Egan’s Chapter 37 Practice Questions:
1. Calculate duration flow for liquid cylinder: lbsx344L/lbs=L of O2 L of O2/LPM=mins of duration_hrs_mins /60 and x60
2. Calculate flow in gas cylinder: (10lbx860) / 2.5 lb per L=8600/2.5=3400L (amount of gas)
3. Clinical use for nitrous gas: Anesthesia gas
4. Color codes for O2: O2-Green, Air-Yellow, Nitrous Oxide-blue, Helium-brown, CO2-Gray,
5. Cylinder factors for E-tank and H-tank: E-.28 H-3.14
6. Define Regulator: is a device that controls both pressure and flow
7. How do measure flow in gas cylinder: 3400 L/4LPM=860 mins =14.33 (Duration of flow)
8. How do medical gas cylinder prevent excess gas build up in their tanks?: high pressure relief
9. How do you clean a valve from dust and debris: Crack the valve slightly
10. How do you determine how much O2 is remaining in a liquid cylinder: weigh the cylinder
11. How is medical air produced?: Produced by filtering and compressing atmosphereic air
12. How much backup should a hospital have?: Must have backup or reserve system equal to a daily
usage of hospital.
13. How to ID what gas is in a cylinder: All cylinders are color coded and labeled for ID of
14. In what devices can medical gases be stored?: They are either stored in high-pressure
cylinders or large bulk reservoirs
15. Local transport, have to lay tank on side, what kind of tank and regulator would you use?:
Bourdon gage and E tank
16. Most common method of O2 in homecare equipment: O2 concentrators
17. Most common O2 tank used in transport: E tank
18. Understand downstream resistance with a compensated thorpe tube: compensation prevents the
flow reading from changing with downstream resistance
19. Units of measurement for a flow: LPM–liters per minute
20. What cylinder has a yoke connection and valve stem?: small cylinder with Pin Index Safety
21. What cylinder have a threaded valve outlet?: H cylinder American Standard Safety System
22. What equipment O2 is at the bedside of a patient?: quick connect
23. What gas is used with O2 to manage severe airway obstruction?: Helium
24. What happens with a bourdon gauge when you have decreased stream resistance: flow output
25. What is a working pressure?: 50 psi
26. What is least expensive and most common in commercial O2: Liquid bulk O2 system
27. What is the fire risk for O2: Supports combustion
28. What is the most common type of DISS connection?: outlets of pressure reducing valves at
station oulets of central piping system, at inlets of blenders, flowmeters, ventilators, and pneumatic equipment
29. What is the purpose of Nitric Oxide, When is it indicated in what kind of patient?: Used in hypoxemic respiratory failure for term or near term infants
30. What kind of device would you use to power a home nebulizer?: Small air compressor
31. What most effective therapeutic heliox mixture: 20% O2 with 80% Helium ( Higher amount of Heliox the better minimum O2 can use—mixture adds up to a 100%)
32. What pressure would be in a tank if full, half full, 3/4 full?: 2000 psi, 1000 psi, 1500 psi
33. What safety system has a yoke connection?: PISS–Pin Index Safety System
34. What type of gas supply system do a Acute Care Facility have: Liquid Bulk O2 system
35. What type of relief valves do E and H tanks have?: E has fusible plug relief valve and H have
a spring-loaded relief valve
36. Which gases are therapeutic?: Air, O2, Heliox, CO2/O2 mix, Nitric Oxide
37. Why are zone valves used in hospitals?: To stop flow of medical gases to a particular zone
Egan’s Chapter 37 Test Bank:
1. Does CO2 support combustion?: Hell no.
2. Gas Density simplified: CO2>O2Air>He
3. Gas flow formulas…: Cylinder factor (L/psig) = Cubic feet (full cylinder) x 28.3 / Pressure (Full Cylinder) in psig. Duration of flow = Content/Flow. Duration of flow (min) = Pressure (psig) x cylinder factor / Gas Flow (L/min)
4. How are cylinders marked and identified?: Color coded and marked with metal stamping on shoulder.
5. How are gas cylinders filled (Charged) with compressed gases: normally filled to its service pressure at 70 degrees Fahrenheit. Can be filled to 10% in excess of service pressure
6. How are gas cylinders pressurized to?: 5/3 of their service pressure (PSIG)
7. How are liquefied gas (O2 and N20) cylinders charged?: according to specified filling density. Filling density is ratio between weight of liquid gas put into cylinder and weight of H2O cylinder could contain if full
8. How does heliox decrease work of breathing?: Has lower density. Makes gas flow more laminar
9. How do you measure Gas-filled cylinder contents?: Volume of gas in cylinder is directly proportional to its pressure
10. How do you measure Liquid Gas cylinder contents?: Pressure does not relate to amount of liquid remaining, only weight of cylinder indicates amount of gas inside
11. How is an UNCOMPENSATED Thorpe Tube calibrated?: Calibrated in liters per minute at atmosphere pressure (without restriction)
12. How is He commercially produced?: from natural gas through liquefaction to purity standards of at least 99%
13. How is medical-grade air produced?: by filtering and compressing atmospheric air
14. How much gas is held in bulk O2 systems?: At least 20K cubic feet of gas (in gas or liquid form)
15. How often are safety tests conducted on gas cylinders?: every 5 or 10 years
16. How should gas cylinders be stored?: in racks or chained to wall away from heat sources. No smoking signs posted and with cylinder caps in place if not in use. Store LIQUID O2 containers in cool, well-ventilated area
17. If bulk O2 gas supply systems go down what should you do?: utilize individual E cylinders for immediate use until system is functional. (facilities should have back up system in effect)
18. Integrated O2 cylinders…: Definition deleted per Lalim Principle of Non-Importance
19. Is O2 flammable?: No but it greatly accelerates combustion
20. Physical characteristics of Nitric Oxide (NO): Colorless, nonflammable, toxic (Supports combustion)
21. Physical characteristics of Nitrous Oxide (N2O): colorless gas with slightly sweet odor and taste
22. Term deleted: Lalim “I am not going to test you on this”
23. Three types of bulk O2-Gas supply systems are?: 1. Alternating supply system (cylinder manifold system). 2. Cylinder supply system with reserve supply. 3. Bulk gas system with reserve
24. What are 4 physical properties of O2?: Colorless, odorless, transparent and tasteless
25. What are cylinder safety relief valves designed for?: To vent gas to atmosphere if tank is heated.
26. What are factors affecting duration of flow: Gas Flow, Cylinder size, Cylinder pressure at start of therapy
27. What are gas cylinders used for?: To store and ship compressed or liquid medical gases.
28. What are physical characteristics of helium (He): odorless, tasteless, nonflammable, chemically and physiologically inert
29. What are physical characteristics of “medical” air?: Colorless, odorless, naturally occurring gas mixture. (20.95% O2, 78.1% nitrogen & about 1% argon-helium mixture)
30. What are physical characteristics of “medical” CO2?: Colorless and odorless gas.
31. What are risks of long term exposure to N2O?: neropathy, fetal disorders, spontaneous abortion
32.what are the constant Factors for E & H cylinders?: E cylinder = 0.28, H cylinder = 3.14
33. What are three types of flowmeters?: Flow Restrictor, Bourdon guage, Thorpe tube
34. What are two common uses for CO2 mixtures?: Calibration of blood gas analyzers, Diagnostic purposes in clinical laboratory
35. What are zone valves and what are their purpose?: located throughout the system. Used to turn on/off O2 flow in emergencies (ie fire)
36. What can exposure to high concentrations of NO cause?: Methemogloinemia –> tissue hypoxia
37. What controls the meter rate flow of gas in an uncompensated Thorpe Tube from a 50 PSIG source.: Needle valve
38. What do cylinder safety relief valves prevent?: tank pressure from becoming too high.
39. What does a central piping system do?: Used to deliver compressed gas to all areas throughout the hospital at standard working pressure (50-psi)
40. What does a pressure compensated Thorpe Tube do?: Prevents changes in downstream
resistance, or back pressure, from affecting meter accuracy
41. What does the stamping indicate?: Size, normal filling pressure, serial number, ownership and method of manufacturer.
42. What is a flowmeter used for?: To control flow to patient
43. What is a pressure compensated Thorpe Tube calibrated to?: 50 PSIG instead of Atmospheric pressure
44. What is a reducing valve used for?: To reduce gas pressure to a useable level.
45. What is a regulator?: A mechanism attached to the gas cylinder that steps the initial pressure down to a working pressure (50 PSIG)
46. What is a regulator used for?: To control both pressure and flow.
47.What is a therapeutic use of He/O2 mixtures (Heliox): Manages severe cases of airway obstruction
48. What is bulk O2 used for?: To meet large O2 needs of health care facilities
49.What is Fractional distillation?: Atmospheric air is filtered to remove pollutants, water and CO2. Purified air is liquefied by compression & cooled by rapid expansion (Joule-Thompson Effect). Resulting mixture is heated slowly to allow nitrogen to boil off, leaving just O2. Simplified: Air is filtered, liquefied, cooled then heated slowly resulting in pure O2.
50. What is N2O clinically used for?: Anesthetic agent
51. What is physical separation O2 production?: Molecular sieves absorb nitrogen, trace gasses and H2O vapor from air, O2 concentrators pull ambient air through semipermeable plastic membrane.
52.What is results are measured and stamped on the tank?: Cylinder leakage, expansion, and wall stress.
53.What is the Bourdon Gauge always used in combination with: adjustable pressure-reducing valve
54. What is the mechanisms in a Bourdon Gauge and how do they function?: Uses fixed orifice operating under variable pressures, not gravity dependent but not accurate when pressure distal to orifice changes. (Ideal for patient transport)
55. What is the purpose of the central piping system main alarm?: warns of pressure drops or interruptions in flow from source.
56. What is the safety indexed connector system for large cylinders and attachments designated to prevent accidental misconnections: American Standard Safety System (ASSS)
57. What is the safety indexed connector system for Low pressure gas connectors at outlets of pressure reducing valves, outlets of central piping systems and the inlets of blenders, flowmeters and ventilators: Diameter-Index Safety System (DISS)
58. What is the safety indexed connector system for Small cylinders up to and including E and attachments and yoke type connection. Exact positions of pins and pinholes vary for each gas. (2 & 5 for O2; 1 & 5 for Air): Pin-Index Safety System (PISS)
59.W hat is the weight of 1L of liquid O2 and how much O2 gas does it produce?: Weight= 2.5 lbs
Production= 860 L of O2 gas
60. What mechanisms make up a cylinder safety relief valve?: Flangible metal disk ruptures at specific pressure. Fusible plug melts at specific temperature. Spring loaded valve opens and vents gas at set high pressure
61. What must always be mixed with N2O for clinical use?: Oxygen
62. What must be known to determine volume of gas in liquid-filled cylinder?: Weight
63. What must He be always mixed with?: 20% O2
64. What percentage mixture of CO2 has therapeutic purposes?: 5-10% CO2/O2 mixtures
65. What precautions should be taken when utilizing gas cylinders?: Secure cylinders at patients bedside, do not use flammable materials on regulators, cylinders, fittings or valves, and “crack open cylinder valve slightly to remove dust before attaching regulator.
66. What produces most large quantities of Medical O2?: Fractional distillation
67. What purposes does 5-10% CO2 mixtures (Carbogen) serve?: Singultus management. CO2 washout prevention during cardiopulmonary bypass. Regulate pulmonary vascular pressures in some congenital heart disorders
68. What s a flow restrictor?: The simplest and least expensive flowmeter device, consists of fixed orifice calibrated to deliver specific flow at constant pressure based on the principle of flow resistance.
69. What should you avoid when storing gas cylinders.: storing with combustible material. storing flammable gases with gases that support combustion
70. What treatments has the FDA approved the use of NO for?: Treatment of infants with hypoxic respiratory failure. Pulmonary hypertension
71. Who is responsible for approving manufacture, transport and use of gas cylinders?: Industrial standards, federal regulations and ESPECIALLY the department of transportation (DOT)
72. Who monitors the purity of O2 for medical gas: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ensures O2 is 99% pure
73.Why is the pressure compensated Thorpe Tube NOT ideal for patient transport?: Gravity dependent
More Practice Questions:
1. 3A: Cylinder made of carbon steel
2. 3AA: containers are manufactured with alloy steel
3. Agency that classifies cylinders: Department Of Transportation. (DOT)
4. Agency that sets standards for gas purity: FDA
5. Alternating supply system or cylinder manifold system. (A type of Bulk O2 supply system): Consists of large (normally H or K size) cylinders of compressed O2 banked together in series. When pressure in primary bank decreases to set level, control valve automatically switches over to reserve bank.
6. American Standard Safety System (ASSS): For large cylinders & their attachments. Prevents accidental misconnections
7. Because cylinder color is only a guideline, how do you actually determine what gas is in a tank?: careful inspection of label.
8. Bulk gas system with reserve.: Most commonly used in large health facilities for economical, safety, & convenience reasons. Small volume of liquid O2 provides very large amount of gaseous O2 & minimizes space requirements.
9. Chemical named for this light gas: HE
10. Cylinder supply system with reserve supply. (A type of Bulk O2 supply system): *Consists of primary supply, secondary supply, & reserve supply. When primary gas supply is depleted by demand, this supply system automatically switches to secondary supply.
11. Describe a gasous bulk system. Be sure to discuss the manifold, the primary, and reserve banks.: Oxygen is stored in a large tank at low pressure, as the liquid flows through, it is heated up . The liquid is then converted back to a gas pressure. It is then decreased by regulators to 50psi whichi is then send into the hospital
12. Describe the action of the following devices. Reducing Valve, Flowmeter, Regulator: Reducing valve-reduction of gas pressure, Flowmeter- control gas flow to patient, Regulator-control pressure and flow of gas
13. Describe the four basice step of fractional distillation process.: Atmospheric air is filtered to remove pollutants, water and Co2. Purified air is then liquefied by compression and cooled by rapid expansion. Heated in distillation chamber so nitrogen escapes first. Stored in cryogenic storage in liquid form; or converted back to gas and stored in cylinders.
14. Describe the methods for measuring the contents of a gas-filled and the liquid-filled cylinder.: (a) Gas is directly proportional to it volume of pressure which can be read by a guage to read it’s pressure. (b) The measuered pressure is the vapor pressure above the liquid. This pressure bears no relation to the amount of liquid remaining.
15. Describe the normal way multiple-stage reducing valve is used in respiratory care.: Reducing high pressure in multiple stage.
16. Describe the normal way the Adjustable reducing valve is used in respiratory care.: used on high pressure system to regulator from high to low presure to sytem.
17. Describe the normal way the preset reducing valve is used in respiratory care.: Preset to only give out the amount of pressure set by manifold
18. Describe two hazards of using nitric oxide: 1. Can cause chemical pneumonitis and
exposeure to high concentration of nitric oxide 2. can cause methemoglobinemia.
19. A device that controls both pressure and flow: Regulator
20. The “D” in (DISS) stands for: Diameter
21. DISS (Diameter-Index Safety System): *Low pressure safety system
Found at outlets of pressure-reducing valves , outlets of central piping systems, &
inlets of blenders, flowmeters, vents.
22. Explain why the pressure in a gas-filled cylinder is different than of a liquid-filled cylinder.: Gas is compressed into the cylinder to fill it whereas , liquid is filled to specific level and gas is released from the liquid to pressurize the tank.
23. Fixed open, variable pressure measuring or mettering device. Also it is most appropriate for transport.-: Bourdon Gauge
24. Flowmeter: is used to control flow to patient
25. Gas delivered in a blue cylinder: Nitrous Oxide or
26. Gas delivered in a yellow cylinder: Air
27. Gas laws states; If a cylinder overheat, the pressure will rise. Describe the type of pressure release valve usually found in these cylinder sterm.: Small cylinder-fusible plug relief valve. Large cylinder-spring loaded relief valve
28. Gas that makes up 20.95% or 21% of air: Oxygen
29. Gas used in treatment of severe asthma: Heliox
30. Gas with only one oxygen molecule: Oxide
31. Give the chemical symbol for each of the following: Oxygen, Air, Carbon Dioxide, Helium, Nitrous Oxide, Nitric Oxide: O2, Air, CO2, He, N2O, and NO
32. How will indicated flow campare to actual flow when a Bourdon flowmeter meets up with downstream resistance?: Bourdon will read higher pressure than the actual flow reading
33. Just say “NO”: Nitric Oxide
34. A large cylinder of O2 is describe as follows: CGA-540 0903-14NGO-RH Ext. Explain what this means.: CGA connection thread and number540 0.903 thread diameter of outlet -14 thread per sq in RH right hand thread
35. Low density gas: Helium
36. Most medical grade carbon dioxide is used for what purpose?: Diagnostic purpuse
37. Most therapeutic gases will support combusion. Name three gases in this category.: oxygen, helium/oxygen, nitrous oxide
38. Name the three basic indexed safety system for medical gas.
(both names- the abbreviation and meaning.: a. ASSS (American standard safety system). b.DISS (Diameter-Index Safety System). c .PISS (Pin-Index Safety System)
39. Name the three gases categorized as nonflammable: Nitogen, Carbon Dioxide and Helium.
40. Name the two method of seperating oxygen from air and what concentration is produced.: a. Molecular device-90%. b. Vaccum -40%
41. Name two gases that can be stored in the liquid state at room temperature.: CO2 and N2O
42. Neddle_______________ adjust the flow in a Thorpe tube: Valves
43. NFPA standards:: 1. Must be stored 50 feet from wood frame buildings. 2. Must be 25-50 feet from the hospital. 3. Must be fenced. 4. Must have a reserve backup. 5. Must have safety release valves.
44. The “P” in PISS means: Pin
45. Pipe with many connections used to link gas cylinders together: Manifold
46.PISS (Pin-Index Safety System): For small cylinders (up to & including size E) & their attachments. Cylinders have yoke type connection. Exact positions of pins & pinholes vary for each gas. 2 – 5 for oxygen. 1 – 5 for air
47. Rear end: also a safety system: ASSS (American standard safety system)
48. Reducing valve: is used to reduce gas pressure to useable level
49. Regulator: s used to control both pressure & flow
50. second half of gas made by heating limestone in contact with water: Dioxide
51. Sets standards for design, construction, placement and use of bulk oxygen system: NFPA
52. Slang term for cylinder: Tank
53. This meter controls the volume of gas per unit of volume: Flowmeter
54. This valve shut off the gas in case of a fire: Zone
55. Three ways to tell a compensated flowmeter:: 1. look at label. Calib at 50 psig. 2. Ball jump. 3. Position of needle valve.
56. Two advantages of flow restrictors.: a. Low cost; can be. b. Can be used in any postion
57. Two disadvantages of flow restrictors.: a. accuracy varies. b. can not be used with high- resistance equipments
58. Type of “distillation” that produces oxygen: Fractional
59. Used to treat to hiccups.: Carbon Dioxide
60. Valve that lowers gas pressure: Reducing valve
61.What are the characteristics of Air?: Colorless, odorless. 21% oxygen, 78% Nitrogen, 1% trace gases. Medical grade air is produced by filtering cooling and compressing ATM air. Must be dry, pollutant and free of oil. Has density of 1.29 g/L.
62. Why plug life support equipment into red outlets? Red outlets are connected to back-up generators in case of a power outage. Basic characteristics of oxygen. Colorless. odorless. transparent. tasteless. nonflammable, but accelerates combustion
Egan’s Chapter 37:
1. Adjustable reducing valve: has a valve spring at the bottom to control tension. helps devices adjust that need variable pressures and not the standard 50psi; provides a range between 0-100 psi.
2. Air: 21% O2; 78% Nitrogen; 1% trace gases; density of 1.29 g/L (standard for measuring gases)
produced by filtering and compressing atmospheric air
3. Ambient: the air around you; normal air
4. American Standard Safety System (ASSS): Use this safety system on H and G cylinders
5. Anesthetic gas: Nitrous Oxide (aka, N2O)
6. ASSS: standards for threaded, high pressure connections btwn lg compressed gas cylinders (sizes F-H/K) threaded w/ hex nut and connecting nipple.
7. Bourdon Gauge: flowmeter that is always used in combo w/ an adjustable pressure reducing valve; uses a fixed orifice; operates under variable pressure; is a fixed orifice, variable pressure device (was on the H tank in class)
8. Bulk Oxygen: can be stored in either gaseous or liquid form; liquid storage most common in hospitals. Cheaper over long term
9. Carbon Dioxide: produced by heating lime stone in contact w/ water. The gas recovered is liquefied by compression & cooling. FDA standard = 99%. Most CO2 used for diagnostic purposes in the clinical lab.
10. Central Piping Systems: gas pressure is reduced in system to standard working pressure of 50psi; runs throughout hospital to wall or station outlets
11. Compressed gas cylinder contents: vol. of gas in the cylinder is directly proportional to its pressure at a constant temperature. (e.g. full at 2200psi is half full at 1100 psi)
12. compressed gases: gas cylinders are normally filled to service pressure at 70F, but can be filled to 10% in excess of service pressure
13. Cylinder manifold system: H-K size cylinders of compressed O2 in a row (picture a menorah) 1 side has the primary bank and the other a reserve bank; supply O2 from a central location, usually in small hospitals & to supply N2O to Operating Rooms
14. Cylinder Supply System with a reserve: has a primary, secondary (both liquid) and reserve supply; If the primary runs out, the secondary kicks in until the primary is replaced. The reserve (a high pressure cylinder) kicks in if both primary & secondary fail.
15. Diameter-index safety system (DISS): prevents accidental interchange of low-pressure (less than 200psi) medical gas connectors; the green & yellow wall outlets in pt’s rooms
16. Filling density: ratio between the weight of liquid gas put into the cylinder and the weight of water the cylinder could contain if full. filling density for CO2 is 68% & N2O is 55%
17. Flammable: Burns readily, potentially explosive
18. Flowmeter: used to control gas flow to a patient; if both pressure and flow is needed, a
regulator is used
19. Flow Restrictor: simplest & least expensive flowmeter device; requires a source of constant pressure(50psi); a flow restrictor is a fixed-orifice, constant pressure flowmeter device
20. Formula Clues: For duration, remember your tank factors! For total flow remember your tic tac toe graph!
21. Fractional Distillation: most common, least expensive production of O2 several steps
22. Fractional Distillation 1: First, atmospheric air is filtered to remove pollutants, water and CO2. The purified air is liquefied by compression and cooled by rapid expansion (Joule-Thompson effect)
23. Fractional Distillation 2: the resulting mixture of liquid O2 & N is heated slowly in a distillation tower. Nitrogen escapes first, then traces gases of argon, krypton and xenon. Remaining liquid O2 is transferred to specially insulated cryogenic (low-temp) storage cylinders
24. Fractional Distillation 3: Can also convert O2 directly to gas for storage in high-pressure metal cylinders –> is 99.5% pure. (FDA requires 99% minimum)
25. Frangible Metal Disk: ruptures at specific pressure
26. Fusible Plug: melts at a specific temperature; found on most small cylinders
27. Gas Cylinder Storage: AA, BB, DD, A-E (small, post valve & yoke connector) F-H and K (Large, threaded valve outlet)
28. Gas supply systems: 3 types- cylinder manifold system, cylinder supply system w/ reserve supply, and a bulk gas system with a reserve
29. Helium (He): STPD = 0.1785 g/L; ALWAYS mix w/ at least 20% O2; He/O2 used to manage severe cases of airway obstruction. The low density of He decreases WOB
30. High pressure reducing valves: 2 types- single stage and multiple stage
31. High pressure relief valves: 3 basic designs 1) frangible disk, 2) fusible plug, 3) spring loaded valve. always located in the cylinder valve stems
32. Laboratory gases: Nitrogen, Helium, Carbon Dioxide
33. liquefied gases: gases stored as liquids at room temp; includes CO2 & N2O, filled to a specific filling density.
34. Liquid Bulk O2 System: Used in most large hospitals; must be stored below -181.4F; tanks have less than 250psi. safety valve allows vaporized liquid O2 to escape if warming causes cylinder pressure to increase above a set limit.
35. Liquid gas cylinder contents: measure vapor pressure found above the liquid inside the container. weigh a liquid-filled cylinder to accurately determine the content
36. Low pressure gas flowmeters: 3 categories- flow restrictor, the Bourdon gauge and Thorpe tube
37. Medical Gases: Therapeutic, Laboratory, Anesthetic
38. Multiple stage reducing valve: can be preset or adjustable; is functionally 2 single-stage valves working in series; gas is decrease first to 200-700psi and then to 50psi. provide more precise & smooth flow control
39. NFPA: National Fire Protection Association
40. Nitric Oxide (NO): toxic; supports combustion; Produced by oxidation of ammonia at high temps in presence of a catalyst; approved for infants w/ hypoxic respiratory failure
41. Nitrous Oxide (N2O): sweet odor & taste. Used as an anesthetic agent. Depresses CNS; Supports combustion. ALWAYS mix with 20% O2; Produced by thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate; long term exposure causes neuropathy; 25ppm N2O max
42. Nonflammable: Does not burn
43. Oxidizing: Nonflammable but supportive of combustion
44. Oxygen Production: Electrolysis of water. Decomposition of sodium chlorate. Fractional Distillation. Physical Separation
45. Oxygen’s density: 1.429 g/L (slightly heavier than air[1.29 g/L])
46. Oxygen solubility: 3.3ml dissolves in 100ml of water. Sufficient enough for aquatic life to live
47. Physical Separation (method 1): molecular “sieves” composed of inorganic sodium aluminum silicate pellets are used. Pellets absorb N, trace gases & water vapor from air leaving over 90% O2 for pt. use.
48. Physical Separation (method 2): a vacuum is used to pull ambient air through a semipermeable plastic membrane that allows O2 & water vapor to pass through faster than N. Produces O2 mixture of 40%. (called Oxygen concentrators, used in home setting)
49. Pin-index Safety System (PISS): Use this safety system on E cylinders
50. PISS: up to size E tanks; yoke connections w/ pins that fit on the valve stem
51. Preset reducing valve: High-pressure gas (2200psi) enters through a valve with the inlet pressure displayed on the pressure gauge.
52. Reducing Valve: used for reduction in gas pressure
53. spring loaded valve: opens and vents gas at a set high pressure; found on most large cylinders
54. Tank Factors: E tank = 0.28, H tank = 3.14, Liquid O2 = 344
55. Therapeutic gases: Air, Oxygen, Heliox (Helium/oxygen) Carbon Dioxide, Nitric Oxide
56. Thorpe Tube: connects to wall outlet; always connects to a 50psi source; is a variable-orifice, constant pressure flowmeter device
57. Zone Valves: found throughout piping system and can be closed for system maintenance or in case of fire
58. What is the foundation on which the field of respiratory care was built? 1) labratory gases 2) therapeutic gases 3) anesthetic gases
59. Name the 3 types of gases.lab gases; nitrogen, helium, carbon dioxide
60. These types of gases are used for equipment calibations and diagnostic tests. give 3 examples. therapeutic gases; room air, O2, He, He/O2 (heliox), CO2/O2, NO (nitric oxide) ;
61. We will be using these types of gases these types of gases are used to relieve symptoms and improve thee oxygenation of patients with hypoxemia. These types of gases are combined with oxygen to provide anesthesia during surgery.
It can be delivered at a different rate and will reach deeper into the lungs.
62. What is the main benefit of using Heliox? nonflammable, flammable, nonflammable but will support combustion; ALL therapeutic gases are nonflammable but will support combustion.
63. What group(s) are therapeutic gases in?: source gas
64. Anytime you delivery a therapy, you must keep in mind your ___ ___. LPM liters per minute; powering source, diluting source
65. Source gases are measured in ___. If there is 2 sources, O2 is always the ___ ___ and AIR is the ___ ___. AIR, O2 , & He