Question Answer
nosocomial infection hospital acquired infection
1. source 2. route of transmission 3. susceptible host what are the 3 elements that must be present for an infection to spread?
What are the signs of infection? Fever, diaphoresis, Elevated WBC, tachycardia, Hyperventilation, Productive cough, and pain
A process of infection where people are the source of their own infection via their endogenous flora is called_______? Autogenous Infection
the mere presence of the organism in a host is______? colonization
in nosocomial infections give examples of gram negative bacilli: p aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, and E.coli
In nosocomial infection give examples of gram positive bacilli: MRSA or staph aureus
what are the four major bugs that cause infection in the hospital? 1. VRE-vancoomycin resistant enterococcus 2. MRSA 3.ESBL-Extended Spectrum Beta Lactomace 4.C. difficile
what are the five routes of transmission? 1. contact- 2.droplet 3. airborne 4. vector 5. vehicle
what are the infection control methods? GLoves/ Gowns, Universal precautions, isolation procedure, Needle blood precautions.
The process of destroying vegetative pathogenic organism. disinfection
disinfection and sterilization can be done in two ways ______ and ______. physical and chemical
______ is a type of physical disinfection efficient and cost effective. but does not kill spores, may kill bacteria and some viruses. is done in batch process, therefore, its prone to be recontaminated during reassembly.must be submerged in water for 30 min pasteurization
give examples of low-level chemical disinfectants. acetic acids and quats
give examples of Intermediate level disinfectant. alcohol, phenolics, iodophors
Give examples of high-level disinfectants. 1.Glutaraldehyde also known as cidex. 2. hydrogen peroxide 3. sodium hypochlorite
what are the characteristics of cidex? PH of 7.5-8.5. alkaline, bactericidal in 10 min, tuberculocidal in 10-20min., sporicidal in 10hrs.
give examples of proper use and methods use of cidex 1.equipment must be rinsed, dried, and packed after soaking.2. use for plastics, mouthpiece, tubing and aerosols. use specifically in resp equip like broncoscope. 3. can be use in metal bcoz its non corrosive. 4.careful specially to skin &mm.last 14-28day
This is a process that can be done through physical and chemical means, and destroys all microbial life including spores sterilization
give and examples of heat sterilization. autoclaving, incineration,
this method of sterilization cannot be used for plastics or heat sensitive materials. it is done through 121degrees celsius for 15 min. autoclaving
factors of this process includes temp of the chamber arnd 50 to 60 celsius, concnts must be 800-1000 mg/l, has to have 50% humidity to enhance effectiveness, exposure time has to be 1.5-6 hours. this chemical kills by damaging nucleic acids. ETO, ethylene oxide
what are the 3 major methods of sterilization used for respiratoryy care equipment. ETO, cidex and pasteurization
lack of any life or living organism. sterile
a term use for growing organism. vegetative organism
this means disease producing. pathogen
growth is inhibited static (ie.hydrostatic)
microorganisms are killed cidal
what kind of equipment is ETO use for in term of resp equipment. vents, ambu bag piece from HIV patient.
this type of disinfectant are most effective in 70-90% solutions. non-sporicidal although it is bactericidal and fungicidal. Alcohol disinfectant
Agents are surfactants which will reduce surface tension. soap and detergents.
To treat every patient as an infection is_____ Universal precautions
What are the Category specific Isolation methods? Strict, Contact, Respiratory, Tuberculosis, Enteric, Drainage, Secretions, Blood/Body fluids, and Burn
_____ is to damage the cell membrane, denature the protein or the cell process Killingof microorganisms
In an increase of number of organisms the _____must increase exposure time
How do you clean a Respiratory equipment at home Mild soap, rinse well, disinfect w/ acetic acid, rinse again, dry every 2-3 days
In respiratory equipment what are the disinfectants used ETO, Cidex, and pasteurization
What are the ways infection spread to lungs? 1. patients aspirate; oropharyngeal/ gastric secretions. 2. Inhalation of liquid droplets, dust particle nuclei, 3. Via Blood (hematogenous spread)
What is the disease that can be highly acquired by hospital personels Hepa b
What is the MOST effective way to prevent cross contamination among patients? wash hands
Patients placed on a Resp Isolation would require; 1. single room 2. mask for those who enter the room 3. Door must be closed at all times 4. Negative Pressure Ventilation
TB is transmitted by what method of transmission Airborne
What is the disadvantage of pasteurization? The water can contaminate the equipment
A metal Laryngoscope blade for intubation. which method of sterilization would you use? Steam Autoclave
A gram neg bacillus which is a highly resistant to many antibiotics is often found in sinks, drinking water, food, and resp equip and is estimated to be the cause of 10%of nosocomial inf. best describes: Pseudomonas aeruginosa
What is the primary source of infectious agents in hospitals People(patients, workers, and visitors) and contaminated equipment
When an RCP with unwashed hands spread an infection to patients during change of trach dressing what kind of route of transmission is this. Direct CONTACT transmission
A post operative patient in ICU develops P. Pneumonia what is the most likely source of this infection Indirect contact transmission via contaminated resp equipment.
A patient develops Hepa A through a contaminated food what kind of transmission is this. Vehicle transmission
what would you recommend for a patient to clean the respiratory equip at home? Use mild soap, rinse well, disinfect with acetic acid or vinegar, rinse again and then dry, do it every 3-4 days.