Question Answer
ARDS Acure respiratory distess syndrom-disorder characterized by respiratory insufficiency. May occur as a result from trauma, pneumonia, oxygen toxicity, gram-neg. sepsis, and systemic inflammatory response.
COPD Airflow limitation that is not fully reversible, usually progressive, and associated w/an abnormal inflammatory response of the lung to noxious gases or particles. (Chronic Bronchitis, Emphysema, Asthma, and Bronchiectasis).
Code Name Name assigned by manufacturer to an experimental chemical that shows potential as a drug. ex: SCH1000
CF Cystic Fibrosis: inherited disease of the exocrine glands, affecting the pancreas, respiratory system, and apocrine glands. Symptoms usually during infancy and are characterized by increased electrolytes in sweat, and chronic respiratory infection.
Generic Name Name assigned to a chemical by the USNA council when the chemical appers to have therapeutic use and manufacturer wishes to market the drug.
Pharmacy The preparation and dispensing of drugs
Pharmacognosy The identification of sources of drugs, from plants and animals.
Pharmacogenetics The study of the interrelationship of genetic differences and drug effects
Terapeutics The art of treating disease with drugs
Toxicology Study of toxic substances and their pharmacological actions, including antidotesw and poison control
Each drug has five different names, they are… Chemical, code, official, generic, and Trade/Brand name
Pharmacodynamics The machanisms of drug action by wich a drug molecule causes its effect in the body.
Pharmacokinetics The time course and disposistion of a drug in the body, baseed on its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Gram-neg. orgnanism, primarily a nosocomial pathogen, causes UTI, URI, Dermatitis, soft tissue infections, bacteremia, bone and joint infections,etc.. Particularly in severely burned or immunosuppressed patients.
RSV Respiratory syncytial virus: Virus that causes the formation of syncytial masses in cells, leads to imflammation of the bronchiles, which may cause respiratory distress in young infants.
Advantages of Aerosolized agents given by inhalation Smaller doses for the same purpose and given systemically, fever and less sever side effects, onset of action is rapid, delivery targeed to respiratory system w/lower systemic bioavailability, painless, relatively safek, can be more convenient.
Antiinfective agents Inhibition or eradication of specific infective agents, such as Pneumocytis carnii, RSV, CF or influenze A and B, antibiotics or antituberculous drugs.
Adrenergic Agernts Relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle and bronchodilation, to reduce airway resistance and to improve ventilatory rates in airway obstruction in COPD’ers.
Anticholinergic Agents Topical vasoconsstriction and decongestion, relaxation of cholinergically induced bronchocontriction to improve ventilatory flow rates in COPD
Mucoactive Agents Modification nof the properties or Respiratory tract mucus, current agents lower viscosity and promote clearance of secreations
Corticosteroids Reduction and control of airway inflammatory response, usually associated w/asthma or with seaonal or chronic rhinitis (URI).
Antiasthmatic Agents Prevention of the onset and development of the asthmatic response, through inhibition of chemical mediators of inflammation
Exogenous Surfactants Approved clinical use is by direct intratracheal instillation, for the purspose of restoring more normal lung compliance in RDS in newborns
Question Answer
What is a drug? Any chemical that alters an organsim state
What is pharmacology? The study of drugs and their actions
What is disease management? The collective management of all aspects of a patients disease
What is the average cost of developing a new drug on the market? 1.3-1.7 billion
What are some sources of drugs? Plants, animals, minerals, chemicals, DNA
When was the FDA established? 1938
What does the FDA do? regulate drug testing and approve new drugs on the market
How does the FDA treat herbals? They treat them as dietary suppliments.
What is the first stage of testing for drug development? Testing on animals.
What is the first phase of human testing? Small trial on normal subjects
What is the second phase of human testing? Small trial on diseased subjects.
What is the third phase of human testing? Large multi-center trials (FDA approval0
What is the fourth phase of human testing? post-marketing surveillance
What are sources of drug information? Drug inserts or monographs American hospital formulary service PDR PDA Micromedex World wide Web
What is the chemical name? It indicates the chemical structure for the manufacturing process
What is the generic name? A non-proprietary name Given by the USAN lower case letters
What is the trade name? The brand name These names are capitalized
What is the indication and usage? Reasons why you would use the medication.
What are contraindications? Reasons why you would not use the medication.
Additive effect Where both drugs have the same effect on a specific sign or symptom. 1+1=2
Synergism When the combination of two drugs can cause a much greater reaction than simply the sum of the effects of each drug. 1+1=3
Drug potentiation When one of the drugs have no direct effect and increases the response of the other drug which usually has a lesser effect. 1+0=3
What is an adverse drug reaction? An unintented side effect
First pass effect? Liver metabolism
Enteral route? Gastrointestinal. Has a systemic effect and goes through the first pass effect. PO, most common and convenient
Parenteral route Injections Fast Acting Bypasses “first-pass effect” drugs must be soluble
Topical route Skin/mucous membranes More localized vs. systemic with less side effects
Transdermal Patch
What are four things that effect bioavailability? solubility of the drug dosage form route of administration Ph values
What are pharmacokinetics? Movement of drugs through the body
What are the four phases of pharmokinetics? Absorption Distribution Metabolism Elimination
Absorbtion Occurs when drug passes from administration site to the blood stream
Bioavailability Measure of drug the makes it to the blood stream
Steady state continued infustion
Therapuetic range Effective theraputic blood level of drug
Distribution After absorbed the blood stream distributes drug to receptor sites
What affects distribution Blood pressure/blood floow Fat/H20 solubility protein binding (Albumin/globulin)
Metabolism The liver is the organ for metabolism. breaks down into metabolites oxidation system
Elimination Kidneys and Urine (feces, skin,lungs)
Pharmacodynamics What the drug does to the body
What are complete prescription orders? Date,Time Procedure,therapy Medication and dosage Route of administration frequency special instructions physicians signature
The 5 rights Right drug Right dose Right Patient right Time Right Route (always check allergies)
Therapist driven protocols Used widely today Save time and money Have shown decreased lengths of stay Gives the RCP more flexibility Better Patient outcomes More job satisfaction
selectivity The extent to which a drug affects a specific receptor site THe more specific the less side effects
Lock and Key receptor theory Interaction between a drug or receptor. Only one drug can fit that receptor
Racemic mixtures Drugs that contain two compounds(isomers) that may have different activity
Agonist Drugs that bind to a receptor and cause an effect
Antagonist Drugs that bind to a receptor and block an effect
Potency (strength) Amount of drug required to cause a desired effect
Tolerance Decrease in suceptability to a drug’s effect from continued use
Desensitization Repeated exposure to a drug over a period of time that causes effect to decrease
Half- Life Time required for blood/plasma concentration to fall to half the original concentration
Loading dose Gets the concentration of drug up quickly
Maintenence dose Maintains the level in blood, keeps drug at a theraputic level
Toxicology The study of drugs as they relate to poisons (2-5 million per year)
Emetics Agents that induce vomiting
Theraputic index measurement of a drugs safety
C With
S Without
P After
A Before
ac before meals
bid twice a day
cap capsule
cc cubic centimeter
IM intramuscular
IV Intravenous
L liter
ml mililiter
npo nothing by mouth
pc after meals
po by mouth
prn as needed
q every
qh every hour
qid four times daily
q.2h every 2 hours
q.3h every 3 hours
q.4h every 4 hours
Rx Take
sig directions
stat immediately
tab tablets
tid three times daily
ut dict as directed


Question Answer
Pharmacology The study of drugs (chemicals), including their orgin, properties, and interactions with living organisms.
Drugs Any chemical that alters the organism’s functions or processes.
Pharmacy The preparation and dispensing of drugs.
Pharmacognosy The identification of sources of drugs, from plants and animals.
Each drug has 5 different names, what are they? Chemical, Code, Official, Generic, and Trade (brand) name
Pharmacogenetics The study of the interrelationship of genetic differences and drug effects.
Therapeutics The art of treating disease with drugs.
Toxicology The study of toxic substances and their pharmacological actions, including antidotes and poison control.
What are the official sources of drug information? USP, NF, USP-NF
What are the unofficial sources of drug information? Physicians Desk Reference (PDR) and Pharmacology texts and handbooks
What are the parts of a prescription? Patients name, address and date
Superscription Tells the Pharmacist to take the drug listed and prepare it as specified.
Inscription Lists the name and quantity of the drug being prescribed.
Investigating New Drugs – Phase 1 Small group of healthy volunteers
Investigating New Drugs – Phase 2 Small group of people with disease
Investigating New Drugs – Phase 3 Large group of people with disease
New Drug Application Reporting system for the first 6 months.
What are 2 parts of a drug approval? Chemical identification & animal studies
What are the 4 drug sources? Plant, animal, mineral, synthetic
Subscription Preparation instructions for the Pharmacist
Transcription Instructions to the patient

 

Respiratory Pharmacology Chapter 1 Practice Questions:

1. Aerosolized drug: Beclomethasone dipropionate is grouped with what agent?: Corticosteroid agent

2. Aerosolized drug: Beractant is grouped with what agent?: Exogenous surfactant

3. Aerosolized drug: dornase alfa is grouped with what agent?: Mucoactive agent

4. Aerosolized drug: Epinephrine is grouped with what agent?: Adrenergic agent

5. Aerosolized drug: Ipratropium bromide is grouped with what agent?: Anticholinergic agent

6. Aerosolized drug: Ribavirin is grouped with what agent?: Anti-infective agent

7. Aerosolized drug: Zafirlukast is grouped with what agent?: Antiasthmatic agent

8. and: et

9. Antibiotics and antifungal drugs follow under what category of drugs: anti-infective drugs

10. as needed: prn

11. by mouth: PO

12. The chemical has therapeutic use and manufacturer wishes to market?: Generic name

13. A chemical that changes an organism’s function is called?: drug

14. cubic centimeter: cc

15. a drop: gtt

16. A drug in the body, based on its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination is called: Pharmacokinetics

17. A drug molecule causes its effect in the body is called: Pharmacodynamics

18. Drug’s chemical structure: chemical name

19. The drug’s chemical structure is called?: chemical name

20. every: q

21. every 3 hours: q3h

22. every 4 hours: q4h

23. every day: qd

24. every hour: qh

25. every other day: qod

26. every two hours: q2h

27. An experimental chemical that shows promise as a drug is called?: code name

28. four times daily: qid

29. The generic name becomes once it receives official approval is called?: official name

30. A gram-negative organism and is primarily a nosocomial organism/hospital-acquired disease.: Pseudomonas aeruginosa



31. Human studies are done in three phases what are they?: Phase 1: small # of health subjects, Phase 2: small # of people who have the disease that the drug will treat, Phase 3: large # of people with the disease @ different centers around the country.

32. Important therapeutic gain over other drugs: AA

33. Important therapeutic gain; indicated for a patient with AIDS: A

34. intramuscular: IM

35. intravenous: IV

36. List five advantages of aerosolized agents given by inhalation.: 1. Smaller doses may be given b/c the drug is acting directly on the airway. 2. Side effects are usually fewer and less severe (partly b/c of the smaller dose). 3. Onset of action is quick. 4. Drug is targets the respiratory system. 5. Painless, safe and convenient

37. List one advantage of orphan drugs: A drug available to treat rare disease

38. List one disadvantage of orphan drugs: no recovering of cost.

39. List three orphan drugs.: Beractant (Survanta), Tobramycin and Nitric Oxide

40. liter: L

41. Little or no therapeutic gain: C

42. milliliter: mL

43. Modest therapeutic gain: B

44. Most of today’s drugs come from chemicals…what certain ingredients is active in drugs?: plants, minerals and animals

45. Name the six parts of a prescription.: 1. Patient’s name, address, date. 2. Rx, superscription: directs the pharmacist to take the drug listed and prepare the medication. 3. Inscription, name of drug and the amount prescribed. 4. Subscription, direction to the pharmacist about preparation. 5. “Sig” directions to the patient (some medications must be taken on an empty stomach some w/milk;how many tablets, how many times a day, etc). 6. Prescriber’s name that is, physician’s name

46. Name the therapeutic purpose for drug group antiasthmatic and lntal agent: Inhibition of chemical mediators

47. Name the therapeutic purpose for drug group anticholinergic and atrovent agent: Relaxation of bronchoconstriction

48. Name the therapeutic purpose for drug group antiinfective and ribavirin agent: Elimination of infective agents

49. Name the therapeutic purpose for drug group corticosteroid and budesonide agent: reduction of airway inflammation

50. Name the therapeutic purpose for drug group mucoactive and mucomyst agent.: Decrease in mucus viscosity

51. Name the therapeutic purpose for drug group surfactant and Infasurf agent: prostacyclin analogue

52. Name the therapeutic purpose for the drug group: adrenergic and albuterol agent: Bronchodilation

53. The nonproprietary name: generic name

54. not by mouth: NPO

55. An official source of information about drug standard is called?: U.S. Pharmacopeia-National Formulary (USP-NF)

56. Reference source tells how the drugs works is called?: Physician’s desk reference

57. a spray: nebul

58. The study of drugs (chemicals) is called: Pharmacology

59. The study of toxic substances: Toxicology

60. T or F: The physician must write on the prescription that it is okay to use the generic form of the drug.: True

61. three times daily: tid

62. Treating disease with drugs: Therapeutics

63. twice daily: bid

64. A virus that causes the formation of syncytial masses in cells and may cause respiratory distress in young infants is called: respiratory syncytial virus

65. What agent and drug paralyze people and are used in critical care?: Pavulon drug
Neuromuscular blocking agents

66. What agents help to keep blood from clotting?: Anticoagulants and thrombolytics

67. What does PDR stands for?: Physician’s desk reference

68. What does USP-NF stands for?: U.S. Pharmacopeia-National Formulary

69. What drug gets rid of the excess body fluid (whether in the lungs, heart)?: Diuretic

70. What drug is used to help reduce the effect of pain by affecting the central nervous system?: Morphine, Analgesic, Sedative/hypnotic

71. What drug is used to treat dangerous cardiac dysrhythmias?: Lidocaine, Antiarrhythmics

72. What drugs is used to treat high blood pressure and chest pain?: B Blockers, Nitroglycerin, Antihypertension, Antianginals

73. What drugs treat infections?: antibiotics and antifungal drugs

74. Which orphan drug treats persistent pulmonary hypertension?: Nitric Oxide

75. Which orphan drug treats Pseudomonas aerugonosa in patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis?: Tobramycin

76. Which orphan drug treats respiratory distress syndrome in newborn infants: Beractant (Survanta)

77. acute respiratory distress sydrome (ARDS): Respiratory disorder characterized by respiratory insufficiency that may occur as a result of trauma, pneumonia, oxygen toxicity, gram-negative sepsis, and systemic inflammatory response

78. Advantages of aerosolized medications: dosages are smaller and fiben systemically, less side effects, rapid onset, it targets the system it is supposed to help, painless, and more convenient

79. Aerosolized agents: Group of aerosol drugs for pulmonary applications that includes adrenergic, anticholinergic, mucoactive, corticosteriod, antiasthmatic, and antiinfective agents and surfactants instilled directly into the trachea

80. Airway Resistance (Raw): Measure of the impedance to ventilation caused by the movement of gas through the airway

81. animal studies: once a drug has a chemical name they study how the drug effects animals. they look at the kidneys, liver or other specific organs. they do toxicology studies to look at the effects on reproduction and carcinogenicity of the drug. once they are ok with this they will make application for the new drug approval

82. Brand name / Trade name: Brand name, or proprietary name, given by a particular manufacturer

83. chemical isolation and identification: the first step in drug development is to identify the chemical and its potential useful physiologic effects. also tests possible effects

84. Chemical name: name indicating the chemical structure of a drug

85. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): disease process characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible, is usually progressive, and is associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lung to noxious particles or gases. diseases that cause airflow limitation include chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, and bronchiectasis

86. Code name: name assigned by a manufacturer to an experimental chemical that shows potential as a drug. An example is aerosol SCH 1000, which was the code name for ipratropium bromide, a parasympatholytic bronchodilartor

87. Cystic Fibrosis (CF): inherited disease of the exocrine glands, affecting the pancreas, respiratory system, and apocrine glands. Symptoms usually begin in infancy and are characterized by increased electrolytes in the sweat, chronic respiratory infection, and pancreatic insufficiency

88. drug: it is any chemical that alters the fuction or processes of an organism

89. drug administration: method by which a drug is made available to the body

90. generic name: name assigned to a chemical by the United states adopted name (USAN) council when the chemical appears to have therapeutic use and the manufacturer wishes to market the drug

91. New Drug Application: when the three phases of investigating the drug are done a new drug application is filed with the FDA. this drug no longer experimental and is for the general population

92. New Drug Investigational Approval: phase 1 studies: small number, healthy subjects (look for rates of absorption into the body, how it is distributed, how it is metabolized and how it is eliminated.). phase 2 studies: small number, subjects with disease. phase 3 studies: Large, multicenter studies (they look for safety of drug and power to produce an effect)

93. non-proprietary name: name of a drug other then its trade marked name

94. official name: in the event that an experimental drug becomes fully approved for general use and is admitted to the united states pharmacopeia-national formulary (USP-NF), the generic name becomes the official name

95. orphan drug: drug of biologic product for the diagnosis or treatment of a rare disease (affecting fewer than 200,000 persons in the USA)

96. Parts of a prescrtiption: patients name, address and date, rx meaning “recipe or take thou”, inscription: lists the name and quantity of drug prescribed, subscription: when applicable, directions to pharmacist for preparation, Sig or signa (meaning write): instructions for patient, name of prescriber: physician, the superscription directs the pharmacist to take the drug listed and prepare the medication; the inscription lists the name and quantity of the drug being prescribed; the subscription provids directions to the pharmacist for preparing the medication; and the transcription, or signature, is the information the pharmacist writes on the label as instruction to the patient

97. pharmacodynamics: mechanisms of drug action by which a drug molecule causes its effect in the body

98. pharmacogenetics: study of the interrelationship of genetic differences and drug effects.

99. pharmacognosy: identification of sources of drugs, for plants and animals

100. pharmacology: the study of drugs, including their origin, properties and interactions with living organisms

101. pharmacy: preparation and dispensing of drugs.

102. pneumocystis carinii (jiroveci): organism causing pneumocystis pneumonia in humans, seen in immunosuppressed individuals such as those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

103. prescription: written order for a drug, along with any specific instructions for compounding, dispensing, and talking the drug. This order may be written by a physician, osteopath, dentist, veterinarian, and others but not by chiropractors or opticians

104. the process of drug approval in the USA: chemical isolation and identification, animal studies, investigational new drug approval, new drug application, food and drug administration new drug classification system, orphan drugs

105. Pseudomonas aeruginosa: gram negative organism, primarily a nosocomial pathogen, it causes urinary tract infections, respiratory system infections, dermatitis, soft tissue infections, bacteremia, bone and joint infections, gastrointestinal infections, and various systemic infections, particularly in patients with severe burns and in patients who are immunosuppressed (ex patients with cancer or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS)

106. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV): Virus that causes the formation of syncytial masses in cells. this leads to inflammation of the bronchioles, which may cause respiratory distress in young infants

107. sources of drugs: animal, plant, mineral

108. therapeutics: Art of treating disease with drugs

109. toxicolo9gy: study of toxic substances and their pharmacologic actions, including antidotes and poison control