Respiratory System Test Bank:

1. accessory muscles of breathing: muscles of the neck, back, and abdomen that may assist the diaphragm and the internal and external intercostal muscles in respiration. Often used in some breathing disorders or during exercise

2. acinus: any small, saclike structure, particularly one found in a gland. The functional structure formed beyond each terminal bronchiole

3. alae: The two flared openings that make up the external nares

4. alveolar-capillary membrane: tissue that separates air from blood in the lung; consists of alveolar epithelium, basement membrane, and capillary endothelium, along with their associated structures

5. alveoli: small outpouching of walls of alveolar space through which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood occurs

6. angle of Louis: slightly opaque angle where the manubrium articulates with the body of the sternum

7. anterior nares: the opening to the nose

8. apices: uppermost portion of the lungs

9. carina: bifurcation of the trachea into the right and left main stem bronchi

10. cilia: tiny hairlike projections that line mucous producing structures. Generally, they operate in a wavelike motion moving mucus along the structure

11. costal cartilage: fibrous tissue that connects the ribs to the sternum and to each other anteriorly

12. costophrenic angle: an acute angle where the costal pleura meets the diaphragm

13. cricoid cartilage: ring of cartilage that forms the lower border of the larynx

14. diaphragm: large dome-shaped muscle that separates the thorax from the abdomen; the primary muscle of ventilation

15. ductus arteriosus: vascular channel in the fetus that joins the pulmonary artery directly to the descending aorta; it normally closes after birth

16. ductus venosus: vascular channel in the fetus passing through the liver and joining the umbilical vein with the inferior vena cava; before birth, it carries highly oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetal circulation

17. during a normal vaginal birth, how much lung fluid is cleared from the lung due to compression of the thorax in the birth canal?: one third

18. epiglottis: flat cartilage that extends from the base of the tongue backward and upward

19. Eustachian tubes: bilateral tubes that connect the nasopharynx to the middle ear and mastoid sinus

20. external nares: the external opening of the nasal passages

21. external oblique: abdominal muscle group that functions as an accessory muscle of ventilation

22. external respirations: part of the respiratory process that involves the exchange of gases in the alveoli of the lungs

23. false ribs: of the 12 pairs for ribs forming a large part of the thoracic skeleton, the first 7 are called true ribs, and the next 5are false ribs; the first 3 attach to the ribs above and the last 2 are free.

24. fissures: narrow clefts or slits; the lines that divide or separate the lobes of the lung glottis

25. floating ribs: last 3 rib pairs that are free at their ventral extremities

26. foramen ovale: opening in the septum between the right and left atria in the fetal heart. This opening provides a bypass for blood that would otherwise flow to the fetal lungs. After birth, this functionally closes

27. function of the upper airways: passageway for gas flow

28. gladiolus: the body of the sternum

29. glottis: variable opening between the vocal cords

30. hilum: vertical opening on either side of the mediastinum through which all the airways and pulmonary vessels pass

31. hypopharynx: lower portion of the upper airway between the oropharynx and the larynx

32. intercostal muscles: referring to the muscle group between the ribs

33. intercostal nerves: formed before birth, primary components of the somatic nervous system that carry nervous signals from the brain stem to the respiratory muscles

34. internal oblique: abdominal muscle group that functions wean accessory muscle of ventilation

35. internal respirations: the exchange of O2 and CO2 at the tissue level

36. larynx: organ of the voice that is part of the upper air passage connecting the pharynx with the trachea. It accounts for the large bump in the neck called the Adam’s Apple and is larger in men than women, although remains the same size in boys and girls until puberty

37. laryngopharynx: one of 3 regions of the throat, extending from the hyoid bone to the esophagus

38. lobes: major divisions of the lungs, the right lungs has 3 lobes and the left has 2 lobes

39. manubrium: upper triangle portion of the sternum

40. mediastinum: a portion of the thoracic cavity lying in the middle of the thorax (between the two pleural cavities) extends from the vertebral column to the sternum and contains the trachea, esophagus, heart and great vessels of the circulatory system

41. mucociliary escalator: a term used to define the process where the cilia of the airways continually move mucus from the lower respiratory trace to the oral cavity

42. nasopharynx: upper portion of the airway behind the nasal and oral cavities

43. no air enters the newborn lung until the transpulmonary pressure gradient exceeds: 40 cc H2O

44. the normal newborn trachea is approximately how long?: 5-6 cm and 4mm in diameter



45. oropharynx: posterior region of the oral cavity spans the space between the uvula and the upper rim of the epiglottis

46. ossification of the ribs ad sternum is normally complete by what age?: 25 years of age

47. palate: bony plate that separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity

48. parietal pleura: thin membrane covering the surface of the chest wall, mediastinum, and diaphragm that is continuous with the visceral pleura around the lung hilum

49. pharynx: the throat, tubular structure about 13cm long that extends from the base of the skull to the esophagus and s situated immediately in from of the cervical vertebrae. The pharynx

50. phrenic nerves: paired nerves that originate as branches of the spinal nerves C3-5, pass down along the mediastinum and innervate the diaphragm

51. pores of Kohn: openings between adjacent alveoli

52. primary lobule: the terminal bronchiole and the cluster of respiratory bronchioles that it supplies

53. pulmonary surfactant: promotes lung inflation, protects the alveolar surface, begins production around 24-25 weeks, comprised of phospholipids, protein and trace carbohydrates

54. rectus abdominus muscles: abdominal muscle group that functions as an accessory muscle in ventilation

55. scalene muscles: referring to eh three muscles arising from the cervical vertebrae, inserting into the first and second ribs, an accessory muscle in ventilation

56. segments: minor divisions of the lung, each segment is associated with a major branch of the airway

57. soft palate: structure composed of mucous membrane, muscular fibers, and mucous glands, suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate forming the roof of the mouth

58. sternal angle: the fused connection between the manubrium and the body of the sternum is known as the sternal angle of angle of Louis

59. sternocleidomastoid muscles: muscle of the neck that is attached to the mastoid process of the temporal bone and superior nuchal line and by separate heads to the sternum and clavicle; this muscle works together to flex the head

60. sternum: elongated flattened bone forming the middle portion of the anterior thorax

61. suprasternal notch: the notch above the sternum

62. This is a moveable shell that makes ventilation possible: the thorax

63. trachea: large main intrathoracic airway

64. true ribs: the first 7 ribs on each side of the thorax

65. turbinates: bony structures that extend from the lateral walls of the interior nasal passages

66. type 1 pneumocyte: cuboidal secretory epithelia that line the blind tubules of the acinus cells

67. type 2 pneumocyte: pneumocyte granular cells that are highly active forms part of the lining of the alveoli. These cells secrete surfactant and other substances

68. uvula: small cone shaped process suspended in the mouth from the middle of the posterior border of the soft palate

69. vallecula: folds that form a space between the tongue ad epiglottis. This is the key landmark for oral intubation

70. visceral pleura: thin membrane covered by mesothelial cells that cover the entire surface of the lung, dipping into the lobar fissures

71. what are 3 embryological distinct germinal tissue layers: endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm

72. what artery is the only artery in the body that carries deoxygenated blood?: pulmonary artery and its branches

73. what does the laryngotracheal tube form from?: from a groove in the 4th pharyngeal pouch

74. what is the adult alveolar-capillary membrane gas exchange surface area?: ~140 meters squared

75. What is the average alveolar size?: 0.2mm

76. What is the average amount of alveoli in an adult lung?: the average is 480 million, but estimates suggest we have 270-790 million

77. What is the name of the rule that provides an estimate of ventilation/gas exchange capacity for each lung: the 60 to 40 rule

78. what is the primary function of the respiratory system?: continuous absorption of oxygen and excretion of carbon dioxide

79. what is the primary muscle of ventilation: diaphragm

80. when does respiratory development begin?: on or about 22 days or the embryonic period

81. when does the anatomic closure of the ductus normally occurs: 3 weeks of birth,

82. xiphoid process: pointed lower portion of the sternum

Respiratory System Terms and Definitions:

1. Accessory muscle of breathing: The scalene, sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis and abdominal wall muscle are accessory muscle. Muscle use for more forceful breathing.

2. Acinus: Clusters of bronchioles, also referred to as primary lobule; amount is 10,000.

3. Alae: Flared openings that form the two external nares

4. Alveolar capillary membrane: Tissue that separates air from blood in the lungs.

5. Alveoli: Air sac of the lungs

6. Angle of Louis: Articulation point between the manubrium and the body of the sternum

7. Anterior Nares: opening to the nose

8. Apices: Uppermost portion of the lungs

9. Carina: Bifurcation of the trachea into the right and left main stem bronchi.

10. Cilia: finger like projections that aids in movement of particles.

11. Costal Cartilage: Fibrous tissues that connect the ribs to the sternum and to each other anteriorly.

12. Costophrenic Angle: Acute angle where the coastal pleura meets the diaphragm

13. Cricoid Cartilage: Ring of cartilage that forms the lower borders of the larynx.

14. Diaphragm: Large dome-shaped muscle that separates the thorax from the abdomen; the primary muscle of ventilation.

15. Ductus Arteriosis: Vascular channel in the fetus that joins the pulmonary artery directly to the descending aorta.

16. Epiglottis: Flat cartilage that extends to form the base of the tongue backward and upward

17. Eustachian Tube: Drains fluid out of the middle ear and allow gas to move in or out of the middle to equalize pressure on either side of the tympanic membrane.

18. External Nares: The outer flared openings

19. External Oblique: Abdominal muscle group that functions as an accessory muscle.

20. External Respiration: Gas exchange between the blood and the body exterior

21. False Ribs: 8-10 ribs that do not attach directly to the sternum

22. Fissure: Narrow cleft or slits; the lines that divide or separate the lobes of the lung glottis.

23. Floating Rib: 11-12 ribs that do not attach to the sternum, and it only attaches to the vertebrae column.

24. Foramen Ovale: Opening in the septum between the right and left atria in fetal heart. This opening provides a bypass for blood that would otherwise flow to the fetal lungs.

25. Gladiolus: Also known as the manubrium

26. Glottis: Variable opening between the vocal cords

27. Hilum: Vertical opening(s) on either side of the mediastinum through which all the airways and pulmonary vessels pass.

28. Hypopharynx: Lower portion of the upper airways between the oropharynx and larynx

29. Intercostal muscle: One of the primary muscle of ventilation

30. Intercostal Nerves: Are formed long before birth and are primary components of the somatic (motors) nervous system that carry the nervous signal from the brain stem to the respiratory muscle; helps aid in expanding and lifting the ribcage.

31. Internal Oblique: Abdominal muscle group that functions as an accessory muscle of ventilation.

32. Internal Respiration: Gas exchange between the blood and tissue cells.

33. Laryngopharynx: A subdivision of the pharynx inferior to the oropharynx

34. Larynx: Voicebox; Plays in role of speech; Primary functions are to protect the respiratory tract during eating and drinking and phonation.

35. Lobes: Major division of the lungs; the right lung has three lobes, and the left lung has two lobes.

36. Manubrium: Upper triangular portion of the sternum

37. Mediastinum: Portion of the thoracic cavity lying in the middle of the thorax. It extends from the vertebral column to the sternum and contains the trachea, esophagus, heart, and great vessels of the circulatory system and lymphatic structures are well.

38. Mucociliary Escalator: Pertaining to the ciliated mucosa. The stroking action of millions of cilia propels surrounding mucus at the speed of 2 cm per min.

39. Nasopharynx: Lies at the posterior end of the nasal cavity and extends to the tip of the uvula. Consist of the adenoid tonsils.

40. Oropharynx: Located posterior region of the oral cavity consists of the palatine tonsils.

41. Palate: Bony plate that separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity

42. Parietal Pleura: Thin membrane covering the surface of the chest walls, mediastinum, and diaphragm that is continuous with the visceral pleura around the lung hilum

43. Pharynx: The posterior portion of the nasal and oral cavities opens into

44. Phrenic Nerve: Paired nerves that originate as branches of spinal nerve c3-c5 pass down along the mediastinum, and innervates the diaphragm

45. Pores of Kohn: Opening to the adjacent alveoli

46. Primary Lobule: Consist of single terminal bronchioles

47. Pseudostratified Epithelial: Appears to be organized in layers, but in which each cell actually contacts the basement membranes.

48. Pulmonary Surfactant: Detergent-like substance secreted into the alveoli that reduce surface tension and stabilizes alveoli.

49. Rectus Abdominis Muscle: Group of muscle that acts as accessory muscle for ventilation

50. Scalene Muscle: The three muscle arising from the cervical vertebrae; inserting into the first and second rib; accessory muscle of ventilation

51. Segments: Minor division of the lungs, each segment is associated with a major branch of the airway.

52. Soft Palate: Soft posterior part of the palate that is not supported, consist of the uvula.

53. Sternal Angle: The fused connection between the manubrium and the body of the sternum

54. Sternocliedomastoid muscle: Location originates from the manubrium and clavicle and inserts on the mastoid process of the temporal bone. Function during shrugging lifts upper chest; muscle activated during forceful breathing.

55. Sternum: Elongated flattened bone forming the middle portion of the anterior thorax

56. Suprasternal notch: Notch located superior of the manubrium

57. Trachea: Large main intrathoracic airway

58. True Ribs: 1-7 ribs that attach to the sternum

59. Turbinates: Bony structures that extend from the lateral walls of the interior nasal passage

60. Type II Pneumocyte: Cuboidal Epithelia that are concentrated in the corners of the septa

61. Type I Pneumocyte: Squamous Epithelial that covers the septa

62. Uvula: The end of the soft palate hang down int the posterior portion of the oral cavity

63. Vallecula: A depression lying lateral to the median epiglottis folds and separating it from the pharyngoepiglottic fold

64. Visceral Pleura: Thin membrane covered by mesothelial cells that cover that enters the surface of the lungs, dipping into the lobular fissure.

65. Xiphoid Process: Pointed lower portion of the sternum

Respiratory System Definitions:

1. 2ml/kg: the amount of anatomic dead space in a typical adult

2. 10 cm: the length that the diaphragm can be pulled down during maximal inspiration

3. 12 pairs: the rib cage is formed by ____of ribs

4. 16-17: each alveolar sac opens into about ________alveoli

5. 60-to-40 rule: the right lung is slightly larger than the left lung because of the location of the heart, because of this the right lung is said to provide 60% of ventilation and left lung is assumed to provide the remaining 40%

6. absorption of O2 and excretion of CO2: primary function of the respiratory system

7. adventitia: an outer covering of connective tissue

8. afferent pathways: ascending pathways that transmit sensory impulses to the brain

9. alae: two flared openings that form the external nares

10. alveolar-capillary membrane: blood-gas barrier where gas exchange occurs between alveolar gas and pulmonary capillary blood

11. alveoli: the tiny airways only 0.3 mm in diameter ends in a cluster

12. angle of louis: external maker of the point where the trachea divides into the left and right main stem bronchi, also known as the sternal angle

13. anterior nares: openings to the internal nose, located posterior to the vestibules

14. apices: the uppermost regions of the lungs

15. C3, C4, C5: innervate each hemidiaphragm, spinal cord injuries at or above here result in diaphragm paralysis

16. canals of Lambert: openings that connect alveoli with secondary respiratory bronchioles

17. carina: important landmark that is used to identify the level where the two mainstem bronchi branch off from the trachea, at the base of the aortic arch

18. compliant; less: the thoracic wall in infants is more ____, and their muscles are ______developed than the muscles of adults and provide little structural support

19. conducting airways: the first 15 generations of the lower airways function to convey gas from the upper airway structures that participate in gas exchange with blood

20. costal cartilage: a cartilaginous joint that is on the lateral edges of the manubrium and the sternal body and forms the attachment between the ribs and sternum

21. costophrenic angle: the angle where the costal parietal pleura joins the diaphragmatic parietal pleura

22. cricoid cartilage: in a child, this is the narrowest region of the upper airway

23. diaphragm: normally does not actively participate in exhalation.

24. diaphragm and intercostal muscles: primary muscles of ventilation

25. ductus venosus, ductus arteriosus, and foramen ovale: three important bypass pathways of function in the developing fetus to enhance the flow of blood to developing organs

26. efferent pathways: descending pathways that send sensory impulses from the brain

27. epiglottis: in an infant, this is longer, less flexible, and lies in a more horizontal position

28. eustachian tubes: link the upper airway to the middle ear and drain fluid out of the middle ear and allow gas to move in or out of the middle to equalize pressure on either side of the tympanic membrane

29. external respiration: the exchange of gas between the atmosphere and blood

30. floating ribs: rib pairs 11 and 12 because they are not attached to the sternum

31. glottis: in an adult, this is the narrowest region of the upper airway

32. internal respiration: the exchange of gas between blood and tissues

33. larynx: lies below the hypopharynx and is formed by a complex arrangement of nine cartilages and numerous muscles; functions to protect the respiratory tract during eating, drinking, and phonation

34. left lung: has an upper and lower lobe separated by one fissure

35. lobes; fissures: each lung is divided into two or three ______ which are separated by one or more ________

36. L/S ratio of 2 or more: indicates a relatively low risk for development of respiratory distress syndrome

37. L/S ratio of less than 1.5: associated with a high risk for development of respiratory distress syndrome

38. macrophages: defensive cells that patrol the alveolar region and phagocytize foreign particles and cells

39. mediastinum: lies between the left and right pleural cavities that contain the lungs



40. mucociliary escalator: the stroking action of millions of cilia that propels the surrounding mucus

41. mucosa: an inner layer that forms a mucous membrane primarily composed of epithelial

42. nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx, laryngopharynx: subdivisions of the pharynx

43. pairs 1-7: true ribs because they are attached directly to the sternum

44. pairs 8-12: false ribs because they are either indirectly attached to the sternum or not attached at all

45. palate: the floor of the nasal cavity primarily formed by the maxilla

46. parietal pleura: the inner layer of the thoracic wall is lined with a serous membrane called _________

47. pharynx: the posterior portion of the nasal and oral cavities that is lined with stratified squamous epithelium

48. phrenic nerves and intercostal nerves: are formed long before birth and are primary components of the somatic nervous system that carry nervous signals from the brainstem to the respiratory muscles

49. pleural space: fluid filled space between teh parietal and visceral pleural membranes

50. pores of kohn: the openings that allow gas to move from one alveolus to another

51. primary function of the lymphatic system: is to clear fluid from the interstitial and pleural spaces to help maintain the fluid balance in the lungs

52. primary lobule: a single terminal bronchiole supplies a cluster of respiratory bronchioles; acinus

53. pulmonary surfactant: promotes lung inflation and protects the alveolar surface, beings to be produced around 24 to 25 weeks of development by type II pneumocytes

54. respiratory airways: the microscopic airways beyond the conducting airways that carry out gas exchange with blood

55. right lung: upper, middle, and lower lobes separated by two fissures

56. scalene, sternocleidomastoid, pectoral, and abdominal wall muscles: predominant accessory muscles

57. segments: the further division of the lobes; anatomists say their are 10 on each side

58. “sniff position”: extension of the head and lower jaw to alleviate obstruction in an unconscious patient

59. soft palate: the posterior portion of the oral cavity, has soft tissue composition and ability to move upward to seal off the nasal cavity

60. sternal angle: the fused connection between the manubrium and the body

61. sternum: long, vertical flat bone found on the anterior side that is composed of the manubrium, the body, and the xiphoid process

62. suprasternal notch: a shallow depression on the superior edge of the manubrium

63. terminal bronchioles: the smallest conducting airways and function to supply gas to the respiratory zone of the lung

64.thoracic cavity: cone-shaped cavity that house the lungs and the contents of the mediastinum; functions to protect the vital organs within and is capable fo changing shape to enable air to be moved into and out of the lungs

65. trachea: extends from its connection to the cricoid cartilage down through the neck and into the thorax to the articulation point between the manubrium and body of the sternum

66. turbinates: three shelflike bones that protrude into the cavity from the lateral walls

67. type II pneumocytes: rounded secretory cells

68. type I pneumocytes: flatter squamous epithelial cells

69. type I pneumocytes: the alveolar septa are covered with extremely flat squamous epithelia called _____________.

70. upper respiratory tract: the airways that start at the nose and mouth and extend down to the trachea

71. uvula: the part of the soft palate that hangs down into the posterior portion of the oral cavity

72. visceral pleura: serous membrane covering the lungs