Question Answer
What maintains the volume and composition of body fluids? I. Filtration and reabsorption of sodium by the kidneys. II. Regulation of water balance by vasopressin (ADH). A) I and II
Which of the following is FALSE regarding water balance and the gastrointestinal tract? D) The gastrointestinal tract is responsible for the most sensible fluid loss.
Which of the following drugs can be used to temporarily lower K+ in severe hyperkalemia? B) Insulin
About how much additional fluid does an adult lose for each degree of temperature above 99° F that persists for 24 hours? B) 1000 ml
Clinical symptoms of hyponatremia would NOT include which of the following? B) Bradycardia
The combination of red blood cells in plasma is a good example of what? D) Suspension
Signs and symptoms of hyperkalemia would NOT include which of the following? C) Metabolic alkalosis
You add 50 ml of water to 150 ml of a 6% solution. What is the new concentration? B) 4.5%
Where is most of the Mg 2+ found in the body? C) In the cells
Gas transport in the body is most affected by changes in which of the following variables? A) Ambient pressure.
If airway humidification is inadequate, a patient with a tracheostomy can have additional water losses as high as what level? D) 700 ml/day
Positive ions are referred to as what? B) Cations
By what process is water replenished? II. Ingestion III. Metabolism C) II and III
Which of the following correctly describes a facet of chloride? C) Cl- levels vary inversely with HCO3- levels.
What is the affect of osmotic pressure on solutions of different solute concentrations, separated by a semipermeable membrane? B) Equal distribution of solvent
In which of the following types of solutions is the relationship of solute to solvent expressed as a proportion? C) Ratio
What is a common cause for pulmonary edema due to increased hydrostatic pressure? C) Failing left ventricle
A solution holding the maximum amount of solute in a given volume at a constant temperature is said to be what? C) Saturated
An adult’s insensible water through the lungs averages what level? B) 200 ml/day
What is a normal K+ blood level? A) 3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L.
If a patient’s pH were to drop from 7.40 to 7.10, the H+ concentration will increase by how much? A) x2
What cation is the most prominent in the intracellular compartment? B) K+
Which answer best describes the relationship between K+ movement and acid-base balance? A) Excess extracellular H+ ions are exchanged for intracellular K+.
What is the average urine output in a healthy adult? C) 1000 to 1200 ml/day
What type of solution could have 1 mol of solute per L of solution? B) Molar
Hypokalemia disturbs cellular function in ALL but one of the following systems. Which one does it NOT affect? B) Hepatic
What are the main intracellular electrolytes? I. K+ III. Phosphate IV. Sulfate A) I, III, and IV
Clinical manifestations of hypocalcemia would NOT include which of the following? B) Depressed tendon reflexes
Which patients are prone to K+ depletion and hypokalemia? I. Postsurgical patients II. Those with renal disease III. Trauma victims D) I, II, and III
Which of following is NOT a nonhydroxide base? D) Ammonium
The most important physiological characteristic of solutions is their ability to exert pressure. A) True
What is the attractive force of solute particles in a concentrated solution? D) Osmotic pressure
What is the smallest fluid subcompartment of extracellular water? D) Transcellular
Which of the following is NOT a major extracellular electrolyte? C) K+
What is the normal serum calcium concentration? B) 8.7 to 10.4 mg/dl
What is the role of kidneys when a patient experiences acute respiratory alkalosis? B) HCO3- is eliminated in the urine.
What is a stable mixture of two or more evenly dispersed substances? C) Solution
What is a normal range for serum sodium? D) 136.0 to 145.0 mEq/L
Clinical signs of hypokalemia would NOT include which of the following? A) Convulsions
During recovery from a serious surgery or trauma, how much water is likely to be produced in a 24-hour period by the catabolism of fat and proteins? D) 1000 ml
Which of the following are true regarding water in the human body? II. Total body water depends on an individual’s weight and sex. III. Water constitutes about 45% to 80% of an individual’s body weight. D) II and III
What type of solution could have 1 gEq of solute per L of solution? C) Normal
In which of the following solutions do the molecules of solute remain intact? C) Nonpolar covalent
Intracellular water represents about what proportion of total body water? D) 2/3
Pick the correct statement as it relates to hemoglobin and acid-base buffering. B) Deoxygenated hemoglobin is a fairly strong base.
Na+ reabsorption in the kidneys is governed mainly by the level of what hormone? B) Aldosterone
What is the most common cause of hyperkalemia? C) Renal failure
An adult’s insensible water loss averages what level? D) 900 ml/day
Which of the following describes an aspect of pH? A) Any solution with a pH of 7 is neutral.
How is the gram-equivalent (gEq) weight of a substance computed? A) Dividing its gram atomic weight by its valence.