Here is a sample of the answers for Chapter 25 of the Egan’s Workbook. For rest of the answers, check out our Workbook Helper. We have both the 10th and 11th Edition available.

1. A. Airflow limitation that is not fully reversible
B. Typically there is a slow but continuous deterioration in lung function
C. Associated with airway inflammation and abnormal inflammatory response
D. Has systemic consequences
2. According to NHANES, adults aged 25-75 years old in the United States, A. 6.9% have Mild COPD and B. 6.6% have moderate COPD. (Chronic bronchitis—14 million, emphysema—2 million)
3. Heart attack and stroke are more common than COPD, which is the fourth leading cause of death, despite currently being on the rise. Declines in mortality regarding heart disease and stroke have been becoming more evident over the past 30 years.
4. Passive smoking, air pollution, genetics
5. Neutrophils release elastase in the lung secondary to inflammation or infection. The lung elastin fibers are normally protected by 1-antitrypsin. Decreased levels of 1-antitrypsin result in elastase attacking the elastin, destroying the lung tissue. Over time this continuing parenchymal damage leads to the development of emphysema. If individuals with 1-antitrypsin deficiency smoke this worsens the inflammation, inhibits lung defenses, and speeds lung deterioration.
6. A. inflammation and obstruction of small airways
B. loss of elasticity
C. bronchospasm


For the rest of the answers, check out the Workbook Helper

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10th & 11th Edition