1. “Hand Off”: Short but precise communication providing essential information needed by the recipient /giving report/shift change/transfer of the patient.
 2. “Survey the Scene”: Initial assessment stage of the patient-clinician interaction. Note the patient and the room. Goal to determine the patient matches the objective of the therapy prescribed by the physician.
 3. Action Plan: Involves patient in goal-setting and self-care activities. Should include the goal, how to achieve that goal and barriers that might prevent that goal from being reached.
 4. Communication: Written, nonverbal, verbal. Effective when it is timely, accurate, complete, unambiguous, and understood by the recipient.
 5. Confidentiality: Respecting patients privacy, discussing patient status on a “need to know” basis only with health care providers doing so in private.
 6. Empathy: Feeling and understanding of the patient’s situation.
 7. HIPPA: Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act- Federal Law to protect the privacy of PHI.
 8. Intimate Space: Physical Exam Space/ 0-18 inches/ ask patients permission with minimal or no eye contact in this space.
 9. Patient-Centered Care:– Focused interaction between patient and provider.

– Involves individualized care, patient involvement, and provider collaboration.
 10. Personal Space: Interview Space/18 inches-4 feet/ Professional appearance and eye contact important.
 11. PHI: Patient Health Information- any information regarding health status, provision of health care or payment of health care that can be linked to an individual.
 12. Rapport: Trust between the RT and patient
 13. Social Space: Introduction Space/4-12 feet from patient/ Beginning to establish a rapport
 14. Territoriality: The concept that items close to the patient, belong to the patient
 15. Universal Precautions: All clinicians who may come into contact with bodily fluids/secretions should wear protective gear for the safety of them and patient



What is Mydriasis and what can cause it to occur?Dilated pupils; brain death, catecholamines, atropine.
What is Miosis and what can cause it to occur?Constricted pupils: parasympathetic stimulants, opiates.
What two cranial nerves must be intact for the pupils to react properly?Cranial nerve 2 & 3
What does PERRLA stand for?Pupils Equal Round Reactive to Light and Accommodating
What is ptosis?Drooping of the upper eye lid (3rd cranial nerve involvement, congenital defects, cranial tumors, early signs of neuromuscular disease and vent failure
What is Diplopia?Blurred or double vision
What is Nystagmus?Involuntary cyclic movement of the eyeballs.
What mallampati score offers the greatest oral cavity view?Grade 1
Describe vesicular breath soundssoft and low pitched
Describe bronchovesicular breath soundsSlightly louder breath sounds (compared to vesicular)
Describe bronchial breath soundsLoud (tracheal)
Describe cracklesAre intermittent, nonmusical, and brief – like dots in time.
Describe fine crackles (discontinuous sound)Are soft, high pitched, and very brief (5-10msec)
Define coarse crackles (discontinuous sound)Are somewhat louder, lower pitched, and not quite so brief (20-30msec)
Define Wheezes (continuous sound)Are relatively high pitched and have a hissing or shrill quality
Define Ronchi (continuous sound)Are relatively low pitched and have a snoring quality.
What are likely causes of wheezes?Bronchospasm (asthma, bronchitis, and CHF)
Describe “early inspiratory” cracklesOpening proximal airways (asthma, emphysema, bronchitis)
Describe “late inspiratory” cracklesOpening peripherally. Atelectasis, pulmonary edema, fibrosis.
Describe “inspiratory and expiratory” cracklesLikely due to secretions (cleared by cough).
Describe the primary assessmentThe rapid priority assessment of ABCs or immediate threats to life (bleeding? C-Spine?)
Describe the secondary assessmentIs the detailed approach to addressing all possible concerns or problems with the patient.
TICSTenderness, Instability, Crepitus, and Subcutaneous emphysema
BLSBurns, Lacerations, and Swelling
DCAPDeformities, Contusions, Abrasions, and Penetrations
CMSCapillary refill. Mobility, and Sensitivity
SAMPLESigns & symptoms (chief complaint), Allergies, Medications, Pat history Last meal, and Events
DPIDiagnostic Peritoneal Lavage
FASTFocused Abdominal Sonogram for Trauma