Question Answer
THE ACTION OF THESE DRUGS IS MEDIATED BY__________ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. B2.
STIMULATION OF THESE RECEPTORS RESULT IN (BRONCHODILATION;AIRWAY SMOOTH MUSCLE RELAXATION). BETA 2
THE MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF CATACHOLAMINES: BEZINE RING,TWO HYDROXYL GROUPS,AMINE SIDE CHAIN.
THREE NATURALLY PRODUCED CATACHOLAMINES: EPINEPHRINE,NOREPINEPHRINE, AND DOPAMINE.
REGARDING MOLECULAR STRUCTURE,HOW ARE EPI. AND RAC. EPI SIMULAR? AND HOW ARE THE DIFFERENT? THEY ARE MIRROR IMAGES,RACEMIC EPI. HAS LESS CARDIAC SIDE EFFECTS.
WHAT IS RACEMIC EPI. USED FOR IN REGARDS TO UPPER AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION? TREATS INFLAMMATION.
WHAT IS ISOPROTERENOL? A SYNTHETIC CATACHOLIMINE,BETA 1 & BETA 2, USED TO TREAT SLOW HEART RATE.
WHAT IS COMT,WHERE IS IT FOUND,AND WHAT IS THE ROLE IN CATACHOLIMINES? COMT IS FOUND INSIDE THE CELL,THIS IS WHERE THE BREAKDOWN OF CATACHOLIMINES WILL TAKE PLACE.
WHAY ARE THE EFFECTS OF CATACHOLIMINE BRONCHODIALATORS LIMITED TO A FEW HOURS? COMT WILL DESTROY IT RAPIDLY.
WHAT CATACHOLIMINES WERE HISTORICALLY USED AS NEBULIZED BRONCHODIALATORS? ISOPROTERNOL
WHAT EFFECT DOES LIGHT HAVE ON CATACHOLIMINES? IT WILL DESTROY IT WITH TIME; MOST IMPORTANTLY IT WILL CHANGE IN COLOR.(PINK).
WHAT ARE THE TWO ADRENERGIC BRONCHODIALATOR DRUGS DISCUSSED IN THE CHAPTER THAT HAVE TE RESORCINOL NUCLEUS IN THEIR MOLECULAR MAKEUP? METAPROTENEROL AND TERBUTALINE.
METAPROTENEROL ALUPENT- SVN,MDI (2~3 PUFFS),TAB,AND SYRUP. DURATION~(2-6HRS).
ALBUTEROL PROVENIL,VENTALIN-SVN~2.5MG DOSE,MDI~(2 PUFFS TID),TAB,AND SYRUP.ONSET~15 MIN.
LEVALBUTEROL XOPENEX- SVN AND MDI
SALMETEROL SERAVENT-(BID),DPI
FORMOTEROL FORADIL- DPI,(BID),30-60MIN
ARFORMOTEROL BROVANA-(BID) 30-60MIN
INDACTEROL ARCAPTA-DPI (24HRS)
______________IS BETA 2 ADRENERGIC THAT MAY BE GIVEN IV TO A PATIENT WITH EMERGENT BRONCHOSPASM. TERBUTALINE.
THE MAJOR BETA 2 DRUG WITH SALIGENIN NUCLEUS IS: ALBUTEROL.
WHAT IS FEV1? IT DETERMINES IF THERE IS AN AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION.
THREE DEVICES USED VIA- INHALATION ROUTE: DPI,MDI,SVN.
GENERIC NAME TRADE [BRAND] NAME
Acetylcysteine Mucomyst SVN Available in: 4 ml unit dose vials of 10% or 20% solution Dosage: 3-5ml of 10% or 20% Frequency: tid, qid
Albuterol sulfate Ventolin, Proventil MDI DPI SVN 90 mcg/puff 200 mcg/capsule 0.5mL (2.5mg) 2 puffs 1 capsule 0.5 % solution tid, qid tid, qid tid, qid
Belcomethasone Beclovent, BecoNase & Vanceril, Vancenase Beclovent &Vanceril BecoNase & Vancenase MDI Nasal Spray 42mcg 42mcg 2 puffs one spray per nare tid, qid tid, qid
Beractant Survanta Direct tracheal instillation Available: 200mg suspension in 8mls NS Dose: 4mls/kg Frequency: q6h -q12h x 4 Txs
Bitolterol Tornalate MDI SVN 370 mcg/puff 0.2% solution 2 puffs 1.25ml (2.5mg) q8 or tid q8 or tid
Budesonide Pulmicort Turbuhaler, Pulmicort Respules Pulmicort Turbuhaler Pulmicort Respules DPI SVN 200-mcg/cap .50mg/2.0ml bid Qd, bid Do not mix – use separate nebulizer
Calfactant Infasur Direct tracheal instillation Available: 210mg suspension in 6mls NS Dose: 3mls/kg Frequency: q6h -q12h x 4 Txs
Colfosceri. Palmitate Exosurf Neonate Direct tracheal instillation 5mls/kg in 2 divided doses q12h x 4 Txs Dry powder – 108mg- mixed with 8mls sterile H2O.
Cromolyn Sodium Intal, Nasalcrom (spray) MDI SVN Nasal Spray 800 mcg/puff Ud/1 ampule 4% solution qid 20mg/2ml (1%) 1 spray each nare qid q4h, tid
Dornase Alfa, D’Nase Pulmozyme SVN Unit dose: 2.5mg/2.5ml ampule Bid, qd Breaks polypeptide backbone. Made from human DNA genes. For: CF Patients
Ephinephrine Adrenalin SVN: 1% solution for nebulizing 0.25-0.5ml (2.5mg-5.0mg) qid Metabolized by COMT Asthma, Acute Bronchitis
Flunisolide AeroBid, Nasalide AeroBid Nasalide MPI Nasal Spray 250mcg/puff 25mcg/spray 2 puffs 2 sprays per nare bid bid
Fluticasone & Salmeterol Advair Diskus DPI 100 mcg of Fluticasone 200 mcg of Fluticasone 500 mcg of Fluticasone 50mcg of Salmeterol 1 capsule bid
Fluticasone Propionate Flovent, Flovent Rotadisk, Flonase MDI DPI SVN 44 mcg/puff 50 mcg/capsule 50mcg/spray 110mcg/puff 100 mcg/capsule 2 sprays/nare 220mcg/puff 250 mcg/capsule qd 2 puffs 1 capsule bid
Formoterol Foradil DPI 12 mcg/capsule 1 capsule bid, q 12hours
Isoproterenol Isuprel MDI SVN 103 mcg/puff 0.5% solution 2 puffs 0.5ml (2.5mg) qid qid
Ipratroprium & Albuterol Combivent, DuoNeb Combivent DuoNeb MDI SVN 18 mcg/puff/Ipratroprium 0.5 mg/Ipratropium 90 mcg/puff of Albuterol 2.5 mg of Albuterol qid qid
Ipratroprium Br Attrovent SVN: 2.5mL of a 2% sol. MDI: 2 puffs, 18mcg/puff Unit Dose: 0.02% Nasal Spray: .03% or .06% 2 sprays
Isoetharine HCL Bronkosol SVN: 0.5% solution 0.5ml (2.5mg) qid
Levalbuterol Xopenex SVN 0.31mg mixed in 3.0mls/NS 0.63mg mixed in 3.0mls/NS 1.25mg mixed in 3.0mls/NS one unit dose tid
Metaproternol Sulfate Alupent, Metaprel MDI SVN 650 mcg/puff 5% solution 2 puffs 0.3ml (15mg) tid, qid tid, qid
Montelukast Singular Oral 10 mg tablets 4mg & 5mg chewable tablets 1 tablet for children 10mg qd (1 Tab)
Nedocromil Sodium Tilade MDI 1750mcg/puff 1.75mg/puff qid
Pentamidine Isethionate NebuPent SVN: 300mg in 6ml, q mo
Pirbuterol acetate Maxair MDI 200 mcg/puff 2 puffs q4 – q6 hours
Poractant Alfa Curosur Direct tracheal instillation Available: 240mg suspension in 3mls NS Dose: 2.5mls/kg Frequency: q12h x 2 Txs
Racemic Epinephrine MicroNefrin, VaponefrinSVN: 2.25% solution for nebulizer 0.25-0.5ml (5.6mg-11.5mg) qid
Ribavirin RibavirinDose & Administration: SPAG: 6g/300ml sterile water12-18hrs/day, 3-7 days
Salmeterol Serevent MDI DPI 25 mcg/puff 50 mcg/capsule 2 puffs 1 capsule bid, q 12hours bid, q 12hours
Sodium Bicarbonate Sodium BicarbonateAvailable in: Injectable vials 4.2%-8.4% Dosage: SVN 2-5ml of 2.5% or 5.0% Frequency: q4h-q8h Direct installation: 5-10mL, PRN
Terbutaline Sulfate Brethine, BrethaireMDI 200 mcg/puff 2 puffs q4 – q6 hours
Theophylline IV: Aminophylline Oral: Quibron, Respbid, Theo-Dur Target Range: 10-20mcg/mL Toxic Ranges: 20-30mcg/mL >40mcg/mL Mild/moderate toxicity Severe toxicity Nausea, cardiac arrhythmia Seizures
Tiotropium Bromide Spriva MDI 18 mcg/puff 1 puff qd
Tobramycin TOBI SVN 300mg/5ml ampule 300mg 28 days on/28 days off
Triamcinolone Acetonide Azmacort, Nasalcort Nasal Spray 100mcg/puff 55mcg/spray 2 puffs 2 sprays/nare tid, qid, qd
Zafirlukast Accolate 20 mg tablets 1 tablet bid
Zanamirvar Relenza DPI 5mg/inhalation 2 inhalations (10mg) bid x 5 days
Zileuton Zyflo 600 mg tablets 1 tablet 600mg qd (1 Tab)


Question Answer
Define Chemical Name The name indicating the chemical structure of a drug
Define Generic Name The name assigned by (USAN) councils when a drug has been determined to have therapeutic use.
Define Official Name When a drug is fully approved for general use by United States of Pharmacopeia; The generic becomes official name.
Define Non-Proprietary Name The other names besides “Marketed name”
Define Drug A chemical substance that can alter an organisms’ function or processes.
Define Pharmacology The study of drugs(chemicals) including origin,properties, and and interactions with living organisms.
What are the two reliable sources that you can find information about drugs and therapeutic use? The United States of Pharmacopeia an The Physician Desk Reference .. also THE PHARMACOLOGICAL BASIS OF THERAPEUTICS & DRUG FACTS AND COMPARISONS.
What is a orphan drug? Designed to treat a particular disease.
What are some of the advantages of drugs delivered my oral inhalation or nasal inhalation? Aerosol doses are smaller than other used for the same purpose and given systemically; Side effects are usually fewer and less severe; Rapid onset; The drug delivery is localized;Safe convenient, and painless.
What is an Anti-infective agent? antibiotics or anti- tuberculous drugs.
What are the five major routes of drug administration? Enteral, Topical,Transdermal,Parenteral,and Inhalation.
What are the four overall factors that affect the effect of a drug in regards to the body? Absorption,Distribution, Metabolism,and Elimination.
What are the 5 barriers that a drug must pass through to reach the smooth muscle cell or gland cell? Airway mucosa, Epithelial Cells, Basement Membrane,Interstitium and Capillary Vascular Network.
If a drug is____________-soluble, it moves more readily through the ” aqueous compartments of the body. Water
In order to move more readily through cell membranes, a drug must be _____- soluble. Lipid
The barriers that that a drug must penetrate will affect the drug’s time of _________ and the time of __________ ____________. Onset; Peak Effect
What is the definition of a Loading Dose? To give a higher quantity of a drug, initially, to quickly achieve a therapeutic level.
Another word for Metabolism is________________. Biotransformed
Maintenance dosing means that the level of a given drug is equal to the rate of ________________. Elimination
The organ that is most involved with metabolizing drugs is the____. Liver
The primary site of drug excretion is the ________. Kidney
What is “Half- Life”? it’s the measure of how rapidly a drug is eliminated in the body.
What is a Drug Receptor? Polypeptides or proteins who’s shape and electric charge provide a match to a drugs corresponding chemical shape or charge.
What is an synergism? When two drugs act on a target organ by different mechanisms of action. And the effect brings a more effective outcome than working independantly.
What is tolerance? A decreased sensitivity to a drug over a long period.
What is hyper sensitivity? When a drug can cause an allergic or immune- mediated reaction that can cause ventilatory maintenance or airway assistance.
The study of drugs in called Pharmacology
The time course and disposition of a drug in the body based on absorption,metabolism, distribution and elimination, is called Pharmokinetics
The mechanism of a drug action by which a drug molecule cause its effect in the body is called( what it does to the body) Pharmacodynamics
What is Pseudomonas aeruginosa? a gram negative organism and is primarily a nosocomial organism.
What is the study of toxic substances? Toxicology
The art of treating diseases is called Therapeutics
Most drugs come from chemicals, however_________,____________, and ___________ also contain active ingredients for drugs. Plants, Minerals, and Animals
In ancient times cromium sodium was used as a muscle relaxer but nowadays it is available as a synthetic form called anti-asthmatic
One advantage of orphan drugs is… It’s good that there’s a drug available to treat rare diseases
One disadvantage of orphan drugs is.. No reasonable expectation of recovering the cost
What are the six parts of a prescription? a.) Patients name b.) the recipe c.) inscription d.)subscription e.)sigma f.)Name of prescriber
True or False: The physician must write on the prescription that it’s okay to use generic form of the drug. True
What kind of drugs paralyze people and are used in critical care? Neuromuscular Blocking Agents
Name of the drugs to keep blood from clotting Anti-Coagulants or thrombolytic agents
A rapid decrease in response to a drug is called tachyphylaxis
The ratio of the dose of a drug that is toxic to 50% of test subject to the dose that provides relief to 50% of the test subjects is the potency or concentration
State the Therapeutic Purpose and name of the Agent:Adrenergic Bronchodilation; Albuterol
State the Therapeutic Purpose and name of the Agent:Anticholinergic Bronchodilation; Epinepherine
State the Therapeutic Purpose and name of the Agent: Mucoactive Clearance of secrections (Mucus thinner); Mucomyst
State the Therapeutic Purpose and name of the Agent: Corticosteroid Reduction of airway inflammation; Triamcinolone acetonide (Flovent)
State the Therapeutic Purpose and name of the Agent: Antiasthmatic Prevent onset development; Cromolyn Sodium
State the Therapeutic Purpose and name of the Agent: Antiinfective Elimination of infective agents; Tobramycin
State the Therapeutic Purpose and name of the Agent: Exogenous surfactants Restoring lung compliance; Calafactant
q4h every four hours
qd everyday
bid twice daily
et and
cc cubic centimeter
gtt a drop
IM intramuscular
L liter
mL millimeter
po by mouth
q every
prn as needed
nebul spray
npo nothing by mouth
qh every hour
qod every other day
q3h every three hours
qid four times daily
q2h every two hours
tid three times daily
IV intravenous
________ _____________ transport occurs by special membrane embedded carrier molecules transporting substances across membranes Carrier mediated
What is pinocytosis? When a membrane engulfs a substance in the the interior vesciles allowing trans-location.
Term used to indicate the proportion of the drug that reaches the systemic circulation is _________________. bioavailability
What does the book means when it says “narrow therapeutic index?” That there is a fine line between therapeutic effects and toxic effects.
Define antagonist blocks or dampens agonist-mediated responses
Define agonist It triggers a response by a cell and most often mimic the action of a naturally occurring substance.
Which of the following is the only route of administration that can’t exert local effect? a) Topical b) Oral c.) Parenteral d.)Inhalation b.) Oral
What type of drug crosses the blood-brain barrier most easily? Non- ionized; Lipid soluble
When delivering a drug via inhalation what percentage of the drug is inhaled into the lungs 10%
The two major branches of the human nervous system are CNS or Peripheral Nervous System
The central Neervous System is made up of Brain and Spinal Cord
The peripheral NS is made up of____________, _____________, and _____________________ sensory neurons, somatic neurons, and the autonomic NS.
The autonomic system is named in two parts called: Sympathetic and Parasympathetic system
The autonomic system is not under our_______________ control. conscience
What is a neurotransmitter? When a neurotransmitter, or chemical agent released by a particular brain cell, travels across the synapse to act on the target cell to either inhibit or excite it
Name the two sympathetic nervous system neurotransmitters norepinephrine & acetylcholine
The parasympathertic system only uses ACH
The sympathetic nervous system acts as an _____ system. alarm
Neural propagation is both a ________ and ___________ event electrical and chemical
The enzyme that brakes down ACh is called cholinesterase
Name of the test for Myasthenia gravis Tensilon
Test for Asthma methacholine challenge
Major parasympathetic nerve is called Vagas
Adrenergic receptor sites can be stimulated in two ways_________________ and ____________. Nerve fibers or chemicals distributed by blood
Norepinephrine and epinephrine (destroyed)by an enzyme called COMT




Question Answer
What are the antiinfective drugs? Pentamidine isethionate (NebuPent), ribavirin (Virazole), tobramycin (TOBI) and zanamivir (Relenza)
What is Pentamidine indicated for? the prevention of Pnuemocystis pneumonia (PCP) in high risk HIV infected patients
What is Ribavirin indciated for? the treatment of hospitalizaed infants with severe lower respiratory tract infection caused by RSV
What is Tobramycin indciated for? the management of chronic P. aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis.
Zanamivir is indciated for what? the treatment of uncomplicated acute illness caused by the influenza virus
Why is aerosol administration used for pentamidine? local traget delivery, with fewer side effects
How is pentamidine administrated? the Respirgrad II nebulizer, 5-7 L/min
Mode of action for Pentamidine? blocks RNA and DNA synthesis, inhibits oxidative phosphorylation and interfers with folate transformation. (unknown)
How can you prevent local airway reaction with pentamidine? use a beta-adrenergic like ipratropium
Concerns with using pentamidine are what? risk of infection with TB and exposure to the drug itself
What does RSV cause? bronchiolitis and pnuemonia
What is RSV-IGIV? respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin intravenous, a sterile liquid formulation of IgG containing neutralizing antibody to RSV
What is RSV-IGIV indicated for? the preventionof serious lower respiratory tract infection with RSV
What does RSV-IGIV offer? a prophylactic alternative to the treatment of acute RSV infection with aerosolized ribavirin
What is Palivizumab indciated for? the prevention of serious lower respiratory treact disease caused by RSV
What is Cystic Fibrosis? an inherited disease of the exocrine glands, affecting the pancreas, respiratory system and apocrine glands.
What is Respiratory Syncytial virus? a virus that causes formation of syncytial masses in infected call structures
What is PCP? Pneumocystis pneumonia, an interstitial plasm cell pneumonia caused by the oraganism pneumocystis carinii.



Question Answer
Clearance How quickly the body eliminates the drug
Routes of Drug Administration -Enternal(GI absorption, systemic effect)-Parenteral (IV, IM, ID, subcutaneous)-Inhalation (local absorption, local effect)-Transdermal (skin absorption, systemic effect)-Topical (local absorption, local effect)Intrathecal ” “
Parenteral includes a depot which is a place of storage or fat depot
Drug Formulations -Tablet, capsule, elixir (enteral)-Solution, suspension, (parenteral)-Gas, aerosol (inhalation)-Patch, Paste (transdermal)-Powder, lotion, ointment (topical)
Suspension Something you must shake or mix first
Aerosol Suspension of a liquid or powder in a gas or powder that is inhaled
Transdermal Penetrate to the bone
Devices used to administer drugs by inhalation -Vaporizer-Atomizer-Nebulizer-Metered Dose Inhaler (MDI)-Dry Powder inhaler (DPI)-Ultasonic Nebulizer (USN)
Nebulizer Converts liquid into small particles to be inhaled
Atomizer Same as nebulized but allows large particles to pass
Ultrasonic nebulizer Electronic device vibrates small particles.
Pharmacokinetic Phase Describes the time course and disposition of the drug in the body based on these four things: Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination
Absorption The process of the drug’s passage into the body ex. Topical ointment
Distribution The process of the transport of the drug to the site of the need ex. Pain medicine is distributed through the blood
Metabolism The biochemical interaction the drug has with the host organism
Elimination The removal of the drug and/or its metabolites from the body
Pharmacodynamic Phase Describes the mechanisms of drug action by which a drug molecule causes its effect in the body
Structure-Activity Relation Compare Isoproterenol and Albuterol -Isoproterenol increases HR -Albuterol minimally effects HR
Drug Receptors Have unique chemical shape and electrical charge
Dose-Response Relation Dose and response are directly proportional up to the drug’s maximal effect
Maximal Effect The maximum effect a drug can produce regardless of dose
Potency The dose producing 50% of the drug’s maximal effect (ED50)
Therapeutic Index (TI) The ratio of the LD50 to the ED50; LD50:ED50
LD50 The dose of a drug that will be lethal for 50% of a test population
ED50 The dose of a drug that will be effective for 50% of a test population
Drug Interaction -Antagonism -Synergism -Additivity -Potentiation
Antagonism A drug or chemical that is able to bind to a receptor but causes no response (blocks receptor sites); ex. Pain blockers
Synergism Occurs when two drugs act on a target organ by different mechanisms of action, and the effect of the drug pair is greater than the sum of the separate effects of the drugs
Additivity Occurs when two drugs act on the same receptors and the combined effect is the sum of the two drugs effects, up to a maximal effect
Potentiation One drug has no effect but helps another drug increase the activity of the other drug; like a catalyst
Drug Responsiveness -Adverse -Idiosyncratic effect -Hypersensitivity -Tolerance -Tachyphylaxis -Pharmacogenetic responses
Adverse Effect BAD
Idiosyncratic effect Unusual or opposite effect, or an absence of effect
Hypersensitivity Allergic response or immune related reaction to a drug
Tolerance Describes the decreasing intensity of response to a drug over time
Tachyphylaxis Describes a rapid decrease in a responsiveness to a drug
Pharmacogenetic responses The hereditary differences in the way the body handles certain drugs


Trade Name Official Name Group
Pitressin vasopressin Vasopressors
Neo-Snyphrine phenylepherine Vasopressors
Levophed norepinepherine Vasopressors
Adrenaline epinephrine Vasopressors
Crystalloids N/S, R/L, Normosol Volume expander
Colloids Albumin/Pentastarch Volume expander
Heparin Heparin Anti-thrombotics
Coumadin warfarin Anti-thrombotics
Streptase streptokinase Thrombolytics
Activase alteplase-recombinant Thrombolytics
Lasix furosimide diuretics
Valium diazapam benzodiazepines
Versed midazolam benzodiazepines
Noctec chloral hydrate non barb/benz hypnotic
Diprivan propofol IV anaesthetics
Etomidate amidate IV anaesthetics
morphine morphine analgesics (narcotic)
Xylocaine lidocaine local anaesthetic
Anexate flumazenil benzodiazapine antagonist
Narcan naloxone narcotic antagonist
methacoline methacoline direct cholinergic agonist
Prostigmine neostigmine indirect reverseable cholinergic agonist
Tensilon edrophonium indirect reverseable cholinergic agonist
Pavulon pancuronium ND-NMB (nic antagonist)
Zemuron rocrronium ND-NMB (nic antagonist)
Anectine succinylcholine D-NMB (nic antagonist)
atropine atropine Antimuscarinics/parasympatholytics 3
Hyosine Scopolomine Antimuscarinics/parasympatholytics 3
Atrovent itraproprium bromide Antimuscarinics/parasympatholytics 4
Spiriva tioproprium bromide Antimuscarinics/parasympatholytics 4
bLES bLES surface-active agents
Prolastin alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor
cephalosporin carbapenum Beta Lactams
streptomycin streptomycin Anti-TB
Rifadin rifampin Anti-TB
Myambutol ethambutol Anti-TB
Tebrazid pyrazinamide Anti-TB
Pentan pentamidine Anti-protazoan
Lanoxin digoxin Inotrope/cardiotonic: Cardiac Glycoside
Intropin Dopamine Inotrope/cardiotonic: B1 adrenergic
Dobutrex dobutamine Inotrope/cardiotonic: B1 adrenergic
Primacor milrinone Inotrope/cardiotonic: cAMP PDI
CaCl CaCl Inotrope/cardiotonic: electrolyte
Atropine and Isuprel/isoproternol chronotropes
Xylocaine lidocaine Class I: antiarrhythmics (membrane stabilizers)
Tenormin atenolol Class II: antiarrhythmics
Cardarone amiodorone Class III: antiarrhythmics (increased refractory time)
Cardiazem diltiazem Class IV: antiarrhythmics (slow channel block)
Adenocard adenosine non VW antiarrhythmics
MgSO4 MgSO4 non VW antiarrhythmics
Nipride nitroprusside Vasodilators
morphine morphine Vasodilators
Vasotec enalapril ACE Inhibitor
Nirostat Nitroglycerine Anti-anginal (nitrates)
Cardiazem diltiazem Anti-anginal (Ca++ blocker)
NO2 NO2 Pulmonary Vasodilator
penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenum penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenum Inhibition of cell wall synthesis
amphotericin B amphotericin B Inhibition of protein synthesis
tetracyclines, aminoglycosides tetracyclines, aminoglycosides Inhibition of protein synthesis
rifampin, fluoroquinolones etc. rifampin, fluoroquinolones etc. Inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis




Questions Answers
Class: Antituberculin Used to treat Tuberculosis Ethambutol
Class: Antibiotic Used to treat Gram Negative Infections Also with Tuberculosis. Streptomycin
Class: Non-steroid anti-inflammatory Used to treat General Inflammation. Aspirin Ibuprofen (motrin, Advil) Naproxen (Naprosyn, Aleve)
Class: Antibiotic Uesd to treat Gram neg. infections (Pseudomonas, E, Coli) Tobramycin
Class: Antituberculin Use to treat Tuberculosis **used with Isoniazid Rifampin
Class: Antibiotic Use to treat Gram Neg. Infections. (Pseudomonas, E. Coli) Gentamycin
Class: Antituberculin 1yr. use Used to treat Tuberculosis **used with Rifampin Isoniazid (INH)
Class: Broad-spectrum Antibiotic Use to treat Rocky Mountian Spotted Fever Mycoplasma PneumoniaChronic Bronchitis Tetracycline
Class: Non-penicillin-type Antibiotic Treats Gram Positive Bacterial infections For patients ALLERGIC to Penicillin Caphalotihin (Keflin)Cephaloridine (Loridine)Caphalexin (Keflex)
Class:Stop-smoking Assistence Curbs addiction to Nicotine (Transdermal Patch) NicoDerm
Class: Non-Penicillin-type Antibiotic For patients ALLERGIC to Penicillin Or Mycoplasma Pneumonia Erythromycin
Class: Stop-smoking Assistance Curbs addiction to Nicotine Nocotrol NS
Class: Penicillin RESISTANT-Type Antibiotic Treats Gram + Bact. Infection that are RESISTANT to normal Penicillin. MethacillinOxacillineNafacillin
Class: Stop-smoking Assistance Curbs addiction to Nicotine (Gum) Nicorette
Class: Penicillin-Type Antibiotic Treats Fram positive Bacterial infections(staphylococcus, streptococcus, etc) CarbenicillinAmoxicillinAmpicilline
Class: Respiratory Stimulant Treats Central Sleep Apnea for NEONATES Aminophylline for Neonates(also called Theophylline)
Class: Respiratory Stimulant Treats Central Sleep Apnea Dopram(Doxapram)
Class: Artificial Surfactant Treats Immuature neonatal lungs Exosurf
Class: Respiratory Stimulant treats Central Sleep Apnea Medroxyprogesterone(Hormone)
Class: Artificial Surfactant Treats Immature neonatal lungs Survanta
Class: Artificial Surfactant Treats Immature neonatal lungs Curosurf
Class: Antipneumocystis Agent Treats Pneumocystis carinii(mostly in AIDS) Pentamadine(Nebupent)
Class: Artificial Surfactant Treats Immature neonatal lungs infasurf
Class: Antiviral(Deliver with a SPAG unit or a particle scavenger device) Treats RSV(Respiratory syncytial virus) Ribavirin(Virazole)
Class: Benzodiazepine Reduce Anxiety Restoril
Class: Narcotic Analgesic Provides Sedation and Pain Relief(Do not use on COPD patients) Codeine
Class: Benzodiazepine Reduces Anxiety Ativan
Class: Narcotic Agent Reverses Narcotic Influence Narcan(Naloxone)
Class: Benzodiazepine Reduces Anxiety Xanax
Class: Narcotic Agent Provides Sedation and Pain Relief (Do Not Use on COPD patients!) Demoral(Meperidine)
Class: Bronchodilator BACK DOOR Treats Wheezing Especially good for emphysema Atrovent(Ipratropium Bromide)
Class: Brochodilator SIDE DOOR Therapeutic Blood Level: 10-20 ug/ml for Long Term Bronchodilation Theophylline(Aminophylline & Theo-Dur)
Class: Bronchodilator BACK DOOR Adult dose: DPI Inhaler – Q Day for Long Term Bronchodilation Sprivia(Tiotropium Bromide)
Class: Bronchodilator SIDE DOOR for Long Term Bronchodilation Choledyl(Oxytriphylline)
Class: Bronchodilator BACK DOOR MDI Only for Long Term Bronchodilation Oxivent(Oxitropium)
Class: Mucolytic Agent Adult dose: 2.5 mg or 2.5 ml Prevents infection in CF Pulmozyme(Dornase Alpha)
Class: Bronchodilator BACK DOOR Long Term Bronchodilation & Drying Agent Robinul(Glycopyrrolate)
Class: Mucolytic Agent – Adult Dose: 2-4 cc of 10 – 20% strength – treats Thick Secrections Mucomyst ( Acetylcysteine)
Class: Bronchodilator Front Door – Adult Dose: 0.63 mg TID – Treats Wheezing Xopenex (Levalbuterol)
Class: Bronchodilator Front Door – Adult dose: 1.25 md QID – Treats Weezing Bitolterol (Tornalate)
Class: Bronchodilator Front Door – Adult dose: 0.5 mL – Main side effect: TREMORS – Treats Wheezing Albuterol
Class: Bronchodilator Front Door – Adult dose: MDI (2 Puffs q6 hr) – Treats Wheezing Pirbuterol (Maxair)
Class: Bronchodilator Front Door – Adult dose: 0.5 mL – Tablet – Treats Wheezing Terbutaline (Brethine)
Class: Bronchodilator BACK DOOR – Cardiac Stimulant – Treats Wheezing, Bradycardia, or Reverse cholinergic Crisis (as seen in Myasthenia Gravis) Atropine (Sch 1000)
Class: Bronchodilator Front Door – Adult dose: 0.3 mL – Main side effect : TACHYCARDIA – treats Wheezing Alupent (Metaproterenol)
Class:: Bronchodilator Front Door – Adult dose: MDI (2 puffs BID) Salmeterol (Serevent)
Class: Surface Active Agent – Treats Thick Secretions – also LOWERS pH Sodium Bicarbonate
Class: Asthma Prophilaxis – Do not give when wheezing present. – Dose: MDI 2 puffs QID Nedocromil (Tilade)
Class: Wetting Agent – May cause irritation and bronchospasm for thick Secretions Hypotonic Saline (0.45% saline)
Class: Corticosteriod – For Anti-inflammatory of Airways Prednisone
Class: Wetting Agent – May cause irritation and bronchospasm – For Sputum Induction Hypertonic Saline (1.8-15% Saline
Class: Corticosteroid For Anti-inflammatory of Airways Solu-Medrol (Methylprednisolone)
Class: Asthma Prophylaxis – Do not give when wheezing present – Not a rescue medication- For Inhibit histamine release (prevent bronchoconstriction) Intal (Cromolyn Sodium)
Class: Corticosteroid – For Anti-inflammatory of Airways Decadron (Dexamethasone)
Class: Corticosteroid – For Anti-inflammtory tiof Airways Beclamethasone (Beclovent or Vanceril)
Class: Corticosteroid – For Anti-inflammatory of Airways Pulmocort (Budesonide)
Class: Corticosteroid – For Anti-inflammatory of Airway Azmacort (Triamcinolone)
Class: Decongestant – Mucosal vasoconstrictor – For Acute epiglottitis Stridor following extubation Racemic Epinephrine (S2 or Vaponephrine)
Class: Corticosteroid – For Anti-inflammatory of Airways Flovent (Fluticasone)
Class: Leukotriene Modifier – Not a rescue medication – For Alternative to corticosteroids Zyflo (Zileuton)
Class: Corticosteroid – For Anti-inflammatory of Airways Aerobid (Flunisolide)
Class: Leukotriene Modifier – Not a rescue medication – For Alternative to corticosteroids Accolate (Zafirlukast)
Class: Leukotriene Modifier – For Alternative to corticosteroids Singulair (Montelukast)
Class: Cardiac Glycoside – For Atrial Arrhythmias Quindine or Propranolol (Inderal)
Class: Bronchodilator (Combined long and short term) – For Bronchoconstriction Advair (Fluticasone and Salmeterol)
Class: Anti-arrhythmic agent – For Atrial Arrhythmias & Ventricular tachycardia Pronestyl (Procainamide)
Class: Cardiac Glycoside – For Increase Cardiac Contractility (CHF, Left heart failure Digoxin (Lanoxin)
Class: Anti-arrhythmic agent – For Pulseless V-tach and V-fib (non responsive to defibrillation) Amioderone
Class: Cardiac Glycoside – For Increase Cardiac Contractility (CHF, Left heart failure) Digitalis (Crystogdigin)
Class: Anti-arrhythmic agent – Controls Ventricular rate (supraventricular tachycardia) Verpamil
Class: Anti-arrhythmic agent – For PVCs Pulseless V-tach V-fib Lidocaine
Class: Vasopressor – Use to Increase blood pressure Dopamine
Class: Anti-angina – For Angina pectoris (Chest pain) Nitroglycerine
Class: Diuretic – For Cerebral edema, Drug Overdose Osmitrol (Mannitol)
Class: Vassopressor – For Increase blood pressure (cardiogenic shock) Levophed (Norepinephrine)
Class: Diuretic – For CHF, pulmonary edema, Fluid overload Lasix (furosemide)
Class: Vasodilator – For Lower blood pressure – Decrease ventricular preload Nipride (Sodium Nitroprusside)
Class: Diuretic – For Peripheral Edema, Cerebral Edema Diamox (acetazolamide)
Class: Seditive Minor Tranquilizers – Use to Provide Sedation Valium (Diazepam)
Class: Sedative Barbiturate – Use to Provide Sedation Seconal (Secobarbital)
Class: Sedative Minor Tranquilizers – Use to Provide Sedation Versed (Midazolam)
Class: Sedative NON-Barbiturate – Use to Provide Sedation Dalmane (Flurazepam)
Class: Sedative Barbiturate – Use to Provide Sedation Pentabarbital (Nembutal)
Class: Sedative NON-Barbiturate – use to Provide Sedation Quaalude (Methaqualone)
Class: Sedative Barbiturate – Use to Provide Sedation Phenobarbital (Luminal)
Class: Sedative NON-Barbiturate – Use to Provide Sedation Noctec (Chloral Hydrate)
Class: Narcotic Analgesic – Use to Provide Sedation and Pain Relief (Do not use on COPD Patients!) Morphine
Class: Benzodiazepine – Use to Reduce Anxiety Halcinon


Question Answer
What are the 5 Cardiac Medications? 1. Crystodigin(digitalis) 2. Nitroglycerin 3. Quinidine 4. Lidocaine 5.Verapamil
Cardiac Medication: What is the Use of Crystodign (digitalis)? Another Name: Lanoxin(digoxin) USE: 1. CHF to increase contractility 2. Control atrial tachycardia & fibrillation
Cardiac Medication: What is the Use of Nitroglycerion? Another Name: Isordil USE: Stops the pain that comes from angina
Cardiac Medication: What is the Use of Quinidine? Another Name: Propranolol (Inderal) USE: Treat Atrial Arrhythmias
Cardiac Medication: What is the Use of Lidocaine? USE: Treat PVCs, V-tach, v-fib
Cardiac Medication: What is the Use of Verapamil? USE: 1. Decrease heart rate 2. Treat PSVT
What are the 3 types of Vasoactive Medication? 1. Diazoxide 2. Norephinephrine (Levophed) 3. Metoprolol (Lopressor)
Vasoactive Medication: What is the Use of Diazoxide? Another Name: Nipride, Sodium nitropresside USE: reduce systemic arterial blood pressure AND reduce ventricular preload
Vasoactive Medication: What is the Use of Norephinephrine (Levophed)? USE: Lower blood pressure & decrease right ventricular preload.
Vasoactive Medication: What is the Use of Metoprolol (Lopressor)? USE: Slow Heart Rate
What are the 4 types of Sedations? 1. Narcotic Analgesics 2. Sedative/Hypnotic 3. Tranquilizers 4. Benzodiazepines.
Sedative Medication: What is the Use of Narcotic Analgesics? Another Name: Meperidine (Demoral), Morphine USE: 1.Decrease pain, anxiety. 2. Can be reversed with Narcan (Naloxone).
Sedative Medication: What is the 2 types & the Use of Sedative/hypnotic? 1.Barbiturates, Another Name: Secobarbital (Seconol) 2.Non-Barbituarates Another Name: Flurazepam(Dalmane), Chloral Hydrate(Noctec) USE: Provide sedation & Drowsiness.
Sedative Medication: What is the Use of Tranquilizers? Another Name: Valium (Diazapma), Versed (Midazolam) USE: Control anxiety, Relax muscles.
Sedative Medication: What is the 7 types & the Use of Benozodiazepines? Another Name: Ativan, Librium, Dalmane, Xanax, Halcinon, Valium, Versed USE: 1. Only slight suppression of ventilatory drive. 2. Control anxiety 3. Can be reversed by Romazicon (flumazenil).
What are the 3 Diuretics? 1. Loop Diuretics. 2. Osmotic Diuretic 3. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitiors.
Diuretics: What is the Use of Loop Diuretics? Another Name: Furosemide (Lasix) USE: Treat pulmonary edema, CHF, fluid overload related to kidney & liver function.
Diuretics: What is the Use of Osmotic Diuretic? Another Name: Osmitrol (Mannitol) USE: 1. Decrease cerebral fluid, manage cerebral edema. 2. Treat drug toxicity.
Diuretics: What is the Use of Carbonic anhydrase Inhibitors? Another Name: Acetylzolamide (Diamox) USE: Treat cerebral edema.
What are the 2 special Medications? 1. Surfactant therapy and 2.Anti-pneumocystis medication.
What is the 3 types & Use of Surfactant Therapy? Another Name: Exosurf, Neosurf & Infasurf USE: For infants demonstrating pre-mature lungs.
What is the use of Antipneumocystis Medication? Another Name: Pentamadine (nebupent) USE: Treat pneumocystis carinii associated w/aids. Health care workers must use expiratory filters and one-way valves.


Question Answer
What are the 8 types of Pharmacology for Ventilation? 1. Ventilatory Drive 2. Airwary Dilation 3. Decongestants 4. Corticosteroids 5. Mucolytics&Surface Active Medications 6. Wetting Agents 7. Airway Constriction Prevention 8. Drug Sequencing.
What are the 2 types of Ventilatory Drive? 1.Central Sleep Apnea – Doxapram(Dopram) & Medroxyprogesterone(hormone) 2. for Neonates – Aminophylline.
Name the 4 Bronchodilators in Airway Dilation? 1. Front Door Bronchodilators 2. Back Door Bronchodilators (Parasympatholytics & Anticholinergics) 3. Side door Bronchodilators 4. Combining Bronchodilators.
In Airway Dilation Name 6 types of Front Door Bronchodilators? 1. Albuterol 2. MetaProterenol 3. Terbutaline 4.Pributerol 5. Salmeterol 6. Xopenex.
What is the Brand , Strength, Dose & Side effects of Albuterol? BRANDS: Proventil, Ventolin STRENGTH: 0.5% Dose:0.5mL SIDE EFFECTS: Tachycardia & Tremors.
What is the Brand , Strength, Dose & Side effects of Metaproterenol? BRANDS: Alupent STRENGTH: 5% DOSE : .3mL SIDE EFFECTS:Tachycardia, tremors.
What is the Brand ,given with, Strength & Dose of Terbutaline? BRANDS: Brethine STRENGTH: 0.1% DOSE: 0.5mL Given with: Aerosol/Subcutaneous Injection.
What is the Brands, given with & Dose of Pributerol? BRAND: Maxair DOSE: 0.2 mg/puff. Given with MDI.
What is the Brands , given with& Dose of Salmeterol? BRAND: Serevent DOSE: 21 mg/puff. Given with MDI.
What is the Brands , given with of Xopenex? SRENGHT: 1.25 and 0.63 mg. Given with aerosol.
What are the 6 associated side effects in a Front door bronchodilators? 1.Tachycardia 2. Tremors 3. Nausea 4. Headaches 5. Cardiac Palpitation 6. Tachyphyaxis. When Side effects occurs – 1st stop therapy – notify the doctor/nurse-then document. Then Alter dosage for next treatment. If Problem persists, alter frequency.
In Airway Dilation Name 2 types of Back Door Bronchodilators? 1. Ipratroprium Bromide – Atrovent 2.Atropine Sulfate (Sch 1000) – A) It has Drying quality- it will dry secretions B) it is also a cardiac stimulant C) It will help reverse a cholinergic crisis.
In Airway Dilation Name the types of side Door Bronchodilators? 1.Aminophylline: A)Brand- Theophylline, Theo-Dur/ Choledyl(Oxytriphylline) 2)Phosphodiesterase inhibitor.
When an amniophylline blood test is taken what is the normal? Aminophylline blood test – 10-20ug/mL . If too high then is toxic side effects are 1)Tachycardia 2. Tremors 3. Seizures 4. Vomiting/nausea
In Airway Dilation what is combining Bronchodilators? It can be mixed from different classes ( Front door with Back door etc.). Never Administer 2 Front door Bronchodilators.
Name one Decongestants? Racemic Epinephrine. Brand: Vaponephrine. It treats with upper airway inflammation – 1) Acute Epiglottis 2. Croup 3. post-Extubation Inflammation. Drug may discolor with time.
What is Corticosteroids? It prevents and relieve inflammation of airway walls. Inflammation is one of the components of asthma so sorticosteriods are key in treatment.
On What patients Corticosteroids used for? Used on asthma pt., COPD and status asthmaticus.
What are the causes by using Corticosteroids ? May cause Candidiasis(oral yeast infection) – prevent by judiciously rinsing mouth after inhaler use. If an infection occurs-treat w/ Nystain. Also causes 1. Adrenal suppression. 2. Cushingoid syndrome.
Common examples of Corticosteroids? 1. Methylprednisolone (solu-mederol). 2. Prednisone. 3.Beclamethasone (Belcovent). 4. Dexamethasone (Decadron). 5. Triamcinolone (Azmacort). 6.Fluticasone (Flovent). 7. Flunisolide (Aerobid).
Name 2 Mucolytics & 2 Surface Active Medications? Mucolytic medication – Acetylcysteine(mucomyst) and Dornase Alpha(pulmozyme). Surface Active Medication – Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) and Sodium bicarbonate.
Mucolytics Medication: What is Acetylcysteine Mucomyst ? 1. These are thin secretions that break up disulfide bonds in the sputum. 2. Can cause bronchospasm-should be given w/bronchodilator. 3. Comes in 10% and 20% strenght – use 2-4 cc. Never combine aerosolised antibiotics.
Mucolytics Medication: What is aerosolised antibiotics? 1. Erythromycin, Amphotericin B, and Ampicillin etc.
Mucolytics Medication: What is dornase Alpha(Pulmozyme) ? 1. These are thin secretions. 2.Commonly used by cystic fibrosis pts. Dose: 2.5 mg-aerosolized. 3. Requires refrigeration.
Surface Active Medication: What is ethanol (ethyl alcohol)? 1. Reduces sputum’s ability to form foamy bubbles. 2. Can be used in pulmonary edema.
Surface Active Medication: What is Sodium Bicarbonate ? Changes sputum pH and thins secretions.
What are the 2 wetting Agents? 1. Water – Not a drug. Oral consumption of water is the best ‘First’ option to thin secretion. 2. Saline – Hyptonic(0.45%) Isotonic(0.9%) Hypertonic(>1.8%).
What are the 2 airway constriction Prevention? 1. Nedocromil and 2. Cromolyn sodium.
How does Nedocromil (Tilade) help in Airway constriction? Nedocromil – Never use during bronchoconstriction (wheezing). Prevent bronchoconstriction.
How does Cromolyn Sodium help in Airway constriction? Cromolyn Sodium – Prevents bronchoconstriction by preventing degranulization of the mast cell. It should not be used to relieve current bronchoconstriction.
What is Drug Sequencing? 1. The optimal order in which medication should be given when aerosolised: 1. Beta sympathomimetics 2. Parasympatholytics 3. Corticosteriods.