Question Answer
Clinical biochemistry Analysis of blood, urine and bodily fluids
hematology Analyzes cellular components of blood
microbiology Analysis of blood and other bodily fluids for the presence of infectious agents
immunology Focuses on autoimmune and immune deficiency diseases
Anatomic pathology Analysis of tissue for diagnosing disease
Complete blood count (CBC) Counts and examines – leukocytes, erythrocytes, thrombocytes
neutrophils Increased with a bacterial infection
lymphocytes Increased with viral and other infections reduced with immunodeficiency problems
eosinophil’s Increased with allergic reactions and parasitic infections
basophils Increased with allergic reactions
monocytes Increased with the invasion of foreign bodies
WBC count above normal leukocytosis
WBC count below normal leukopenia
Normal range for neutrophils 40-75 %
Normal range for eosinophils 0-6%
Normal range for basophils 0-1%
Normal range for monocytes 2-10%
Normal range for lymphocytes 20-45%
Bands Immature neutrophils
Segs segmented neutrophils Mature neutrophils
anemia Reduced red blood cells
polycythemia Abnormal elevation of RBCs
Normal range for hemoglobin 12-17 g/dl
What is an electrolyte A charged ion that influences the functions of certain enzymes
List a few electrolytes Sodium, potassium, chloride, glucose
renal mediated waste products creatine and blood urea nitrogen BUN
Normal range for creatine 1.5
Normal range for BUN 20-25
anion gap normal range 8-14 mmol/l
An ion gap Determines if decrease in HCO3 is caused by disruption of normal an ion balance or presence of abnormal acid anion
What is lactate End product of anaerobic glucose metabolism, overproduction or insufficient metabolism results in lactate acidosis
Pancreatic enzymes lipase and amylase
Symptoms of ischemic damage to the heart, brain and muscle tissue Elevated creatine phosphokinase (CPK)
thromobocytopenia Low platelets
thrombocytosis Excessive platelets
How is coagulation tested prothrombin time (PT), Partial thromboplastin time ( PTT) and (INR) international standardized ratio, D-dimer
What is a D- DIMER Found in blood when fibrin clots are dissolving, helps diagnose the presence of deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism
What kind of drug break up clots kinase drugs
Sweat chloride test Used in cystic fibrosis 40-60 mmol/l is borderline must be used with other tests to confirm diagnosis
What test is done to determine TB Acid fast test
1. an abnormally low serum K+ level is known as hypokalemia
2. albumin 3.5 – 5.0
3. an anion gap greater than what is consistent with the presence of metabolic acidosis >16
4. bands 0% – 6%
absolute value of 0-600
5. basophile 0%-1%
absolute value of 0-100
6. blood urea nitrogen 7-20
7. chloride normal 98-105
8. creatine kinase (CK) also known as creatine phosphokinase CPK
9. creatinine 0.7-1.3
10. Damage to these tissues can increase the serum Alkaline Phosphatase bones, kidneys, spleen, and intestine
(BoKSI)
11. dehydration causes hematocrit to increase
12. each healthy RBC contains how many million molecules of hemoglobin 200-300 million
13. elevation of the absolute value of neutrophils is known as neutrophilia
14. elevation of the serum Na+ is known as hypernatremia
15. eosinophils 0% – 6 %
absolute value of o-600
16. formerly known as SGOT ( serum glutamicoxaloacetic transaminase ) Aspartate Aminotransferase AST
17. formerly known as SGPT Alanine Aminotransferase ALT
18. glucose 70-105
19. hematocrit men 40% – 54%
20. hematocrit women 38% – 47%
21. hemoglobin men 13.5 -16.5 g/dl
22. hemoglobin women 12 – 15 g/dl
23. hepatits, renal disease, shock, MI, trauma, widespread carcinoma, megaloblastic anemia elevated L-lactate dehydrogenase
24. high concentrations of this enzyme are found in patients with liver disease, such as hepatitis, or during the second day after an MI Aspartate Aminotransferase AST
25. hypokalemia occurs when K+-containing fluids are lost in excessive amounts, such as vomiting
diarrhea
administration of diuretics
26. immature neutrophils are known as what due to the banded shape of the nucleus? Bands
27. increased with allergic reactions basophils
28. increased with allergic reactions and parasitic infections eosinophils
29. increased with bacterial infection and trauma, reduced with bone marrow disease neutrophils
30. increased with invasion of foreign material monocytes
31. increased with viral and other infections: reduced with immunodeficiency problems lymphocytes
32. leukocytosis results from any number of problems, such as? stress
infection
trauma
33. a liver enzyme that increases with liver diseases such as hepatits Alanine Aminotransferase ALT
34. L lactate dehydrogenase occurs in high concentrations in what organs heart liver skeletal muscle brain kidney RBC
HLS BKR
35. a low sodium level is referred to as hyponatremia
36. lymphocytes 20% -45%
absolute value of 900-4500
37. Mature neutrophils are known as what? due to there segmented shape of their nucleus Segs
38. may occur with diuretic therapy, diarrhea, or certain kidney problems hyponatremia
39. monocytes 2%-10%
absolute value of 90-1000
40. the most common electrolytes reported in the chemistry panel are sodium
potassium
chloride
total carbon dioxide
41. the most common tests performed to evaluate kidney function are blood urea nitrogen
creatinine
42. the normal anion gap is 8 -16 mEq/L
43. occurs in the brain, skeletal muscles, and heart creatine kinase ( CK)
44. occurs with a variety of ailments, such as renal disease, and tissue trauma, which causes a release of intracellular K+ into the plasma hyperkalemia
45. occurs with prolonged vomiting, resulting in the loss of HCL, chronic respiratory acidosis, certain renal diseases hypochloremia
46. occurs with renal diseases and excessive water loss hypernatremia
47. overhydration causes hematocrit to decrease
48. patients with an inadequate hemoglobin concentration will have RBC that are smaller than normal (____) and lack normal color (_____). microcytic
hypochromic
49. patinets with bone marrow disease may have a marked elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase ALP
50. platelet count 150,000- 400.000
51. platelets are also known as thrombocytes
52. potassium normal 3.5-4.8
53. the ratio of RBC volume to that of whole blood is known as the? hematocrit level
54. red blood cell count for men 4.6 – 6.2 X 10^ 6
55. red blood cell count for women 4.2 – 5.4 X 10^ 6
56. renal disease often leads to an abnormal elevation of blood urea above what level > 20 mg/dl
57. secondary polycythemia refers to bone marrow that is stimulated to produce extra RBC in response to chronically low blood oxygen levels
58. seen in the elderly patients with severe pneumonia that is overwhelming the immune system leukopenia
59. segmented neutrophile 40% – 75%
absolute value of 1800 7500
60. severe hyponatremia may develop confusion
decreased mental alertness
muscle twitching
possible seizures
61. a significant reduction in the platelet count known as thrombocytopenia occurs with bone marrow disease
disseminated intravascular coagulation
62. the smallest formed elements in the blood and are important for coagulatoin platelets ( thrombocytes )
63. sodium 137-147
64. a waste product of metabolism that is excreted by healthy kidneys urea
65. a waste product that is formed by muscle metabolism and filtered out of the body by the kidneys creatinine
66. white blood cell count 4,500 – 11,500

 

Egan’s Chapter 16 Practice Questions:

 

1. abnormally elevated RBC is known as? and caused by: polycythemia, bone marrow is stimulated to produce extra RBC’s in response to chronically low blood oxygen levels.

2. an abnormally low RBC count is referred to as: anemia

3. Acid Fast test: a rapid test for such disease as TB

4. anatomic pathology: analysis of tissue for diagnosing diseases



5. anemia suggests and related causes: RBC production by the bone marrow is inadequate or excessive blood loss, also seen in dietary deficiencies, chronic inflammatory disease, HIV, lymphoma, autoimmune diseases

6. anion gap: a quick method for determining whether a decrease in HCO -3 caused by disruption of normal balance,8-14 meq/L

7. an anion gap of greater than ____ is consistent with presence of metabolic acidosis: 16

8. Basic Chemistry Panel (BCP) or basic metabolic panel: predominate electrolytes sodium, potassium, chloride and total carbon dioxide/bicarbonate, glucose, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen

9. clinical biochemistry: the analysis of blood, and other bodily fluid

10. clinical microbiology: analyzes blood and bodily fluids for the presence of infectious agents, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites

11.coagulation disorders: RT need to keep in mind that low platelet count, elevated PT and INT need longer compression, often only do suctioning and blood draws when essential

12. coagulation studies: the process by which the blood ans vascular system form clots to stop bleeding and repair damage to the injured blood vessels

13. CPK-1 (CPK-BB): released from the lungs or brain after injury

14. CPK-2 (CPK-MB): cardiac injury, released after MI, peak levels 12-24 hours after injury

15. CPK-3 (CPK-MM): crush injuries involving skeletal muscle or myositis`

16. creatine phosphokinase (CPK): elevated values show ischemic damage to tissues

17. D-Dimer: small protein fragment found in blood when fibrin clots are dissolving, help Dx the presence of deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism or disseminated intravascular coagulation

18. electrolyte disorders can affect: respiratory muscle function

19. Elevation of the WBC count is usually caused by an increase in either neutrophils and lymphocytes in response to?: an infection

20. Glucose is made from the: breakdown of carbohydrates

21. Hematocrit level is the ration of what: RBC volume: whole blood

22. hematocrit levels are reflective of: hydration status of the patient, dehydration causes increase and over-hydration causes increase

23. hematology: analyzes cellular components of blood

24. hyperglycemia is: elevation of blood glucose, most often the result of diabetes

25. hyperkalemia: high potassium

26. hypernatremia is a major cause of: CNS depression can lead to lethargy coma, respiratory depression

27. hypoglycemia: abnormally low blood serum glucose, causes include drug-induced, digestive problems, inadequate dietary intake of carbs, over treatment of diabetes

28. hyprkalemia: low potassium,
severe can cause cardiac arrhythmia

29. immunology: analyses of the immune system, autoimmune and immunodeficiency

30. Infection monitoring: procalcitonin, an, inactive protein of the hormone calcitonin that is released in response to bacterial infections

31. in patient with septic shock a serum lactate level greater than ____meq/L is associated with higher mortality: 4

32. insulin comes from the: pancreas

33. lactate is the: end product of anaerobic glucose metabolism

34. lactic acidosis results from: overproduction of of insufficient metabolism of lactate

35. a legitimate sputum sample has few: epithelial cells

36. a legitimate sputum sample has few epithelial cells and many: pus cells, leukocytes

37. Liver function tests assess: liver damage by abnormal increases in the hepatic enzymes

38. normal cellular function depends on homeostasis of: fluids, electrolytes, and acid base balance

39. normal hemoglobin levels: Male:13.3-17.7 g/dL, female: 11.7-15.7 g/dL, text says: 12-17g/dL

40. partial thromboplastin time: assesses the intrinsic coagulation time

41. the primary electrolyte disorders causing respiratory muscle weakness include: Calcium, magnesium, and phosphate

42. prothrombin time: measurement of coagulation time, measured in seconds, the time required from plasma to form a fibrin clot

43. reduced hemoglobin causes: reduced oxygen carrying capacity

44. reference range: *whether a specific test result falls within an expected range of values considered to be “normal”, *set boundaries, where we would like to see the values, * also refered to as biologic reference intervals and expected values

45. Secondary polycythemia is often seen in what type of patients: chronic lung disease, those how experience chronic hypoxia, live at high altitudes

46. severe hypocalcemia can lead to: laryngeal strider and dyspnea

47. Severe infection causes the bone marrow to release stores of any available, what?: neutrophils both bands and segs enter the circulating blood volume

48. Sputum Gram Stain: ***useful in determining the quality of the sputum sample, *analysis of sputum sample when an infection in the lings or airways are suspected, * shows specific microorganism

49. Sweat Chloride: used to evaluate CF patients, above 60 mmol/L is positive, 40-60 is borderline

50. This is when the results are significantly outside the reference range and represents a pathophysiologic condition, this can be potentially life-threatening: critical test value

51. This rest provides a detailed description of the number of circulating white blood cells, red blood cells, platelets: Complete Blood Count (CBC)

52. thrombocytopenia: low platelets, excessive bleeding

53. thromboytosis: abnormal platelet functioning, excessive clotting

54. to minimize risk of bleeding what procedures must a respiratoy therapist use caution while preforming: arterial punctures and nasotracheal suctioning

55. total bilirubin is produced by the liver from the breakdown of: destroyed RBC

56. Trigger point for blood transfusion is based on the measurement of what rather than RBC count?: hemoglobin and hematocrit

57. Tropinin: a complex protein that plays an important role in the regulation of skeletal and cardiac muscle contractility

58. Tropinin I: associated with cardiac muscle damage, levels peak 12-16 hours after MI

59. *troponin I and CPK-MM tests are used to help diagnosis: MI

60. two things to keep in mind about interpreting blood tests: *it is a one time snapshot of a process that is always in flux, *intravascular blood compartment is remote from the intracellular environment, only give an indirect view of what may be going on in the cells of the body

61. What are the 5 types of WBC that are reported in the WBC-differential?: Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Eosinophils, Basophils, Monocytes

62. what are the causes of leukocytosis: stress, trauma, infection

63.*what are the formed elements of the blood: WBC-leukocytes, RBC-erythocytes, Patelets-thrombocytes

64. What are the major disciplines that are study in reference to patient tissue and fluids: clinical biochemistry, hematology, clinical microbiology, immunology, anatomic pathology

65. What are the most circulating WBC in the blood: neutrophils and lymphocytes

66. What is abnormally low WBC: leukopenia

67. What is a White Blood Count Differential: determines the exact number of each type of WBC circulating in the blood

68. what is elevated WBC: leukocytosis

69. what is homeostasis?: the ability of complex organisms to maintain a dynamic balance of equilibrium in their internal environment by making constant adjustments

70. what is the cause of leukopenia: *immune system overwhelmed by infection, *bone marrow diseases, leukemia, lymphoma, *influenza, *systemic lupus erythematosus, *TB, *AIDS, *radiation therapy, **patient at risk for serious infection

71. What is the reference range for platelets, thrombocytes: 150-400

72. What is the reference range for Red Blood Cell (RBC) erythrocyte: men: 4.4-5.9
women: 3.8-5.2

73. What is the reference range for White Blood Cell (WBC) leukocyte: 3.9-11.7

74. What is the threshold for a blood transfusion?: hematocrit of 21%, hemoglobin of 7.0g/dL

75. When bacterial pneumonia is present, the severity of the infection can be assessed by elevation of the: degree of increase in neutrophils

76. when bands and segs are elevated in the CBC, the patient is experiencing what?: a more severe bacterial infection

77.when is a sputum culture prepared: when a Gram Stain reveals that it is an adequate sample, enough leukocytes

 

Egan’s Chapter 16 Test Bank:

 

1. anatomic pathology: analysis of tissue for diagnosing diseases

2. anemia: abnormally low red blood cell count

3. bands: immature neutrophils

4. basic chemistry panel (BCP): includes predominant electrolytes sodium ion, potassium ion, chloride ion, and total co2/bicarbonate and glucose

5. clinical biochemistry: analysis of blood, urine, and other bodily fluids primarily for electrolytes and proteins

6. clinical microbiology: analysis of blood and other bodily fluids for the presence of infectious agents



7. complete bllod count (CBC): determination of the number of red and white blood cells per cubic millimeter of blood

8. critical test value: result significantly outside the reference range and represents a pathophysiologic condition

9. erythrocytes: red blood cells

10. hematology: analyzes cellular components of blood

11. homeostasis: ability of complex organisms to maintain a dynamic equilibrium in their internal environments b maling constant adjustments

12. hyperchloremia: high chloride ion levels

13. hyperglycemia: high blood glucose level

14. hyperkalemia: high potassium ion levels

15. hypernatremia: high sodium ion levels

16. hypochloremia: low chloride ion levels

17. hypoglycemia: low blood glucose level

18. hypokalemia: low potassium ion levels

19. hyponatremia: low sodium ion levels

20. immunology: analysis of the immune system focusing on autoimmune and immunodeficiency diseases

21. leukocytes: white blood cells

22. leukocytosis: elevation of the white blood cell count

23. leukopenia: low white blood cell count

24. neutropenia: reduced number of circulating neutrophils

25. neutrophilia: elevation of the absolute value of neutrophils

26. polycythemia: elevated red blood cell count

27. reference range: set of boundaries for any analyte that would likely be encountered in healthy subjects

28. segs: mature neutrophils

29. thrombocytes: platelets

30. thrombocytopenia: low platelets

31. Abnormal levels of lactate: can be found in diverse conditions such as diabetes mellitus; malignancies

32. An abnormally low RBC count: is referred to as anemia and suggests that either RBC production by the bone marrow is inadequate or excessive blood loss has occurred

33. The analysis of blood and other bodily fluids: includes the subspecialties of identifying bacteria (bacteriology), viruses (virology), fungi (mycology), and parasites (parasitology). A closely related discipline involves the analysis of the immune system (immunology) focusing on autoimmune and immunodeficiency diseases. Finally, the analysis of tissue for diagnosing diseases is the purview of the anatomic pathology service

34. The anion gap: provides a quick method for determining whether a decrease in HCO3− is caused by a disruption of normal anion balance or the presence of an abnormal acid anion

35. An anion gap greater than 16: is consistent with the presence of metabolic acidosis

36. anion gap is calculated by: adding the CO2 and Cl− values and then subtracting this total from the serum Na

37. The basic chemistry panel (BCP) or basic metabolic panel includes: the predominant electrolytes sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl−), and total carbon dioxide/bicarbonate (CO2) and glucose

38. Blood lactate concentration: is dependent on the production of lactate in muscle cells and erythrocytes and the rate of metabolism by the liver

39. blood samples provide a one-time: “snapshot” of processes that are constantly in flux.

40. The breakdown of carbohydrates results in..: the production of serum glucose, which is metabolized by the cells for energy

41. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP): -is a substance secreted by the heart in response to increased stretch in the cardiac muscle
-The BNP test primarily is used to evaluate patients for heart failure

42. Clinical biochemistry: involves the analysis of blood, urine, and other bodily fluids primarily for electrolytes and proteins; hematology analyzes the cellular components of blood

43. Coagulation: is the process by which the blood and vascular tree form clots to stop bleeding and repair damage to the injured blood vessels

44. complete blood count (CBC): provides a detailed description of the number of circulating white blood cells (WBCs), called leukocytes

45. A critical test value: – is a result significantly outside the reference range and represents a pathophysiologic condition, -may be potentially life-threatening unless corrective action is taken promptly, -communicated by telephone from the clinical laboratory to the general ward or intensive care unit where the patient is situated

46. D-dimer: is a small protein fragment found in the blood when fibrin clots are dissolving

47.Diabetes is diagnosed by measuring..: -fasting blood glucose level, -A blood glucose level greater than 140 mg/dl on two occasions usually indicates diabetes

48. DIC: disseminated intravascular coagulation

49. Electrolytes: – are positively or negatively charged ions that influence the functioning of enzymes, -always must be interpreted within the context of fluid balanc

50. Elevation of the WBC count is usually caused by: an increase in either neutrophils or lymphocytes in response to infection

51. Enzymes: are proteins that regulate all chemical reactions occurring within cells, such as metabolism and protein synthesis

52. gap acidosis: usually coincides with an anion gap of 16 mmol/L or greater

53.Hematocrit: Men-40%-52%
Women-35%-47%

54. The hematocrit level: -is the ratio of RBC volume to whole blood, – It is determined by spinning a blood sample in a centrifuge to separate the blood cells from the plasm

55. Hemoglobin: -is a protein substance with the unique ability to bind with oxygen, -Each healthy RBC contains 200 million to 300 million molecules of hemoglobin, for a hemoglobin level of 12 to 17 g/dl in a healthy adult

56. Hemoglobin: Men-13.3-17.7 g/dl, Women-11.7-15.7 g/dl

57. A high hematocrit reading: is common with polycythem

58. Homeostasis: is the ability of complex organisms to maintain a dynamic balance or equilibrium in their internal environments by making constant adjustments

59. hyperglycemia: -Abnormal elevation of blood glucose , -is most often the result of diabetes

60. Hypoalbuminemia (decreased serum albumin): is a common finding in critically ill patients and significantly reduces the anion gap

61. hypoglycemia: -An abnormally reduced serum glucose level , -may be drug-induced or associated with digestive problems, inadequate dietary intake of carbohydrates, or overtreatment of diabetes with insulin

62. In patients with septic shock: a serum lactate level greater than 4 meq/L is associated with higher mortality

63. Laboratory tests: are employed to determine a patient’s health status and aid medical decisions

64. Lactate: is the end product of anaerobic glucose metabolism

65. Lactate dehydrogenase: is the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate into lactate

66. Lactic acidosis: results from either overproduction of or insufficient metabolism of lactate

67. leukocytosis: Elevation of the WBC count, -It results from numerous problems, including stress, infection, and trauma. The degree of leukocytosis reflects the severity of infection

68. leukopenia (or leukocytopenia): is a WBC count below normal that often occurs when the patient’s immune system is overwhelmed by infection

69. Liver damage: is assessed by abnormal increases in the hepatic enzymes alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatas

70. Liver disease: is characterized by the inability to remove toxins from the bloodstream. One of the primary toxins associated with altered mental function in patients with liver disease is the accumulation of ammonia, which forms in the body from the breakdown of proteins

71. The liver is primarily responsible for: converting food into substrates essential for cellular metabolism, protein synthesis, and detoxifying substances in the body

72. A low hematocrit reading: occurs with anemia

73. Mature neutrophils are known as..: segs because of the segmented shape of their nucleus

74. metabolic acidosis: is caused by either the addition of nonvolatile acids or a primary loss of HCO3

75. A more comprehensive metabolic panel would include..: other important electrolytes, such as magnesium (Mg++), phosphorus (PO4−), and calcium (Ca++)

76. Most bands are located in..: the bone marrow where they continue to mature

77. Most circulating WBCs are either: neutrophils or lymphocyte

78. most common cause of lactic acidosis: is anaerobic metabolism from tissue hypoxia associated with shock

79. The most common CPK enzyme test: is CPK-2 (CPK-MB), which is released from the heart after myocardial infarction

80. Mycobacterium tuberculosis: is a highly communicable disease

81. neutropenia: A reduced number of circulating neutrophils

82. neutrophilia: Elevation of the absolute value of neutrophils is termed

83. The normal anion gap: is approximately 8 to 14 meq/L

84. Opportunistic infections: generally occur when these lymphocytes decrease to less than 200 × 106/L, and this information is used in making the diagnosis of AIDS

85. Patients with cystic fibrosis: have increased levels of Cl− in their sweat because of an inability to reabsorb it

86. Patients with cystic fibrosis: have increased levels of Cl− in sweat because of an inability to reabsorb it

87. Patients with pancreatitis: have abnormal levels of the pancreatic enzymes lipase and amyla

88. polycythemia: -An abnormally elevated RBC count, – It occurs most often when the bone marrow is stimulated to produce extra RBCs in response to chronically low blood oxygen levels

89. The primary function of RBCs: is to supply oxygen to the tissues. The RBC count helps determine the ability of the blood to carry oxygen

90. Procalcitonin (PCT): -is an inactive protein of the hormone calcitonin that is released in response to bacterial infections, -PCT levels are directly related with the severity of infection

91. PT: prothrombin time

92. PT is defined as: the time in seconds required by plasma to form a fibrin clot after exposure to tissue factors

93. PTT: partial thromboplastin time

94. Red blood cell: Men-4.4-5.9 × 106/mcl, Women-3.8-5.2 × 106/mcl

95. red blood cells (RBCs): called erythrocytes; and platelets, called thrombocytes

96. A reference range: sets the boundaries for any analyte (e.g., electrolyte, blood cell, protein, enzyme) that would likely be encountered in healthy subjects

97. Reference ranges vary from laboratory to laboratory for various reasons..: -differences in measurement techniques, -the populations of healthy individuals used to establish the reference intervals, -analytic imprecision when the intervals were constructed

98. Severe electrolyte disorders: have a profound impact on pulmonary function

99. A significantly elevated WBC count (>20 × 103/mcl) suggests..: the presence of a serious infection and that the patient’s immune system is generating a significant response

100. “snapshots”: provide the clinician with valuable but time-limited insight into cellular processe

101. sputum sample: -A patient who is suspected to have an infection in the lungs or airways , -The purpose of such an analysis is to determine the specific microorganism causing the infection, which indicates the most appropriate antibiotic to be given

102. Streptococcus pneumoniae: a common bacterium associated with pneumonia, stains as encapsulated, lancet-shaped, gram-positive diplococc

103. the term normal ranges is now known as..: reference ranges, biologic reference intervals, and expected value

104. The threshold for blood transfusion: typically is a hematocrit of 21% or a hemoglobin of 7.0 g/dl

105. Thrombocytopenia (low platelets) and thrombasthenia (abnormal platelet functioning): lead to excessive bleeding, whereas thrombocytosis (excessive platelets) causes excessive clotting

106. tissue hypoxia: when the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is reduced

107. Total bilirubin: is produced by the liver from the breakdown of destroyed RBCs

108. WBC count (>15 × 103/mcl) occurs only when..: either neutrophils or lymphocytes are responding to an abnormality

109. WBC count doubles: because of an increase in neutrophils

110. When bands and segs are elevated in the CBC..: the patient is likely experiencing a more severe bacterial infection