Question Answer
what is indicated by central and peripheral cyanosis ALWAYS ABNORMAL.
define the thoracic deformities that are characterized by abnormal anterior protrusion of the sternum barrel chest and is associated with emphysema.
abnormalities practitioner should be on the lookout for during inspection of the extremities
define stridor loud, high-pitched sound, sometimes can be heard without a stethoscope
what the presence of a stridor indicates the upper airway is compromised. in children, laryngomalacia is the most common cause of chronic stridor
central cyanosis indicates decreased oxygen in the entire pool of blood. always a sign of hypoxemia; central respiratory failure
peripheral cyanosis cyanosis in the digits. poor blood flow. when capillary blood flow is poor, tissues extract more O2 lowering the venous O2 content and raising the amount of reduced Hb. usually cool to touch
cyanosis becomes visible when the amount of unsaturated Hb in the capillary blood exceeds 5-6 g/dl. reduction in either arterial or venous oxygen content or both
cyanosis respiratory disease reduces arterial oxygen content. a bluish discoloration of the tissues.
central cyanosis bluish discoloration around the lips and in the oral mucosa of the mouth
lymphadenopathy enlarged lymph nodes. infections, malignancy, sarcoidosis.
pectus carinatum abnormal protrusion of the sternum
pectus excavatum depression of part or the entire sternum, which can produce a restrictive lung defect.
kyphosis spinal deformity in which the spine has an abnormal AP curvature
scoliosis spinal deformity in which the spine has a lateral curvature
kyphoscoliosis combination of kyphosis and scoliosis, which may produce a severe restrictive lung defect as a result of poor lung expansion
barrel chest when the anteroposterior(AP) diameter increase, the normal 45-degree angle of the articulation between the ribs and spine is increased, becoming more horizontal. very classic obstructive lung disease.
stridor is associated with external/inspiratory pressure in airway decreases/ obstruction to the neck
wheezing is associated with expiratory obstruction to the airway
define the characteristics of pleuritic chest pain usually located laterally or posteriorly. worsens with deep breath. sharp, stabbing type pain. membranes around the lung. lines inner chest wall
examples of pleuritic chest pain inflamed lung, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism
define the characteristics of nonpleuritic chest pain located in the center of the anterior chest and may radiate to the shoulder or is NOT affected by breathing. dull ache or pressure type pain.
common causes of nonpleuritic chest pain angina, coronary artery occlusion, gastroesophageal reflux, esophageal spasm, chest wall pain, gallbladder disease
list which elements during medical history-taking, would be considered pertinent when reviewing the respiratory system family history, cough, history of present illness, frequency are duration on symptom, sputum, hemoptysis, chest pain, shortness of breath, hoarseness, dizziness, fever, peripheral edema,
identify the proper position related to the structure that should be observed on examination of a normal patient’s neck, and the cause of deviation seen during inspection and palpation of the neck. trach & JVP; trach is middle of the neck.
describe what is indicated by the activity of the accessory muscles of ventilation at rest
give the term used for AP and lateral curvature of the spine barrel chest & scoliosis
You notice during inspiration your patient’s chest wall moves “out” while the abdomen tends to be drawn “in”. Which term would you use in charting this observation and give a cause
What is the term used to describe difficult breathing in the reclining position? orthopnea
In patients with chronic respiratory disease, what does pedal edema indicate?
While observing a patient’s breathing, you note that the depth and rate first increase, then decrease, followed by a period of apnea. Which term would you use in charting this observation? Cheyne-Stokes respiration
What are the common abnormalities identified during an inspection of the fave in patients with respiratory disease? nose flaring (acidosis & hypoxemia) cyanosis, pursed lip breathing
What is the name of the upper portion of the sternum that articulated with the first and second ribs and the clavicle? manibruim
What is the name of the external landmark that identifies the point where the trachea branches into two main-stem bronchi? at the angle of Louis or Stemalangle
The use of pursed lip breathing during exhalation would be most common among patients with what conditions? COPD, emphysema
What term is used to describe coughing up bloody sputum? hemoptysis
High-pitched, loud, tubular breath sounds with an expiratory component equal to the inspiratory component best describes which breath sounds? bronchial breath sounds
Soft, muffled sound heard mainly during inspiration over the peripheral lung parenchyma best describes what breath sounds? vesicular breath sounds
What term best describes a loud, high-pitched continous sound heard(often with the unaided ear) primarily over the larynx or trachea during inhalation in patients with upper airway obstruction? stridor
What is the deformity characterized by an abnormal depression of part of all of the sternum? pectus excavatum
A diabetic patient admitted to the emergency room is breathing quickly and deeply. Which term would you use in charting this observation?? Kussmaul breathing
Inspiratory crackles in patients without excess secretions are most commonly associated with? when collapsed airways pop open during inspiration.