Question Answer
Eupnea Normal breathing, 10 – 18 bpm
Apnea no spontaneous breathing, usually more than 10 seconds, caused by drug overdose, asphyxia, sleep apnea
Platypnea Can breath better when laying down.
Orthopnea Can breath better when sitting up.
Cheyne Stokes Gradual increase of breathing followed by a gradual decrease in breathing followed by apnea.
Kussmal breathing Deep rapid respiration characteristic of diabetic or other types of acidosis.
Biot’s breathing Irregular rate, depth and volume followed by apnea seen in patients with ICP and menningitis
Tachypnea Rapid breathing, usually caused by decreased lung compliance
Hyperpnea Deeper and more rapid than normal breathing at rest.
Bradypnea Slow respiratory frequency, caused by CNS depression
Paroxymal Nocturnal Dyspnea Dyspnea during the night.
Exertional Dyspnea Dyspnea that occurs only during exertion.
Kyphoscoliosis Kyphosis (hunch back) plus Scoliosis (lateral curvature)
Kyphosis Abnormal AP curvature causing a hunch back.
Scoliosis Lateral curvature
Barrel Chest A chest with increased A-P diameter, seen in patients with COPD (air trappers)
Pectus Excavatum Funnel chest (concaved)
Pectus Carinatum Pigeon breast (protruding)
Jugular Venous Pressure Reflects the volume of blood and pressure to the right side of the heart. Right heart failure can increase it.
Right heart failure Corepulmonade
Paradoxical Pulse A reverse of normal pulse, during inspiration pulse is weaker and stronger during exhalation. Seen in Cardiac Tamponade. Less moving air, pulse checked at beat 1 and 2 systolic, if greater than 8 to 10 torr difference= paradoxical.
Hypertension Blood pressure higher than 140/90
Causes of Hypertension Increased ICP, Corpulmonale, hypervolemia, hypoxemia, and sympathomimetics.
Hypotension Blood pressure lower than 90/60
Causes of Hypotension Hypovolemia, left ventricular failure, peripheral vasodilation/sepsis, beta blockers, positive pressure ventilation, and PEEP/CPAP.
Purulent Thick, yellow, and sticky bacterial infected white cells.
Fetid Foul smelling
Mucoid Thick and clear, normal for someone who has an airway disease.
Muco-purulent Purulent and Mucoid combined
Green Old infection or infection related to alergies.
Green and fetid Pseudamonas
Brown Old blood
Asthmatic Breathing prolonged exhalation, caused by obstruction to airflow out of lungs
capillary refill press on patients fingernail, note spead of capillary refill, less than 3 seconds=healthy. longer = poor vascular supply and decreased Card output
Caugh Most common sympton of pulmonary disease
Dry Non-productive caugh restrictive disease like chf or pulmonary fibrosis
loose productive caugh inflammatory obstructive disease like bronchitis or asthma
chest pain pleuritic (lateral) nonpleuritic (center chest)
pleuritic lateral or posterior chest pain, worsens with depth of breath, sharp, stabbing. Associated w plural lining, pneumonia, or embolism.
nonpleuritic center chest pain, anterior, radiates to shoulder, not effected by breathing, dull ache angina or coronary artery
COPD Cystic Fibrosis, Bronchitis, Asthma, Bronchiectasis, Emphysema
Cor Pulmonale Right-side Heart failure, caused by chronic left side failure
digital clubbing clubbing of the finger tips and toes, develops over time, caused by cardiopulmonary disease, chronic hypoxemia, low O2 and polycythemia
Face Inspection for Resp Patients Nasal Flaring(resp distress), Cyanosis (resp failure), Pursed lips breathing (copd)
Fever common complaint with infection, height may indicate virulence, fever+cough=respiratory infection. ↑ metabolic rate, ↑O2 consumption,↑CO2 production, increased o2 and co2 may cause tachypnea and resp failure
frothy secretions white= non cardiogenic pulmonary edima. Pink= cardiogenic pulmonary edima
Hemoptysis coughing up blood or blood streaked sputum, massive = more than 300 ml in 24 hours
Heart Rate Radial, coritid, femoral
Respiratory Rate chest, abdomen, back
hematemesis vomiting blood
hemoptysis coughing blood
hypopnea decreased rate and depth of breathing, caused by brain damage or well conditioned atheletes
LOC level of consciousness, confused, delirious, lethargic, obtuded stuporus, comatose
Oriented x3 time, people, place
measuring body temp mouth, azilla, rectum, ear
non verbal communication gestrues, facial expressions, eye movement, contact, voice tone, space, touch
past medical history dhildhood disease, hospitalizations, surguries, injuries, alergies, ilnesses, meds
pedel ademia usaully assiated with right heart failure, leaking venous system causes pooling in feet
phlegm mucus from tracheobronchial tree that has not been contaminated by oral secretions
pleural effusion increased fluid in the pleural cavity-usually due to inflamation or inffection
polycythemia abnormally high increase in rbc’s
pulse alterans alternbatly strong and week pulses, suggests left side failure usually not related to resp die=sease
regulating body temps raise with shiver, vasoconstriction, slowing pulse and slowing rr, lower with sweat, peripheral vasodialation, increased rr
sputum mucus that has been contaminated by oral secretions
sympathetic vascular resistance main cause of hypertension
trachea exam trachea midline should be directly below the center of the supra sternal notch. trachea moves toward colapsed lung. moves away from tension pneumothorax or large pleural effusion.
Vital signs pulse 60-100, RR 12-18, Temp 98.6F or 37 C = or – 1, BP 90-140/60 -90`