge?solution
What is a substance that dissolves?solute
what is a medium in which a substance dissolved?solvent
what are colloids also know as?dispersions or gels
what is a colloid?a substance consisting of large molecules that attract and hold water.
How are molecules in colloids distributed?uniformly
Do colloids settle?not usually
What is an example of a colloid?the protoplasm inside of cells
What is a suspension?they are composed of large particles that float in a liquid.
can a suspension be physically separated by centrifugation?yes
Give an example of a suspension?red blood cells in plasma
what does NaCl stand for?sodium chloride
what is the normal body cellular tonicity of sodium chloride?0.9%
what is tonicity?how much osmotic pressure is exerted by a solution
what is hypertonic?high tonicity >0.9% NaCl
what is hypotonic?low tonicity <0.9% NaCl
what is it called when two solutions have the same or similar tonicity? Also, when a solution has an osmotic pressure equal to the average intercellular pressure of the body?isotonic = 0.9%NaCl
how does a hypertonic solution affect the cells?it draws water out of the cells in order to reach equilibrium of pressures
how does a hypotonic solution affect the cells?it adds water to the cells in order to reach equilibrium of pressures
what is the force produced by solvent particles under certain conditions?osmotic pressure
what does osmotic pressure do?it redistributes solvent molecules so that the same concentration exists on both sides of a semipermeable membrane.
what allows passage of solutes but not solvents?semipermeable membrane
positive ions that migrate to the negative pole of an electrode in an electrolyte solution?cations
negative ions that migrate to the positive pole of an electrode in an electrolyte solution?anions
what is the common expression of the minute values for most chemicals in the body?mEq milligram equivalent weights
what is equivalent weight?amounts of substances that have equal combining power
V1C1 + V2C2dilution equation
Dilute 10 ml of a 2% solution to a concentration of 0.5%?10 * 0.02 / 0.005 = 40 ml
what kind of compound can donate H+ or accept an electron pair in an aqueous solution?acid
what kind of acid donates H+?Bronsted-Lowry acid
what kind of acid accepts an electron pair?Lewis acid
what is the relationship between Hydrogen ions and protons?they are the same thing
what is a compound that yields hydroxyl (OH) ions when placed in an aqueous solution?base
what is a substance that can inactivate an acid??base
what is another name for a base compound that inactivates an acid?hydroxide
what do hydroxide ions chemically bind to?metal or ammonium (OH)
What is the Bronsted-Lowry definition of a base?any compound that accepts a proton
what is it called when a base is paired with an acid that donates the proton?a conjugate pair
what does the pH scale describe?the concentration of H+ in a solution.
how is pH expressed?-log[H+]
Why is pH expressed as -log[H+]?because the actual numbers are extremely small
What is log?logorithm counts in 10’s and increases exponentially; 1=10, 2=100, 3=1000, 4=10000
is pH represented as a positive or a negative number?positive
how do you calculate pH?convert the value for H+ to a negative exponent of 10 and calculate its logarithm; 1 x 10 to the negative 7
what is the pH of water?7
what is the pH of the body?7.40 with a range of 7.35-7.45
what is the pH scale?a scale of pH ranging for 1-14 with 7 in the middle representing water, decrease in number becomes more acidic the more it moves to the left, increase in number means more alkaline the more it moves to the right
what does a pH of 3 represent?acicid
what does a pH of 12 represent?alkaline (basic)
a pH change of 0.3 yields what change in H+?2 fold
a pH change of 1 unit yields what change in H+?10 fold
What is the major component of the body?water
what percentage of the body is water?45%-80%
what is a valence?the number of electrons that need to be added or removed to make a substance electrically neutral
what effect does increase CO2 have on pH?decreased pH, acidic
what effect does decrease CO2 have on pH?increased pH, alkaline
what is the fluid between cells but outside of vascular spaces?interstitial fluid
what does interstitial fluid do?provides structural support during times of cellular volume depletion
what are the predominant extracellular electrolytes?Sodium (Na+), chloride (Cl-), and bicarbonate (HCO3-)
what are the predominant intracellular electrolytes?potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg++), phosphate (PO43-), and sulfate (SO42-)
What causes the high osmotic pressure of plasma?protein, chiefly albumin
what is an important determinant of fluid distribution between vascular and interstitial compartments?osmotic pressure
intravascular and interstitial fluids have ____ electrolyte compositions?similar
_____ and _____ are examples of insensible water loss.skin and lungs
what is the average daily volume loss of water from the lungs?200 ml
what is the average daily volume loss of water from the skin?700 ml
____ and ____ are examples of sensible water loss.urinary and GI tract
what causes an almost immediate shift of the body to alkalinity?washing out of the stomachs acid; vomiting
what causes an almost immediate shift of the body to acidity?washing out the GI tracts bases; diarrhea
does ventilation have an effect on water loss?yes
____ and ____ are ways to replenish water.ingestion and metabolism
how does most water get replaced?ingestion 500-600 ml just from solid food
how does metabolism replace water?oxidation of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins; also the destruction of cells
what is the metabolic production of water during starvation?2000 ml/day from 1 kg of fat
what is the metabolic production of water during recovery after surgery or trauma?1 L/day from 500 mg of protein and 500 mg of fat
what is the average amount of liquid consumed each day by an adult?1500-2000 ml
what is the pressure caused by the weight of a fluid called?hydrostatic pressure
hydrostatic pressure can also be defined as…the volume of fluid in a container and the effects of gravity
what is the importance of hydrostatic pressure?it enhances the movement of fluid and solutes between capillary blood to interstitial fluid
what causes an increase in hydrostatic pressure?backpressure from failing left ventricle; congestive heart failure
how does an increase in hydrostatic pressure effect the pulmonary circuit?it disrupts the balance, causing fluid to move into the alveolar-capillary spaces; pulmonary edema
what is the normal value of sodium (Na+)? value range?140 mEq/L 135-145 mEg/L
what is the normal value for chloride (Cl-)? value range?90 mEq/L 80-100 mEq/L
what is the normal value of potassium (K+)? value range?4 mEq/L 3.5-4.5 mEq/L
what is the normal value for bicarbonate (HCO3-)? value range?24 mEq/L 22-26 mEq/L
what is a low level of sodium called?hyponatremia
what is hypernatremia?high level of sodium
what is hypochloremia?low level of chloride
what is a high level of chloride called?hyperchloremia
what is hypokalemia?low level of potassium
what is a high level of potassium called?hyperkalemia
what is the most prominent anion in the body?chloride 2/3 extracellular 1/3 intracellular
what is the second most prominent anion in the body?bicarbonate HCO3- 50% intracellular 50% extracellular
what is the bodies major circulating cation?sodium 50% extracellular 10% intracellular 40% bone
what is the main cation of the intracellular compartment?potassium 98% intracellular 2% extracellular
what is the ratio of bicarbonate (HCO3-) to carbonic acid in a healthy individual?20:1, resulting in 7.40 pH
bicarbonate (HCO3-) is the primary means of transporting what?CO2 from the tissues to the lungs
hyperkalemia is a common result of what? how is it treated?renal insufficiency restriction of potassium (K+) intake
what regulates HCO3- levels to maintain a near normal pH in an acid-base disorder?the kidneys
what do the kidneys do in respiratory acidosis?retain or produce HCO3-_to buffer against the additional acid caused byCO2 retention
the retention/ excretion relationship between HCO3- and Cl- concentrations?reciprocal HCO3- retention = Cl- excretion and vice versa
What is reabsorption?Reabsorption is the active or passive transport of filtrate substances back into the tubule cell and then into the blood of nearby capillaries -Egan, Chapter 12, page 277
Define the law of electroneutrality.States that the total number of positive charges must equal the total number of negative charges in the body fluids -Egan, Chapter 12, page 288
What occurs when any physiological process lowers PaCO2 less than 35 mmHg and raises pH more than 7.45?Respiratory Alkalosis -Egan, Chapter 12, page 286
What occurs when any physiological process raises PaCO2 more than 45mmHg and lowers pH less than 7.35?Respiratory Acidosis -Egan, Chapter 12, page 284
What type of breathing pattern is exhibited by patients with severe diabetic ketoacidosis?Kussmaul’s respiration -Egan, Chapter 12, page 290
Name three renal causes of metabolic alkalosisDiuretics, Hyperkalemia, Hypervolemia, Hyperchloremia. -Egan, Chapter 12, page 291, Box 12-6
In normal lungs, name 3 causes of respiratory acidosis.Anesthesia, Sedative drugs, Narcotic analgesia -Egan, Chapter 12, page 285
How can hyperventilation and respiratory alkalosis be iatrogenically induced?The hyperventilation can be caused by overly aggressive mechanical ventilation as well as deep breathing and lung expansion procedures. -Egan, Chapter 12, page 286
Define partly compensated respiratory alkalosis.Low PaCO2, low HCO3-, and alkalotic pH not in the normal range. -Egan, Chapter 12, page 287.
Define fully compensated respiratory acidosis.High PaCO2, high HCO3-, pH on the acidic side of normal pH. -Egan, Chapter 12, page 285.
True or False. A patient with pneumonia or pulmonary edema can be hyperventilating.True. These two processes can expel CO2 faster than it is produced. -Egan, Chapter 12, page 286.
What is the blood buffer base?The blood buffer base is the sum of bicarbonate and nonbicarbonate bases in the mmol/L of blood. -Egan, Chapter 12, page 273
What is the difference between an open buffer system and a closed buffer system?In an open buffer system, some of the solutes are removed from the body, while in a closed system, they are kept and used within the system of reactions. -Egan, Chapter 12, page 273
What are the differences between excretion and secretion?Excretion is the elimination of substances from the body in the urine. Secretion is the process by which renal tubule cells actively transport substances into the filtrate. -Egan, Chapter 12, page 277.
Name the two primary acid-excreting organs.Lungs and kidneys. -Egan, Chapter 12, page 277
How does the Henderson-Hasselbach equation determine [H+]?The H-H equation determines hydrogen ion concentration by computing the ratio between undisassociated acid molecules [H2CO3] and base ions [HCO3-]. -Egan, Chapter 12, page 275
What are the normal arterial PCO2 and arterial bicarbonate concentration values?PaCO2 = 40 mmHg and HCO3- = 24 mEq/L -Egan, Chapter 12, page 281
How is base excess determined?Determined by equilibrating a blood sample in the laboratory to a PCO2 of 40 mmHg at standard body temperature Celsius and recording the amount of acid or base needed to titrate 1L of blood to a pH of 7.40. -Egan, Chapter 12, page 294.
What is a combined acid-base disturbance?A disturbance where they are both respiratory and metabolically related. -Egan, Chapter 12, page 294.
What corrective measures are used in correcting hypokalemia?Potassium chloride (KCl), dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl), or ammonium chloride (NH3Cl) may be infused directly into a large central vein. -Egan, Chapter 12, page 293

Egan’s Chapter 12 Practice Questions:

1. 20:1: The ratio of bicarbonate to carbonic acid in healthy individuals

2. Anion: Negative ion

3. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH): Also known as vasopressin, the hormone that regulates water secretion

4. Cation: Positively charged ion

5. Chloride: The most prominent anion in the body

6. Colloid: Substance that contains large molecules that attract and hold water; also called a dispersion or a gel

7. Concentration: Refers to the amount of solute dissolved into a solvent

8. Dilute solution: A solution that contains a small amount of solute in relation to solvent

9. Equivalent weight: Weight of an element in any given unit that displaces a unit weight of hydrogen from a compound or combines with or replaces a unit weight of hydrogen

10. Hydrophilic: A term that means “water-loving”

11. Hypothalamus: Water excretion is regulated by osmoreceptors in which part of the brain?

12. Interstitial fluid: Fluid between cells but outside of the vascular spaces

13. Ionic: Relating to or containing matter in the form of charged atoms or groups of atoms

14. Isotonic: Having the same concentration of solute as another solution and exerting the same amount of osmotic pressure as that solution

15. Oncotic pressure: Osmotic pressure exerted by the colloid suspended in the blood

16.Osmolarity: Ratio of solute to solvent

17. Osmotic pressure (oncotic pressure): Force produced by solvent particles across semipermeable membranes

18. Protein (albumin): What accounts for the high osmotic pressure of plasma?

19. Saturated solution: Solution in which the solvent contains the maximum amount of solute it can take up

20. Sodium: Major circulating cation within the body

21. Solubility: The ease with which a solute dissolves in a solvent

22. Solute: The substance that dissolves in a solution

23. Solution: Mixture of one or more substances dissolved in another substance

24. Solvent: Any liquid in which another substance can be dissolved

25. Starling: Who was the 19th century British physiologist who studied fluid transport across membranes, explaining that filtration across the wall of the capillary depends on hydrostatic and oncotic pressure gradients

26. Supersaturated: When a solvent contains more solute than a saturated solution at the same temperature and pressure

27. Suspension: Dispersion of large particles suspended in a fluid medium; without physical agitation, the particles eventually settle out

28.Tonicity: How much osmotic pressure is exerted by a solution

29. Valence: The number of electrons that need to be added or removed to make the substance electrically neutral

30. Water constitutes ___% to ___% of an individual’s body mass: 45%-80%

31. What is the dilution equation?: V1C1=V2C2

32. What is the PH of water?: 7

Egan’s Chapter 12 Test Bank:

1. Acid-base balance depends on the..: concentration and activity of electrolytic solutes in the body

2. The added solvent is called..: the diluent because it dilutes the original concentration to a lower concentration

3. Ammonia and carbonates are examples of: nonhydroxide base

4. The amount of solute in a solution can be quantified in two ways:: (1) by actual weight (grams or milligrams) and (2) by chemical combining power. The weight of a solute is easy to measure and specify. However, it does not indicate chemical combining power. The sodium ion (Na+) has a gram ionic weight of 23. The bicarbonate ion (HCO3−) has a gram ionic weight of 61. Because the gram atomic weight of every substance has 6.023 × 1023 particles, these ions have the same chemical combining power in solution. The number of chemically reactive units is usually more meaningful than their weight.

5. A base: is a compound that yields hydroxyl ions (OH−) when placed into aqueous solution. A substance capable of inactivating acids is also considered a base

6. Brönsted-Lowry: definition of a base is any compound that accepts a proton; bases are paired with acids that donate the proton, and these are called conjugate pairs. This definition includes substances other than hydroxides, such as ammonia, carbonates, and certain proteins

7. Calling something a dilute solution is: an example of a qualitative description. Stating that a specific container holds 50 ml of 0.4 molar solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is a quantitative description

8. definition of a base is: any compound that accepts a proton; bases are paired with acids that donate the proton, and these are called conjugate pairs. This definition includes substances other than hydroxides, such as ammonia, carbonates, and certain proteins

9. The degree of ionization increases..: as an electrolyte solution becomes more dilute. Concentrated sulfuric acid ionizes only one of its two hydrogen atoms per molecule, as follows: H2SO4→H++HSO4

10. dilution equation: V1C1=V2C2

11. Dilute solutions are made from..: a stock preparation. Preparation of medications often involves dilution. Dilution calculations are based on the weight-per-unit volume principle (the aforementioned W/V solution method)

12. A gEq of a substance is calculated as its gram molecular (formula) weight divided by its valence. Valence refers to the number of electrons that need to be added or removed to make the substance electrically neutral. The valence signs (+ or −) are disregarded. gEq=Gram molecular weightValence: The gEq of sodium (Na+), with a valence of 1, equals its gram atomic weight of 23 g. The gEq of calcium (Ca++) is its atomic weight (i.e., 40) divided by 2, or 20 g. The gEq of ferric iron (Fe+++) is its atomic weight (i.e., 55.8) divided by 3, or approximately 18.6 g. For radicals such as sulfate (SO42−), the formula for sulfuric acid (H2SO4) shows that one sulfate group combines with two atoms of hydrogen. Half (0.5) of a mole of sulfate is equivalent to 1 mole of hydrogen atoms. The gEq of SO42− is half its gram formula weight, or 48 g. If an element has more than one valence, the valence must be specified or must be apparent from the observed chemical combining properties.

13. In electrochemical terms, there are three basic types of physiologic solutions: epending on the solute, solutions are ionic (electrovalent), polar covalent, or nonpolar covalent (Table 12-1). In ionic and polar covalent solutions, some of the solute ionizes into separate particles known as ions. A solution in which this dissociation occurs is called an electrolyte solution (Figure 12-3). If an electrode is placed in such a solution, positive ions migrate to the negative pole of the electrode. These ions are called cations. Negative ions migrate to the positive pole of the electrode; they are called anions. In nonpolar covalent solutions, molecules of solute remain intact and do not carry electrical charges; these solutions are referred to as nonelectrolytes. These nonelectrolytes are not attracted to either the positive or the negative pole of an electrode (hence the designation nonpolar). All three types of solutions coexist in the body. These solutions also serve as the media in which colloids and simple suspensions are dispersed. Gases such as O2 and CO2 are nonpolar molecules (along with N2) and do not dissolve very well in water, which is a polar solvent.

14. In medicine, it is customary to refer to physiologic substances in terms of chemical combining power. The measure commonly used is: equivalent weight. Equivalent weights are amounts of substances that have equal chemical combining power. For example, if chemical A reacts with chemical B, by definition, 1 equivalent weight of A reacts with exactly 1 equivalent weight of B. No excess reactants of A or B remain.

Two magnitudes of equivalent weights are used to calculate chemical combining power: gram equivalent weight (gEq) and milligram equivalent weight, or milliequivalent (mEq). One milliequivalent (1 mEq) is of 1 gEq.

15. Jv=Lp [Pc−Pi−s (pc−pi)]: Where: Jv = Fluid filtration flux across the capillary wall per unit area. Lp = Permeability of the capillary wall. s = Oncotic reflection coefficient. Pc, Pi, pc, pi = Global values for the hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressures in the capillary and interstitial compartments.

16. Molal solution: A molal solution contains 1 mole of solute per kilogram of solvent, or 1 mmol/g solvent. The concentration of a molal solution is independent of temperature

17. A normal solution: has 1 gEq of solute per liter of solution, or 1 mEq/ml of solution

18. Osmolality: is defined as the ratio of solute to solvent. In physiology, the solvent is water.1,5,7 Osmotic pressure depends on the number of particles in solution but not on their charge or identity. A 2% solution has twice the osmotic pressure of a 1% solution under similar pressures. For a given amount of solute, osmotic pressure is inversely proportional to the volume of solvent. Most cell walls are semipermeable membranes. Through osmotic pressure, water is distributed throughout the body within certain physiologic ranges. Tonicity describes how much osmotic pressure is exerted by a solution. Average body cellular fluid has a tonicity equal to a 0.9% solution of sodium chloride (NaCl; sometimes referred to as physiologic saline).

19. osmotic pressure.: The force driving solvent molecules through the membrane is called osmotic pressure. Osmotic pressure tries to redistribute solvent molecules so that the same concentration exists on both sides of the membrane. Osmotic pressure may be measured by connecting a manometer to the expanding column of the solution

20. Osmotic pressure (oncotic pressure): is the force produced by solvent particles under certain conditions. A membrane that permits passage of solvent molecules but not solute is called a semipermeable membrane. If such a membrane divides a solution into two compartments, molecules of solvent can pass through it from one side to the other (Figure 12-2, A). The number of solvent molecules passing (or diffusing) in one direction must equal the number of solute molecules passing in the opposite direction. An equal ratio of solute to solvent particles (i.e., the concentration of the solution) is maintained on both sides of the membrane. A capillary wall is an example of a semipermeable membrane

21. Percent solution: A percent solution is weight of solute per weight of solution. For example, 5 g of glucose dissolved in 95 g of water is a true percent solution. The glucose is 5% of the total solution weight of 100 g

22. Ratio solution: The amount of solute to solvent is expressed as a proportion (e.g., 1:100). Ratio solutions are sometimes used in describing concentrations of drugs

23. Saturated solutions: occur when the solvent has dissociated the maximal amount of solute into itself. Additional solute added to a saturated solution does not dissociate into solution but remains at the bottom of the container (see Figure 12-1, B). Solute particles precipitate into the solid state at the same rate at which other particles go into solution. This equilibrium characterizes a saturated solution.

24. second-stage ionization occurs:: H2SO4→H++H++SO4

25. A solution is characterized as being supersaturated when: e solvent contains more solute than a saturated solution at the same temperature and pressure. If a saturated solution is heated, the solute equilibrium is upset, and more solute goes into solution.

26. Solutions with more tonicity are hypertonic, and solutions with less tonicity are hypotonic: Most cells reside in a hypotonic environment in which the concentration of water (solute) is lower inside the cell than in the surroundings. Water flows into the cell causing it to expand until the cell membrane restricts further expansion. Pressure increases inside the cell to counteract osmotic pressure. This pressure is called turgor, and it is what prevents more water from entering the cell. The equilibrium that develops allows the cell to maintain a gradient across the cell membrane. Some cells have selective permeability, allowing passage not only of water but also of specific solutes. Through these mechanisms, nutrients and physiologic solutions are distributed throughout the body.

27. Solutions with similar tonicity are called: isotonic

28. Starling was a: nineteenth-century British physiologist who studied fluid transport across membranes. His hypothesis states that the fluid movement secondary to filtration across the wall of a capillary depends on both the hydrostatic and the oncotic pressure gradients across the capillary.2 The driving force for fluid filtration across the wall of the capillary is determined by four separate pressures: hydraulic (hydrostatic) and colloid osmotic pressure both within the vessel and in the tissue space

29. The term acid refers to..: either compounds that can donate [H+] (Brönsted-Lowry acid) or any compound that accepts an electron pair (Lewis acid)

30. The term concentration refers to: the amount of solute dissolved into the solvent. Concentration can be described either qualitatively or quantitatively

31. Weight-per-volume solution (W/V): The W/V solution is commonly used for solids dissolved in liquids. It is defined as weight of solute per volume of solution. This method is sometimes erroneously described as a percent solution. W/V solutions are commonly expressed in grams of solute per 100 ml of solution. For example, 5 g of glucose dissolved in 100 ml of solution is properly called a 5% solution, according to the W/V scheme. A liquid dissolved in a liquid is measured as volumes of solute to volumes of solution