Egan’s Chapter 27 Practice Questions:

1. Acute Lung Injury (A.L.J.): Condition characterized by alveolar flooding caused by an acute insult (e.g., sepsis). Normally a rapidly developing bilateral pulmonary process of non-cardiac origin with a PaO2 to FiO2 ratio greater than 200mm Hg but less than or equal to 300 mm Hg

2. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (A.R.D.S): Respiratory disorder characterized by respiratory insufficiency and hypoxemia; triggers include gram-negative sepsis, O2 toxicity, trauma, pneumonia, and systemic inflammatory responses

3. Airway Pressure Release Ventilation (A.P.R.V.): Form of pressure ventilation that uses two levels of continuous positive airway pressure in an intermittent mandatory ventilation breathing pattern

4. Barotrauma: Physical injury sustained as a result of exposure to ambient pressures above normal, most commonly secondary to positive pressure ventilation (e.g., pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum).

5. Compliance: Volume change per unit in applied pressure

6. Congestive Heart Failure (C.H.F.): an abnormal condition that reflects impaired cardiac pumping; caused by myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, or cardiomyopathy that results in either pulmonary or systemic edema.

7. Extracorporeal Carbon Dioxide Removal (E.C.Co2.R): Procedure whereby blood is passed from the patient through an external membrane, which filters Co2 to support ventilation

8. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (E.C.M.O.): Procedure where venous blood is pumped outside the body to a heart-lung machine for oxygenation and returned to the body

9. High-frequency Ventilation (H.F.V.): Ventilatory support provided at rates significantly higher than normal breathing frequencies

10. Hydrostatic Pulmonary Edema: Pulmonary edema that is caused by an increase in hydrostatic (water) pressure

11. Lymphatic Drainage System: The main conduit for the removal of filtered fluid and protein from the lungs

12. Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (M.O.D.S.): Condition in which dysfunction of many different organs occurs, usually accompanying acute lung injury

13. Non-Hydrostatic Pulmonary Edema: Pulmonary edema that is caused by something other than an increase in blood pressure

14. Pulmonary Edema: Condition in which excessive amounts of plasma enter the pulmonary interstitium and alveoli; Usually accompanied by severe respiratory distress, tachypnea, and hypoxemia.