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QuestionAnswer
AdhesiveSubstance that reduces adhesion.
ElasticityRheologic property characteristic of solids; it is represented by the storage modules G’.
ExpectorantMedication meant to increase the volume or hydration of AW secretions.
GelMacromolecular description of a pseudoplastic material having both viscosity and elasticity.
GlycoproteinProtein with attached oligosaccharide units.
MucinThe principal constituent and high molecular weight glycoprotein, it gives mucous its physical/chemical properties such as viscoelasticity.
Mucoactive agentTerm connoting any medication or drug that has an effect on mucus secretion; may include mucolytic, expectorant, mucospissic, mucoregulatory, or mucokinetic agents.
Mucokinetic agentMedication that increases cough ciliary clearance of respiratory secretions.
Mucolytic agentMedication that degrades polymers in secretions. Classic mucolytics have free thiol groups to degrade mucin, and peptide mucolytics break pathologic filaments of neutrophil-derived DNA or actin in sputum.
Mucoregulatory AgentDrug that reduces the volume of AW mucus secretion and appears to be especially effective in hyper secretory states, such as brochorrhea, diffuse panbron, chiolitis (DPB), CF, and some forms of asthma.
Mucospissic Agentmedication that increases viscosity of secretions and may be effective in therapy of bronchorrhea.
MucusSecretion, from surface goblet cells and submucosal glands, composed of water, proteins, and glycosylated mucins. The glycoprotein portion of the secretion is termed mucin. Mucus (noun) is the secretion; mucous (adjective) is the cell or gland type.
OligosaccharideSugar that is the individual carbohydrate unit of glycoproteins.
PhlegmPurulent material in the AW. From the greek word from inflammation. When expectorated, phlegm is called sputum.
RheologyStudy of the deformation and flow of matter.
SolMacromolecular description of the respiratory secretion in true solution, with the physical property of viscosity (usually referred to as the periciliary layer)
SputumExpetorated Phlegm that contains respiratory tract, oropharyngeal, and nasopharyngeal secretions and bacteria and products of inflammation including polymeric DNA and actin.
ViscosityResistance of liquid to sheer forces. A rheologic property characteristic of liquids and represented by the loss of modulus G’.
Mucoactive therapy should be considered when?After therapy to decreased infection and inflammation.
What does Mucus do?Lubricates, waterproofs and protects against osmotic or inflammatory changes.
What can a normal mucus barrier do?Entrap microorganisms, inhibiting chronic bacterial infection and biofilm formation.
Name 4 Mucoactive agents?N-acetylcysteine (NAC) Dornase Alpha Aqueous aerosols: Water, Saline Hyperosmolar (7%) saline
Indications for N-acetylcysteine (NAC)Bronchitis, efficacy not proven for any dose of NAC for an lung disease
Indications for Dornase alphaCF
Indications for Aqueous aerosols: Water, SalineSputum induction, secretion, mobilization
Indications for Hyperosmolar (7%) salineAW clearance (Mucokinetics) for therapy of CF
Dosages for N-acetylcysteine (NAC)SVN: 3-5mL of 10% or 20%
Dosages for Dornase alphaSVN: 2.5mg/2.5mL ampoule, 1 ampoule Q day
Dosages for Aqueous aerosols: Water, SalineSVN: 3-5mL, as ordered
Dosages for Hyperosmolar (7%) salineSVN: 4mL
Brand Names for N-acetylcysteine (NAC)Mucomyst
Brand Names for Dornase alphaPulmozyne
Brand Names for Aqueous aerosols: Water, SalineDoesn’t have one
Brand Names for Hyperosmolar (7%) salineHyper-Sal
The AW secretion consists of?Mucous Layer – Where mucin glycoprotein is located, and a watery, periciliary layer
Drugs that effect Mucociliary clearance?Surfactants Beta agonist agents
What do Epithelial ion do in the AW?Exchange in the AW surface liquid maintains normal periciliary fluid depth.
CF AW secretions contain how much Mucin?Very little intact mucin.
What does a CF AW consist of?Filled with Pus derived from neutrophil degregation.
What are the physical properties of mucus?Viscosity elasticity cohesivity and adhesivity. Normal ranges of these properties are needed for adequate mucus transport to occur.
What 3 drugs are approved by aerosol to modify AW secretions?NAC (Mucomyst), Dornase alpha, and hypertonic saline.
Classic mucolyticsReduce mucins by serving disulfide bonds or charge sheilding.
What drug does not improve mucus clearance when given as an aerosol and should not be used as a mucoactive agent?NAC (Mucomyst)
What antibiotics is NAC (Mucomyst) incompatible with?Sodium Ampicillin Amphotericin Erythromycin lactobionate Tetracyclines (tetracycline oxytatracycline) Aminoglycosides
What are Potassium iodide and glycerol guaiacolate considered?Expectorants or mucokinetic agents.
Other agents that modify AW secretions:inhaled anticholinergics such as atropine Ttricyclic nucleotides Phospholipids Antiproteases gene therapy
What do studies show about long term use of ipratropium bromide are associated with?Reduction in the volume of mucus secretion in patients with CB.
AD technique incorporates what?Staged breathing with small tidal breaths from expiratory reserve volume, repeated until secretions collect in central AWs.
With IPVThe PT breathes through a mouth piece that delivers high-flow mini bursts at rates exceeding 200 cycles/min.
Chest wall systems consist oflarge volume variable frequency are pulse delivery system attached to an inflatable vest worn by PT.
Pts with long-term problems of secretion management should?be taught as many mucus controlling therapy techniques possible to control their condition.