Egan’s Chapter 29 Practice Questions:

1. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): degenerate disease of the motor neurons often characterized by atrophy of the muscles of the hands, forearms, and legs and eventually involving most of the body, including the muscles of respiration

2. Ankylosing Spondylitis: Chronic inflammatory disease of unknown origin, first affecting the spine and adjacent structures and commonly leading to eventual fusion (ankylosis) of the involved joints

3. Cheyne-Stokes Respirations: abnormal, repeating pattern of breathing characterized by alternating progressive hypopnea and hypoventilation, ending in a brief apnea

4. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD): one of the most prevalent types of muscular dystrophy and is characterized by rapid progression of muscle degeneration that occurs early in life

5. Flail Chest: traumatic chest injury in which a portion of the rib cage becomes unstable due to multiple rib fractures or costochondral separation; typically the flail region exhibits paradoxical movement during inspiration, contributing to a maldistribution of ventilation

6. Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS): idiopathic, peripheral polyneuritis characterised by lower extremity weakness that progresses to the upper extremities and face; may lead to flaccid paraplegia and marked respiratory muscle weakness

7. Kyphoscoliosis: abnormal condition characterized by an anteroposterior and lateral curvature of the spine

8. Lambert-Eaton Syndrome(LES): disorder of neuromuscular conduction commonly associated with an underlying malignancy that leads to muscle weakness often with sensory deficits that can often be improved by repetitive muscle contraction against pressure

9. Lou Gehrig Disease: Popular name for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a disease characterized by progressive muscle weakness due to nerve deterioration

10. Myasthenia Gravis (MG): Disorder of neuromuscular conduction that leads to muscle weakness of the skeletal to muscle weakness of the skeletal muscles, particularly those of the face, throat, and respiratory system. weakness and respiratory failure can occur rapidly as muscle strength decreases with repetitive contraction against a load.

11. Myopathy: abnormal condition of skeletal muscle leading to muscle weakness, wasting, and histologic changes in the muscle tissue, as seen in any of the muscular dystrophies

12. Myositis: Inflammation of the muscle

13. Myotonic Dystrophy: type of muscular dystrophy

14. Neuropathy: any of a number of abnormal conditions characterized by inflammation and or generation of the nerves

15. Paradoxical Motion: pattern of breathing in which the abdomen is observed to move outward while the lower rib cage moves inward during an inspiratory effort. this pattern can indicate excessive respiratory muscle loading, diaphragmatic weakness or impending respiratory failure. Also called an abdominal paradox.

16. Polymyositis: Condition characterized by inflammation of many muscles

17. Stroke: Condition characterized by the sudden onset of a neurologic deficit

18. Traumatic Brain Injury: general term referring to any class of either focal or diffuse lesions that can result from head trauma. these lesions can include injury to the nerve body (axon), hypoxic brain damage, swelling, hemorrhage, contusions, laceration, or infection.