1) To apply scientific principles to prevent, identify, and treat acute or chronic dysfunction of the cardiopulmonary system.
2) Hospitals.
3) Hippocrates- “Father of medicine”. Believed air contained essential substance distributed to body via heart.+
4) Robert Boyle- Discovered Boyle’s law, governing the relationship between gas volume and pressure in 1662.
5) Joseph Priestley- Discovered oxygen in 1774.
6) John Dalton- Described his law of partial pressure for a gas mixture in 1801 and his atomic theory in 1808.
7) Louis Pasteur- Advanced his “germ theory” and suggested that some diseases were result of microorganisms in 1865.
8) Karl von Linde- Developed large scale production of oxygen in 1907.
9) They were oxygen techs or oxygen orderlies who could haul oxygen cylinders and related equipment around the hospital and set up oxygen tents, masks, and nasal catheters.
10) 1974.
11) 1960.
12) 1910.
13) Epinephrine, isoproternol, isoetharine, metaproternol, albuterol sulfate, levalbuterol, long acting bronchodilators, mucolytics, antibiotics, and antiinflammatory agents.
14) Drinker and Emerson.
15) Drager Pulmotor (1911).
16) Chevalier Jackson- Developed a laryngoscope to insert endotracheal tubes in 1913.
17) Melltzer.
18) Inhalational Therapy Association (ITA)
19) 1982.
20) NBRC- Responsible for the respiratory credentialing exams.
      CoARC- Accredits respiratory care schools and programs.
      AARC- Provides education, advocacy, and publications.
     The Joint Commission- Checks quality of care at different sites.
21) Associate’s Degree.
22) Pierson predicted a much greater use of patient assessment and protocols in chronic disease state management in all clinical settings, a more active role for respiratory therapists in palliative and end of life care, and an increase in the use of RTs acting as coordinators and caregivers in homecare.
23) Obtaining a passing grade on a credentialing exam after graduation from an approved training program.
25) 1) Diagnostics
      2) Chronic disease state management
      3) Evidence-based medicine and respiratory care protocols
      4) Patient assessment
      5) Leadership
      6) Emergency and critical care
      7) Therapeutics.
26) Education, experience, and professionalism.
27) Medical Director- Responsible for clinical function of the department and provides oversight of the clinical care that is delivered. Usually a pulmonologist or anesthesiologist. Must have management and clinical skills.
       Department Manager/Director- They ensure that the equipment and the associated protocols and procedures have sufficient quality to ensure the safety, health, and welfare of the patient using the equipment.
28) Protocols were developed to provide therapy to patients needing and likely to benefit from therapy but to avoid delivering services to patients not likely to benefit. They help save money.
29) Identify Problem.
      – Determine the cause of the problem.
      – Rank problem.
      – Develop strategy for resolving problem.
      – Develop appropriate measurement techniques.
      – Implement problem resolution strategy.
      – Analyze and compile results of intervation.
      – Report results to appropriate personnel.
      – Evaluate intervention outcome.
30) Certified Respiratory Therapist
31) To be eligible for credentialing, you must graduate from CoARC approved educational programs. Graduates then can take the cerification and registry exams offered by NBRC.
32) – Completes an accredited respiratory therapy program.
      – Obtains professional credentials.
      – Participates in continuing education activites.
      – Adheres to the code of ethics put forth by the institution or state licensing board or both.
      – Joins professional organizations.
33) Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA)
34) Key elements- active and committed medical direction, capable RTs, collaboration with physicians and nurses, careful monitoring, and a responsive hospital environment.
35) Performance improvement.
37) Peer Review Organizations(PROs)- established by the federal government to evaluate the quality of care given to medicare beneficiaries.
      Accountable Care Organizations(ACOs)- groups of health care providers that work to enhance quality of care, receive payments, and lower costs.
38) Evidence Based Medicine- an approach to determine optimal clinical management based on a rigorous and systematic review of available evidence, a critical analysis of available evidence to determine what management conclusions are most sound and applicable, and a disciplined approach to incorporating the literature with personal practice and experience.
39) – An integrated health care system that can provide coordinated care across the full range of patients’ needs.
      – A comprehensive knowledge base regarding the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease that guides the plan of care.
      – Sophisticated clinical and administrative information systems that can help assess patterns of clincal practice.
      – A commitment to continuous quality improvement.