Question Answer
Infections that are acquired in the hospital? Nosocomial
Inanimate objects that help transfer pathogens? Fomite
Death of all microorganisms? Sterilization
Universal method of protection for health workers? Standard Precautions
Patients acquire during course of medical treatment? HAI
How many people get sick due to health-care associated infections? 2 million
What percantage of PTs get suck due to health-care associated infections? 5%
Name three elements that are required for these infections to take place? Resevoir, Host, Route
Name five vaccinations that might help decrease risk from host susceptibility? Rubella, Measles, Varicella, Hepatitus B, Pertussis
Name an example of contact transmission? Instruments, Unwashed hands
Name an example of droplet transmission? Coughing, Sneezing, Talking
Interrupting the route of transmission involves special equipment processing. What is the first step? Cleaning/Washing
What method of sterilization do you use when cleaning disposables? Incineration
What method of sterilization do you use when cleaning glassware and metal instruments? Dry Heat
What method of sterilization do you use when cleaning metals and some plastics? Boiling
What method of sterilization do you use when cleaning metal instruments and linens? Autoclave
What method of sterilization do you use when cleaning food and supplies? Ionizing Radiation
What method of sterilization do you use when cleaning heat sensitive items? Ethylene Oxide
Which PPE would you use to touch bodily fluids or mucous membranes? Gloves
Which PPE would you use during procedures? Gown
Which PPE would you use for suctioning procedures? Goggle/Mask
What is the best choice for high-level disinfection of semicritical respiratory care equipment? Gluteraldehyde
Among respiratory care equipment, what has the greatest potential to spread infection? Large Volume Nebulizers
Always use _ fluids for tracheal suctioning and to fill nebulizers and humidifiers? Sterile
Ventilator circuits may be used up to how many days before they need changed? 7
Rigorous handwashing, use of gloves, isolate infected patients help disrupt what? Route of transmission
By what route does tuberculosis spread? Airborne
What type of water should be placed in the nebulizer? Sterile distilled
The best way to prevent the spread of infection in the ICU is to? Wash hands after every PT contact.
HAI’s cause how many deaths annually? 90,000
What percentage of patient’s undergoing mechanical ventilation develop pneumonia? 25%
What or who are the primary source for infectious agents in the health care setting? Humans
Host factors such as poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, extremes of age, and underlying acquired HIV infection or aitrogenic through chemo, or immunodeficiency enhance what to infection? Susceptibility
Most nosocomial pneumonias occur in surgical PTs, especially those who have had chest or _ procedures? Abdominal
Pts at high risk for pneumonia include elderly, _, COPD, history of smoking, and artificial airway for long periods of time? Obese
Droplet nuclei such as TB, Varicella, Measles, and Smallpox travel in what mode? Airborne
_ contact transmission is the most frequent mode of transmission in the health care environment? (Fomites) Indirect
Decreasing host susceptibility to infection is the most difficult and least feasible approach to infection control. Hospital efforts to decrease host susceptibility focus mainly on employee immunization and what? Chemoprophylaxis
Describes a process that destroys the vegetative form of all pathogenic organisms on an inanimate object except bacterial spores? Disinfection
Most common physical method of disinfection is ? Pasteurization
Alcohol activity drops when diluted below what percentage concentration? 50%
_ are inactivated by protein and can damage rubber, plastics, and the shellac mounting of instruments and lenses? Alcohol
The CDC recommends a 1:10 dilution of what to disinfect blood spills? Bleach
Destroys all microorganisms on the surface of an article or in a fluid, which prevents transmission of pathogens associated with the use of that item? Sterilization
_ methods of sterilization include low temperature sterilization technologies like ethylene oxide (EtO) gas? Chemical
Moist heat in the form of steam under pressure is the most common, most efficient, and easiest sterilization method? Autoclave
The combination most commonly used for autoclaving is _ psi at 121 degrees C. 15
The _ ventilator circuitry poses the most significant contamination risk, particularly in systems using heated humidifiers? External
Ventilator circuits should not be changed unless _? Visibly soil
Three major issues are involved in using disposable devices: cost, _, and reuse? Quality
Standard precautions include handwashing, use of PPE, equipment handling, and ? Patient placement
Ongoing process of monitoring PTs and health care personnel for acquisition of infection and/ or colonization of pathogens. Surveillance
Surveillance is one of the five key recommended components of an infection control program; the others are investigation, prevention, _ and reporting? Control
HMEs may be used up to how many hours before they need changed? 96
Bluish discoloration of the skin? Cyanosis
Mucus from the tracheobronchial tree? Phlegm
Discontinuous abnormal breath sounds? Crackles
_ emphysema is air under the skin? Subcutaneous
Look for distended veins here? Neck
Mucus that comes out the mouth? Sputum
Extra, or abdominal sounds? Adventitious
_ pressure, the difference between systolic and diastolic BP? Pulse
Level of consciousness (abbr)? Loc
Designed to expel mucus? Cough
_ alternans occurs when you go back and fourth between the diaphragm and the accessory muscles? Respiratory
You have this if your breathing is labored when you lie down? Orthopnea
Auscultation reveals breath _? Sound
Body temp below 32 degrees C? Hypothermia
Stay at least 2-4 ft away to give the patient a personal _ during the interview? Space
Sweaty stuff? Diaphoresis
_ pressure, when the heart contracts? Systolic
Abdominal _, occurs when the diaphragm is tired and the belly sinks with each breath? Paradox
Abdominal voice sounds heard over consolidation? Bronchophony
Slow RR? Bradypnea
_ of monkeys (also a chest shape associated with air trapping) Barrel
Treasure, pigeon, or barrel? Chest
High pitched continuous upper airway sound? Stridor
Patients perception of difficult breathing? Dyspenia
Foul smelling? Fetid
Another name for fainting? Syncope
HR below 60? Bradycardia
Got pus? Purulent
Pattern of end-stage muscle fatigue? Alternans
How else can you identify the degree of dyspnea a PT feels? Exertion
What are possible causes of Dry cough? CHF, Fibrosis
What are possible causes of Loose, productive cough? Inflammation, Obstruction, Asthma, Bronchitis
What are possible causes of Acute, self limiting cough? Viral infection of the upper airway
What are possible causes of chronic cough? Asthma, post nasal drip, reflux, chronic bronchitis
Three characteristics of _ that should be documented: color, viscosity, and quantity? Sputum
Nonmassive hemoptysis may result from infection, lung cancer, _ , and pulmonary embolism? Trauma
Massive hemoptysis may result from bronchiectasis, lung abscess, old or acute _? TB
What is the most famous kind of nonpleuritic chest pain? Angina
Along with fever, what are two signs that are highly suggestive of respiratory infection? Cough and Sputum