Question Answer
PPHN Persistent pulmonary hypertension in the newborn. Results from Right to left shunt. Results in sever hypoxia and cyanosis after birth
Clinical presentation/diagnosis of PPHN Cyanosis, tachypnea, acidemia, hypoxemia
For severely ill newborns with PPHN, other therapy includes: Inhaled nitric oxide, HFV, ECMO, Flolan (epoprostenol) prostacyclin
ASD atrial septal defect
VSD ventricular septal defect
Transient Tachypnea of the newborn (TTNB) Common in C-section babies, symptoms begin 12-24 hours after birth and usually last only 24 hours.
TTBN clinical presentation/diagnosis High APGAR scores at birth but after 12-24 hours after birth newborn develops RDS involving mild to moderate retractions, tachypnea, cyanosis.
CXR of TTBN baby pulmonary congestion with increased vascular markings. May be misdiagnosed as IRDS
Treatment for TTBN Supplemental O2 (40-60%), CPAP, Postural drainage and percussion
Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Results from the absence of incomplete development of one of the hemidiaphragms, allowing the abdominal organs to enter the thorax.
CDH clinical presentation and diagnosis Compression of the lung on the affected side with the mediastinum shifting to the opposite side, presence of bowel sounds in the chest,
CHD chest xray abdominal organs (loops of bowel) in the thoracic area and atelectasis/hypoplasia of the lung on the affected side
Treatment/Managment of CDH Insert NG tube and intubate, Immediate surgical correction is required
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) This is a chronic condition that results from treatment of RDS with mechanical ventilation and high concentrations of oxygen over a prolonged period of time (>28 days)
BPD clinical presentation/Diagnosis tachypnea, retractions and persistent cyanosis, lengthy ventilatory course associated with poor response to therapy
Xray of BPD multiple pneumothoraces, sponge-like, honeycomb pattern with flattened diaphragm.
Pulmonary Interstitial Emphysema Occurs as a complication of mechanical ventilation when air is present outside the normal airways
Complications of PIE Causes compression of pulmonary blood vessels, resulting in increased PVR and compression of lymphatic vessels, resulting in increased lung water.
Clinical presentation/Diagnosis of PIE Tachypnea, cyanosis, retractions, hypoxia from hypoventilation and V/Q mismatch, increased PVR nay result in right to left shunting, air trapping with barrel chest or increased AP diameter
Chest xray for PIE Irregular bubbles in hilar area radiating outward, linear lucencies or streaks
Coarctation of aorta narrowing of aorta changing blood flow
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome abnormal development of left-sided cardiac structures including the mitral valve, left ventricle, and aortic arch.
Tetralogy of Fallot most common congenital heart abnormalities. Includes four components: pulmonary artery stenosis, ventricular septal defect, overriding aorta to the right, and right ventricular hypertrophy.
Transposition of the Great Arteries The positions of the aorta and pulmonary artery are reversed, with the aorta arising from the RV and the pulmonary artery arising from the LV.