Question Answer
The trachea is approximately 10 to 12 centimeters in length. When it reaches the center of the chest, it divides (or bifurcates) into two bronchi (bronchus, singular); the right mainstem bronchus, which is approximately 2.5 centimeters long, and the left m I and III only I. Trachea 4 to 5 inches III. Left mainstem bronchus 2 inches
Rational numbers and fractions are considered the same thing. True
A respiratory therapist worked 42 1/2 hours over a 5-day period. She worked the same number of hours each day. How many hours a day did she work? Express / simplify your answer as a mixed or whole number. 8 1/2 hours
Multiply the following fractions and simplify if necessary: 7/8 x 2/5 = __________ 7/20
A low sodium, low fat diet was ordered for a patient diagnosed with congestive heart failure. The patient weighed 217 3/4 pounds 2 1/2 months ago but now weighs 195 1/2 pounds. What is the total weight loss for this patient? 22 1/4 pounds
Subtract the following fractions and simplify if necessary: 2/3 – 3/5 = _________ 1/15
The term “solvent” best describes which of the following: The liquid that dissolves the solute.
Patient “A” has a 2 seconds I (inspiratory) time and a 1 second E (expiratory) time. What is the I:E Ratio for this patient? Is this ratio considered to be normal. 2:1 It is not a normal I:E Ratio
Rewrite the following fraction in lowest terms: 68/88 17/22
A dose of Vaponefrin for inhalation contains 1/2 milliliter (ml). How many milliliters are there in 7 1/3 doses? 3 2/3 ml
Rewrite the following fraction as a higher equivalent fraction: 7/8 = ? / 200 175
Estimate the answer for the following problem: 18.10 + 6.14 + 10.76 =? 35
Multiply the following fractions and simplify if necessary: 3/17 x 7/9 =________ 7/51
Find the reciprocal of the following number: 6/5 5/6
Respectively express each of the following with a positive exponent: 7-3 and 10-8 1/73 and 1/108
Add the following fractions and simplify if necessary: 7/8 + 1/8 = _______ 1
The annual salary for each respiratory therapist in a department is $36,662.20. If there are 15 therapists, what is the total salary for the RT department? $549, 933.00

Question Answer
What is the empirical formula for magnesium oxide? MgO
Select any factors below that can influence the rate of a chemical reaction? I, II, and III only • I. Concentration of reactants •II. Temperature •III. Catalysts
Because alcohol can act as a __________ after its ingestion, ______________ can result. vasodilator, hypothermia
It can be stated that during covalent bonding the bond that is formed results from the formation of oppositely charged ions. False
From the statements below select the one that best describes the atomic number? The sum total of the number of protons in the atom's nucleus
What is the empirical formula for magnesium bromide? MgBr2
Ionization describes the process of atoms that lose or gain electrons in an effort to complete their outer shells. True
True or False: The correct formula for calcium chloride is CaCl2 True
Without the increase in reaction rate caused by the catlysts known as digestive ___________, it would take each of us 50 years to digest a single meal. enzymes
In order to complete an octet in their outermost energy level when forming a chemical bond, atoms will _____________________. I, II, and IV only •I. gain electrons• II. lose electrons •IV. share electrons
How many electrons are needed in the 3rd Energy Level for the element Mg? •Energy Level 1 = 2 •Energy Level 2=8 •Energy Level 3 = ? 2
The octet rule for the above fluorine molecule is complete: True
Which of the following are considered polyatomic ions? I. HCO3- II. SO42- III. NaF IV. CN- I, II, and IV only I. HCO3- II. SO42- IV. CN-
True or False: The correct name for Mg(OH)2 is magnesium hydroxide True
What is the empirical formula for sodium chloride? NaCl
The oxygen molecule (O2) is formed through ____________ bonding. pure covalent
If you have 3.612 x 1023 molecules of a substance, how many moles would you have? 0.6 moles
A compound can be described as __________________________ two or more elements joined together by a chemical bond.
Catalysts can increase the rate of a reaction by ____________. decreasing the activation energy
The minimum energy required for a reaction to occur is called the activation energy. True
Determine the compound formed when bonding occurs between the following atoms? KCl
Which type of bonding involves the sharing of electrons between atoms? Covalent
Which element has the following electron configuration? •Energy Level 1 = 2 •Energy Level 2 = 8 •Energy Level 3 = 7 Cl
The mass number of an atom can be described as _____________________. the sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
Question Answer
Which of the following proteins are soluble in water? III and IV only • III.Albumins •IV.Globulins
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is a strong acid because it is ______________________. highly ionized
Blood pH ______ can be referred to as __________. below 7.35, acidosis
Using the overall pH scale determine those solutions below having a basic pH. I, II and III only •I. 7.56 •II. 7.59 •III. 8.00
Select the statements below that illustrate differences between unsaturated fatty acids and saturated fatty acids? II.Unsaturated fatty acids contain one or more carbon-to-carbon double bonds, while saturated fatty acids contain no doublebonds III.Saturated fatty acids contain alkane hydrocarbon chains,unsaturated fatty acids contain alkene hydrocarbons chains.
Acids ____________ protons donate
Select the statements below that best describe the alkanes. I.They are unsaturated hydrocarbons II. They contain at least one double bond III. They contain at least one triple bond IV.They are neither straight nor branched-chained hydrocarbons None of the above
Compounds having the same molecular formulas but different structural formulas are referred to as ______________________. isomer
The only difference between glucose and fructose is the position of the -OH group on the 4th carbon. False
Which of the following are strong acids? I and II only •I. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) •II. Sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
Strong acids are _____________. nearly 100% ionized
A blood pH of less than 7.35 ______________, while a blood pH greater than 7.45 _________________. indicates acidosis, indicates alkalosis
The equation “Protein + H2O → Amino Acids” best represents which process? Hydrolysis
Which equation below can be used for determining the pH of a solution? pH = -log[H3O+]
The essential amino acids _________________. II, III, and IV only • II. must be included as part of the human diet •III. cannot be manufactured by the body •IV. in the appropriate amount make up a complete protein
An inactive form of an enzyme is called a/an __________________. zymogen
Carboxylic acids present in lipids are also referred to as ___________________. fatty acids
If there is a decrease of CO2 in the blood, the brain will instruct the lungs to -_____________________. slow the rate or depth of breathing
When blood CO2 levels increase, the kidneys respond by _____________ and ___________________. removing H+ via the urine and returning HCO3- to the blood
Bases ____________ protons accept
Which equation below is an example of neutralization? Ca(OH)2 + H2CO3→CaCO3 + 2 H2O
What statement below “best” describes the double arrows in a chemical reaction? The reaction is reversible
The figure above represents which structure? Triglyceride
Which structure is the basis of the saponfiable lipids? Esters
What is responsible for glucose increased solubility in water? A Polar −OH group
Question Answer
How many electron will calcium gain or lose when it forms an ion lose 2
How many electrons will nitrogen gain or lose when it forms an ion gain 3
The ion that is the main electrolyte in the intercellular fluid of the body is the potassium ion
The most abundant electrolyte in the blood is the sodium ion
Calcium is needed in the body for the bones and teeth
The total charge on an ionic compound is 0
With respect to a physiological saline solution, a salt solution having a concentration of 1.2% is hypertonic
With respect to a physiological saline solution, a salt solution having concentration of 0.7% hypotonic
In a molecule with covalent bonding the atoms are held together by sharing electrons
In a compound with ionic bonding it is held together by the force of attration between oppositely charged ions
A convalently bonded group of atoms with a net positive or negative charge is an polyatomic ion
The movement of water from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentreation is called osmosis
A solution having a lower concentration than found in the cells of the body is called an hypotonic solution
A solution having a higher concentration than found in the cells of the body is called an hypertonic solution
The shrinking of blood cells placed in a hypertonic solution is called crenation
A salt solution with a concentration of 0.9% is none of the above
The quantitative term in chemistry realted to Avogardo’s number of particles of a substance is mole
One way to transport oxygen from the lungs to the cells is by using hemoglobin
what is the charge on a neutral atom if it loses 3 electrons +3
According to the kinetic theory, particles of a gas undergo elastic collsions
The collisions of gas molecules against the wall of a container is called pressure
Inflating a balloon by forcing air into it is an example of Boyle’s law
When you increase the absolute temperature of a gas, your increase the average kinetic energy of the molecules
A celsius temperature of 33 c is equal to a kelvin temperature of 306 K
According to Boyle’s law, the volume of a gas will__________ when the __________ increases Decrease, pressure
Inspiration, breathing in, is caused by: Increasing the volume of the chest cavity, which decreases the pressure in the chest cavity
When a person exhales Decreasing the volume of the chest cavity which increases the pressure in the chest cavity
According to Gay-Lussac’s law, if you would double the absolute temperature of a gas at a constant volume, the pressure would: Double
The total pressure in a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of all the gases in the mixture
A patient is receving oxygen with a mixture of gases. If the percent of oxygen is 30 %, and the total pressure of the mixture is 680 mm Hg, what is the partial pressure of the oxygen? 204 mm Hg
A tank contains nitrogen gas at 520 mm Hg, helium gas at 120 mm Hg, and neon gas at 240 mm Hg. What is the total pressure of the gas 880 mm Hg
The actual weight of water vapor contained in a given amount of gas is the absoulte humidity
The actual amount of water vapor compared to the amount of water vapor that a gas can hold at a given temperature is called the relative humidity
The movement of gas from an area high concentration of that gas to an area of low concentration of that gas is called diffusion
Gases diffuse from an area of __________ concentration to an area of __________ concentration high, low
Which of the following correctly describes the partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide in arterial blood high oxygen, low carbon dioxide
The solution of a gas in a liquid is directly related to the pressure of the gas above the liquid is a statement of Henry’s law
The solubility of a gas in a liquid increases as the partial pressure of the gas above the liquid increases
For a chemical reaction to take place between reactants, they must collide with proper orientation and have sufficient energy to react
Increasing the concentration of the reactants increases the rate of a reaction because it increases the probability of a properly oriented collision
Decreasing the temperature of a reactant will cause the rate of reaction to decrease
Addition of a catalyst will cause the rate of reaction to increase
The names for catalysts that are found in the body is enzymes
Which of the following shouldn’t you give to a person suffering from hypothermia? alcohol
Which of the following is a characteristic of an acid sour taste, produce hydrogen ions in solution, turn litmus red (all of the above)
Which of the following is a characteristic of a base? turn litmus blue
In a basic solution the concentration of OH is greater than the H concentration
Which of the following substances in solution are acidic HCL
A solution with a pH of 9 is basic
Acids that ionize 100% in aqueous solution are called strong acids
The average pH of the blood is 7.4 slightly basic
A patient with a blood pH of 7.6 has alkalosis
The chief buffer system in the blood is the carbonate buffer system
In the carbonate buffer system,__________ reacts with any excess hydroxide ions carbonic acid H2CO3
When concentration of carbonic acid increases it decomposes into H2O and CO2
Which of the following is a characterisitic of organic compounds insoluble in water, easily decomposed by heat, react very slowly (all of the above)
A hydrocarbon consists of carbon and nitrogen only
A hydrocarbon compound that has single covalent bonds is called a alkane
Which of the following compounds is an alkane? CH3CH2CH3
A hydrocarbon with one or more double covalent bonds is a alkene
Which of the following compounds is a alkene CH2=CH2
An unsaturated hydrocarbon has one or more carbon-carbon double bonds
A carbohydrate that consists of a single sugar molecule is called a monosaccharide
A carbohydrate that consists of many sugar molecules is called a polysaccharide
Glucose is sometimes referred to as blood sugar
The normal concentration of glucose in the blood is 70 to 100 mg/100ml of blood
A glucose concentration of greater than 100mg/100ml is called hyperglycemia
The presence of glucose in the urine is called glucosuria
A person with type O blood can donate blood to a person with which blood type A, B, AB, (any of above)
A person with type AB blood can receive blood from a person with which blood type A, B, O, (any of the above)
Which of the following is a disaccharide sucrose
Hydrolysis of starch produce glucose
The storage form of glucose in animals is glycogen
A plant or animal product that is soluble in nonpolar solvents are called lipids
Saponifia lipids are made up of the steroid nucleus
Nonsaponifiable lipids are made up of the steroid nucleus
Fats have a higher percent of saturated fatty acids
The only difference between the structures of different amino acids is the side chain group G
The arrangement of the atoms in the general formula of the amino acids is N-C-COOH
Amino acids that cannot be sythesized in the body are called essential amino acids
The process of hydrolysis results in the convalent bonds that hold the amino acids together are broken
The disorganization of the protein structure in such a manner as to render the protein incapable of performing it function is called denaturation
Heat denatures proteins by causing the protein molecules to vibrate violently
A globular protein found in the blood that carries molecules not soluble in the blood is albumin
The active catalytic site is the place on the enzyme where the reactions takes place
Enzymes are proteins that are catalysts within the body
The reactant in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction is the substrate
coenzymes are vitamins
The inactive form of an enzyme is called an zymogen
The presence of higher than normal levels of GPT in the blood indicates a possible liver damage or infection
Why would a doctor check for high levels of GPT in the blood after a gallbladder operation see if the liver was damaged during the operation
The kingdom of one-celled organisms is called protista
Hospital-aquired infections are called nosocomial infections
__________ infections occur in people with compromised immune systems opportunistic
The process in which bacteria cells reproduce the cells, splitting and forming two daughters cells from a single parent cell is called binary fission
Which of the following is the correct name for the named bacteria staphylococcus aureus
High resistant forms of bacteria that develop in response to adverse environmental conditions are called spores
The term staphylococcus refers to cocci bacteria in a bunch like grapes
Streptococcus refers to cocci bacteria in long chains
The type of bacteria stain that produces information about the compostition of the cell wall is an differential stain
The sensitivity portion of the culture and sensitivity test is used to determine the most effective antibiotic for treatment
If more than one organism is found in a culture, the culture is called a mixed culture
A qualitative sensitivity test that uses the different antibiotics on a paper disk placed on the culture medium is called disk diffusion method
The ___________ determines the killing activity of a microbial minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)
Which of the following are problems produced by toxins released by bacteria destruction of body tissues, destruction of blood cells, inhibition of ribosomes (all of the above)
Antibiotics that inhibit the replication of microorganism and prevent the growth of organisms without desetroying them are called bacteriostatic agents
A bacterium that needs oxygen to survive is classified as an aerobic bacterium
A ___________ contains no organelles and is basically a protein coat that covers DNA or RNA strand virus
Viruses cause disease by Destroying the host cell and making a favorable environment for the development of a secondary bacterial infection
The method of viral detection that involves the detection of the antigen of the virus is called direct detection
A __________ is an organism that lives in or on a host’s expense parasite
The dormant form of a parasite is called a cyst
Fungal infections are most likely to develop in people with an impaired immune system or other underlying disease
Which of the following diseases is caused by bacteria rheumatic fever
Which of the following diseases is caused by a fungus thrush
Which of the following diseases is caused by a parasite malaria
actively growing organisms are called vegetative organisms
a dormant protective state if an organism is referred to as a spore
The presence of microorganisms with a tissue reaction is called an infecion
Contamination is the presence of microorganisms without a tissue reaction
The process that eliminates vegetative, pathogenic microorganisms from an inanimate object is called disinfection
A 10 degrees C increase in temperature will double the killing rate
Immersion in boiling water for 15 minutes is not considered a true sterilization process because it is ineffectual against many bacteria and fungal spores
The action of an alcohol used as a disinfectant is to disorganize the pathogen’s lipid structure of the cell membrane
Acetic acid’s (vinegar) disinfectant action is due to its acidity, which denatures the cell’s proteins
Which of the following is not a factor for the proper sterilization using ethylene oxide (ETO) the object being a liquid
Which of the following is not a disadvantage of using gamma radiation to sterilize substances It generates excessive heat
The mode of disinfectant action for phenols is that they cause cell leakage and inactivate enzymes in the cell membrane
Which of the following is not a portal of entry for infectious agents the fingernails
A reservoir of infection is an individual who is a carrier of a disease but possesses no disease symptoms
Which of the following diseases could be caused by a bacterial infection of a wound? tetanus
A clostridium difficle infection of the gastrointestinal tract causes diarrhea
A candida albicans infection of the genitourinary tract causes vaginitis
several people who ate at a salad bar at a restaurant develop E coil infection. This is an example of which of the following transmission? common vehicle
A person sitting next to you has the flu and sneezes but doesn’t cover his nose. The next day you come down with the flu. The route of transmission is airborne
A rat climbs out of sewer near a picnic area and walks over some cookies unnoticed. A person ate a cookie. This is an example of vector-mechanical route of transmission
A person develops lyme disease from a tick bite, the route of transmission is vector transmission
How long is it recommended that you wash your hands for? 25 to 30 seconds
Which of the following is not a standard procedure when in contact with patients You should wear gloves when in contact with any patient
You are assigned a patient in which there is a possibility for pathogen transmission by droplet spread or dust particle. The personal protective equipment you should wear when you enter the room would be a HEPA filtered mask