Question Answer
What are the three phrases of drug action and what happens in each smal gropu of healthy volunteers-onset of drug action elimination side effects, treatment in small group with disease- 100-300 is drug safe, large multicenter studies 1000-3000 is drug better than regular treatment control group receives regular treatment
when was the original food and drug act passed? 1906 USP and NF were given official status
When was the current food and drug act passed? 1938 food drug and cosmetic act becomes law, it protects the public
What is the FDA’s role in sale and control of drug use power to approve or deny new drug applications and ensure compliance via inspections
define Affinity cell recipient
define efficacy how well a drug produces its desired effect
define agonist drug that binds to a specific receptor broducing a stimulatory response
define antagonist drug that prevents an agonist from binding to its specific receptor
define receptor site The site either on a cell surface or inside cell that binds with a specific substance or drug
define potency amount of a drug that must be given in order to produce a particular response
define half life major determining factor of the length of a drugs action in the body
define anaphylactic shock severe sudden allergic reaction that may be life-threatening
what is informed consent
list different receptor types commonly acted upon by RC drugs lipid soluble (Corticosteroids), transmembrane receptor (Albuterol)
be able to tell how G protein receptors work start effector system, produces second messenger that causese cell response
what is a side effect effects that were not necessarily intended
what is the advantage of the aerosol route of drug administration deliver medication to the immediate site of action with few systemic adverse effects
what things affect deposition of aerosol drugs in the lung
give causes of medication errors manufacturing errors ,prescribing errors, administration errors
list rights of drug adminstration right patient, right drug, right dose, right route, right time, right technique, right documentation
review different routes of drug admnistration enteral via gi tract, sublingual, buccal, Parenteral injection, topical, transdermal, inhalation, nasal, rectal, vaginal, eyes, ears
review different names drug goes through during approval chemical name-unique one of a kind often complicated and lengthy, generic name- less complicated there is only one generic name for each drug, trade name- created by a namufacturer to establish a product name that belongs to them
define pharmacology study of drugs including their origin properties and interactions with living organisms
define respiratory care pharmacology application of pharmacology to the treament of cardiopulmonary disease
what does MAR stand for Medication administration records
define therapeutic classification of drugs What condition the drug is used to treat
define pharmacological classification of drugs how the drug works in the body’s systems, tiessues, and molecues
what is an aerosol liquid or fine powder that is sprayed in a fine mist
what are the three common delivery devices for aerosol drug administration nebulizers, dry powder inhalers (DPI’s), Metered dose inhalers (MDI’s)
what is the most common source of therapeutic drugs today
what factors affect drug action weight, age, sex, race
which receptors are found in the parasympathetic nervous system and what do they do when stimulated nicotinic, muscarinic
what distributes drugs throughout the body bloodstream
what organ metabolizes drugs liver
what organ eliminates drugs from the body kidney
what will happen to drug elimination of drugs if a patient has liver or kidney disease
define tolerance the development of resistance to a drugs effects to the degree that does must be raised continually to acheive the desired response
Question Answer
When was Albuterol introduced? 1980’s
What is the generic name for Alupent? Metaproterenol
What’s the diff between a sympathomimetic bronchodilator (B- agonist) and an adrenergic bronchodilator? Sympathomimetic bronchodilators are derived from epinephrine.
What are other names for Albuterol? Proventil, Ventolin, ProAir
What is the normal dose of Albuterol via SVN? 0.5ml (2.5mg) via SVN
What is the onset of Albuterol? 15 min
What is the Normal dose of Levalbuterol? 2 puffs of 90mcg/puff Q4-6 hr. MDI
What is the other name for Levalbuterol? Xopenex
What are advantages of levalbuterol? No increased HR, no jitters
Name 2 long acting bronchodilators? Samlmeterol & formoterol
What is the duration of long acting bronchodilators? 12 hrs.
What is the Normal dose for foradil DPI? 12 mcg/blister DPI BID
What is the Normal dose for Albuterol MDI? 2 puffs of 90 mcg/puff MDI
What is the Normal dose of Xopenex MDI? 2 puffs of 90mcg/puff Q4-6 hrs
Adrenergic bronchodilators attach to receptors via what? a, B1, B2 receptor stimulation
What is the Normal dose of Atrovent SVN? 0.5mg solution via SVN TID or QID
What is the normal dose of 1 puff Atrovent MDI? 18mcg/puff MDI QID
what is combevent? Combination MDI product
what is the onset time for combivent? 15 min
what is Duo neb? combination product SVN
what is the onset time for DuoNeb? 30 min
what is another name for Atrovent? Ipatropium bromide
what is another name for Spiriva? Tiotropium bromide
what is the duration of Spiriva? 24 hours
what is the onset time for Spiriva? 30 min
what is the normal dose of Spiriva? 18 mcg/inhalation Qday DPI
what is the mode of action for Anticholinergic agents? blocks the action of acetylcholine
what are the indication for Adrenergic bronchodilators? reversible airflow obstruction
what are the short acting bronchodilators? albuterol levalbuterol pirbuterol
what are the Racemic Epinephrine bronchodilators? vaponephrine
what is the duration of albuterol? 5-8 hrs
normal dose for salmeterol? 25 mcg/puff MDI 50 mcg/ blister DPI bothe given BID
what is the on set time for salmeterol? 20 min
what is the duration of salmeterol? 12 hrs or longer
what are othe names for salmeterol? serevent advair
what are other names for Formoterol? Foradil Perforomist symbicort
what si another name for Arformoterol? Brovana
what is the normal dose for Brovana? 15 mcg via SVN BID
what is another name for Maxair? Pirbuterol
what is the normal dose for Maxair? 2 puffs Q4-6 hrs 200 mcg/puff MDI
what is the onset time for maxair? 5 min
what is the duration for Maxair? 5 hrs
What are the two(2) CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDES that interact within BRONCHIAL SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS? cAMP (adenyl cyclase) & cGMP (guanyl cyclase)
What is cAMP and cGMP net physiologic effect on Bronchial Smooth Muscle? cAMP-B2 andrenergic recepror sites are stimulated, uses Mg2+ to convert ATP to cAMP to result in Bronchodilation.cGMP – A-andrenergic receptors stimulated , coverts guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to cyclic GMP
What does the A-andrenergic blockade drugs do? Influences the biochemical event of preventing guanyl cyclase activation which PREVENTS bronchoconstriction
What does B2-andrenergic stimulation drugs do? influences the biochemical event of adenyl cyclase activation causing brochodilation
What is the purpose of a Phosphodiestrase inhibition medications? influences the biochemical event prevents dehydration of cyclic AMP to 5-AMP, thus keeping it active longer which PREVENTS the chance of bronchoconstriction.
Whis is the main use of cholinerginergic stimulation medications? influences the biochemical event guanyl cyclase activation resulting in bronchoconstriction.
Describe the significance of antigen-antibody reactions on the surface of the mast cell? When exsposure of an appropriate antigen occurs (2 IgE molecules) of the same specificity, the antibody reaction triggers the biochemical sequence that leads to mast cell degranulation.
ALBUTEROL( Ventolin,Proventil) B2 stimulation; adenyl cyclase activation, increase in cyclic AMP
BITOLTEROL(Tornalate) B2 stimulation; adenyl cyclase activation, increase in cyclic AMP
PIRBUTEROL(Maxair) B2 stimlation; adenyl cyclase activation, increase cyclic AMP
TERBUTALINE(Brenthine,Brieanyl) B2 stimulation; adenyl cyclase activation, increase in cyclic AMP
EPINEPHRINE(Adrenaline) B2 stimulation(cardiac);adenyl cyclase activation, increase in cyclic AMP
IPRATROPIUM BROMIDE(Atrovent) Cholinergic Blockade;prevents guanyl cyclase activation,decrease cGMP
OXYTOPIUM BROMIDE(Spiriva) cholinergic blockade; prevents guanyl cyclase activation,decreses in cGMP
TOLAZOLINE(priscoline) A-BLOCKADE;PREVENTS guanyl cyclase, decrease cGMP
ZILEUTON(zyflo) LEUKOTRIENE MODIFIER; 5′ lipoxygenase inhibitor
NEDOCROMIL(Tilade) BLOCKS antigen-antibody reaction; PREVENTS mast cell degranulation and mediator release
METHYLXANTHINES(Theophyline,caffene,Theobromide,Aminophylline) PHOSPHODIESTERASE inhibition; prevents degradation of cyclic AMP to 5′- AMP; increases cAMP
ATROPINE BLOCKS cholinergic-induced bronchospasm,bronchodilatory action
TERBUTALINE B2 agonist stimlation during a bronchospasm
Relate the utility of cromolyn for the treatment of asthma. non-steriodal medication (anti-inflammatory) can reduce the need for quick relivers and reduce bronchial hyperrespnsiveness. also can improve morning peak flow and decrease symptoms of nocturnal asthma
Describe the make-up of methemoglobin? Ferrous ion (Fe2+) in the heme portion of hemoglobin becomes oxidized to the ferric state (Fe3+);tyrosine substitutes histidine in either A or B chain in the Globin protion of the hemeglobin molecule. tyrosine causes ferrous ion to oxidize to ferric state
How does mehemoglobin affect tissue oxygenation? I
Oxygen attachment on hemoglobin? Pyrrole Ferrous ion(heme portion)
Attachment od CO2 on hemoglobin? Teminal Amine group Globin portion
Attachment of H+ on hemoglobin? imidazole group on deoxygenated hemoglobin
Discuss how coperativity enhances the binding of oxygen to hemoglobin at the lungs and how it facilitates the release of oxygen to the cells at the tissues? Cooperativity ehances bonding of oxygen by increasing bonding potentional. Conversely, at the tissue level the unloading of oxygen molecule facilitates the release at oxygen at the other sited
4 factors that inflence oxygen- hemoglobin affinity? body temp. , PaCO2, Arterial pH, 2-3-DPG
Define Bohr Effect: Effect of Carbon Dioxide or (H+) pn uptake and relase of oxygen from the hemoglobin(effect mild)
Define Haldane Effect: influence of CO2 binding and unbinding on the release and uptake of oxygen , respectively, by the hemoglobin molecule