Question Answer
What is the formula for cardiac output? Heart Rate * Stroke Volume Remember to conver to liters
What are the two pharmacological agents for hypertensive emergencies? Nitroprusside Sodium (Nitropress) Intravenous nitroglycerine
Arteries Cary oxygenated blood Resistant Vesssels Thick muscle
Arterioles Are small arteries
Veins Carry deoxygenated blood Less thick muscle Capacity vessles
Veinules Small Veins
Capillaries contain no smooth muscle Arterioles branch into capillaries at the tissues where gas exchange takes place.
Thrombus A clot the forms within a blood vessel or organ cavity such as the heart.
Thromboembolism A traveling thrombus in a vein
Beta Blockers Decrease myocardial oxygen consumption, cardiac output, heart rate, blood pressure and afterload.
Acebutolol Beta Blocker Secretal
Atenolol Beta Blocker Tenormin
Metoprolol Beta Blocker Lopressor
Propranolol Beta Blocker Inderal LA
Anticoagulant Prevents the formation of the fibrin clot by interfering with one of the steps leading to fibrin formation.
Thrombolytics (Fibrinolytics) Actually dissolve and liquefy the fibrin of the existing clots
Anti-Coagulants Heparin/ Warfarin (indirect) Lepirudin (Direct Acting)
Alteplase Thrombolytic Activase (tpa)
Reteplase Thrombolytic Retavase (tPA)
Streptokinase thrombolytic Streptase
Tenectaplase thrombolytic TNKase
Depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents Bind to Ach receptor site initiate a massive depolarization of the muscle. Cause initial muscle fasciculations short acting
Non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents Competitive antagonist binds to a receptor site Ach would occupy. Prevents motor end plate from depolarizing Non selective Can be reversed. Can also affect autonomic nervous system.
Ultrashort duration succinylcholine (Anectine)
Intermediate Duration Cisatracurium (Nimbex) Vercuronium (Norcuron)
Long Duration Pancuronium (Pavulon)
What is the neurotransmitter for the somatic nervous system? Ach
What breaks down Ach? Acetylcholinesterase (Ache)
The somatic nervous system has receptors where? The skeletal muscle
What are three benefits associated with neuromuscular blocking agents? 1. Reduce spontaneous breathing. 2. Remove movement that can dislodge tubes. 3. Reduce 02 consumption with patients with poor oxygenation.
What are two more beneftis associated with neuromuscular blocking agents? 1. Improve patient synchrony with the ventilator. 2. Used to facilitate intubation.
What is the neuromuscular blocking agent that is depolarizing and can be reversed? Succinylcholine (Anectine)
The first nonpolarizing nueromuscular blocking agent. Pancuronium (Pavulon
The second nonpolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent. Vecuronium (Norcuron)
The third nonpolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent. Cisatracurium (Nimbex) Broken down in the blood stream less effects on liver/kidney.
Hypnotic A medication that induces sleep
Sedative A medication that reduces CNS arousal
Anxiolytic Any medication that reduces the symptoms of anxiety
Induction relates to the time it takes to create the appropriate level of anesthesia
Maintenance Relates to continuation of the anesthetized state
Termination Refers to the time it takes for a patient to recover from anesthesia
First stage of anesthesia Analgesia- Conscious Sedation
Second stage of anesthesia Loss of consciousness (Reflexes like cough are present)
Third Stage of anesthesia Surgical anesthesia (complete respiratory depression) (loss of blinking reflex/eye movement)
Fourth stage of anesthesia Complete loss of respiratory drive, loss of cardiovascular tone.
The antagonist of opoids Naloxone (Narcan)
Doxapram Ventilatory stimulant Postanesthesia for drug-induced respiratory depression
Ceffeine Ventilatory stimulant Apnea of prematurity
Common antidepressents Prozac Paxil Celexa Zoloft Norpramin Pamelor Tofranil
What are the four types of pain receptors? Stretch Temperature Deep pressure CHemical
Alprazolam Benzodiazepine Xanax
Chlordiazepoxide Benzodiazepine Librium
Diazepam Benzodiazapine Valium
Midazolam Benzodiazapine Versed
Lorazepam Benzodiazepine Ativan
Benzodiazepines have sedative, hypnotic and anxiolytic affects
Narcan Naloxone
Versed Midazolam
Diprovan Propofol
Valium Diazepam
Pavulon Pancuronium bromide
Nimbex cistracurium besylate
Norcuron Vecuronium
Propofol Anesthetic Diprivan
Ketamine Anesthetic Ketaler
Inhalation anesthetic N20
First category to treat hypertension ACE Inhibitors Causes vasodilation
Second category to treat hypertension Diruectics Decrease in blood volume
Third category to treat hypertension B-Blockers Decrease Cardiac Output
Fourth category to treat hypertension Calcium-CHannel BLockers Vasodilation
Baroreceptors pressure sensors
Stretched to far sense high pressure send signals to decrease sympathetic tone and reduce blood pressure
Stretched too little Sense low pressure Send signals to increase sympathetic tone and increase blood pressure
What is the test to make dosing adjustments to heparin Prothrombine Time (PT)
What is the test to make dosing adjustments to warfarin Partial prothrombine time (PTT)
What are the four side effect of opoid analgesics Respiratory depression (Apnea) Circulatory Depression Shock Respiratory arrest (Cardiac arrest)
The reversal agents to non-depolarizing neuromuscular agents Neostigmine Pyridostigmine
Nociceptive nervous system organ system responsible for dealing with pain
Analgesia Refers to the reduction in the sensation of pain
Ventilatory stimulants increase the rate and depth of respirations