Respiratory System Test Bank:
1. accessory muscles of breathing: muscles of the neck, back, and abdomen that may assist the diaphragm and the internal and external intercostal muscles in respiration. Often used in some breathing disorders or during exercise
2. acinus: any small, saclike structure, particularly one found in a gland. The functional structure formed beyond each terminal bronchiole
4. alveolar-capillary membrane: tissue that separates air from blood in the lung; consists of alveolar epithelium, basement membrane, and capillary endothelium, along with their associated structures
5. alveoli: small outpouching of walls of alveolar space through which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood occurs
6. angle of Louis: slightly opaque angle where the manubrium articulates with the body of the sternum
7. anterior nares: the opening to the nose
8. apices: uppermost portion of the lungs
9. carina: bifurcation of the trachea into the right and left main stem bronchi
10. cilia: tiny hairlike projections that line mucous producing structures. Generally, they operate in a wavelike motion moving mucus along the structure
13. cricoid cartilage: ring of cartilage that forms the lower border of the larynx
14. diaphragm: large dome-shaped muscle that separates the thorax from the abdomen; the primary muscle of ventilation
15. ductus arteriosus: vascular channel in the fetus that joins the pulmonary artery directly to the descending aorta; it normally closes after birth
17. during a normal vaginal birth, how much lung fluid is cleared from the lung due to compression of the thorax in the birth canal?: one third
18. epiglottis: flat cartilage that extends from the base of the tongue backward and upward
19. Eustachian tubes: bilateral tubes that connect the nasopharynx to the middle ear and mastoid sinus
20. external nares: the external opening of the nasal passages
21. external oblique: abdominal muscle group that functions as an accessory muscle of ventilation
22. external respirations: part of the respiratory process that involves the exchange of gases in the alveoli of the lungs
23. false ribs: of the 12 pairs
24. fissures: narrow clefts or slits; the lines that divide or separate the lobes of the lung glottis
25. floating ribs: last 3 rib pairs that are free at their ventral extremities
26. foramen ovale: opening in the septum between the right and left atria in the fetal heart. This opening provides a bypass for blood that would otherwise flow to the fetal lungs. After birth, this functionally closes
27. function of the upper airways: passageway for gas flow
28. gladiolus: the body of the sternum
29. glottis: variable opening between the vocal cords
30. hilum: vertical opening on either side of the mediastinum through which all the airways and pulmonary vessels pass
31. hypopharynx: lower portion of the upper airway between the oropharynx and the larynx
32. intercostal muscles: referring to the muscle group between the ribs
33. intercostal nerves: formed before birth, primary components of the somatic nervous system that carry nervous signals from the brain stem to the respiratory muscles
34. internal oblique: abdominal muscle group that functions wean accessory muscle of ventilation
35. internal respirations: the exchange of O2 and CO2 at the tissue level
36. larynx: organ of the voice that is part of the upper air passage connecting the pharynx with the trachea. It accounts for the large bump in the neck called the Adam’s Apple and is larger in men than women, although remains the same size in boys and girls until puberty
37. laryngopharynx: one of 3 regions of the throat, extending from the hyoid bone to the esophagus
38. lobes: major divisions of the lungs, the right lungs has 3 lobes and the left has 2 lobes
39. manubrium: upper triangle portion of the sternum
40. mediastinum: a portion of the thoracic cavity lying in the middle of the thorax (between the two pleural cavities) extends from the vertebral column to the sternum and contains the trachea, esophagus, heart and great vessels of the circulatory system
41. mucociliary escalator: a term used to define the process where the cilia of the airways continually move mucus from the lower respiratory trace to the oral cavity
42. nasopharynx: upper portion of the airway behind the nasal and oral cavities
43. no air enters the newborn lung until the transpulmonary pressure gradient exceeds: 40 cc H2O
44. the normal newborn trachea is approximately how long?: 5-6 cm and 4mm in diameter
45. oropharynx: posterior region of the oral cavity spans the space between the uvula and the upper rim of the epiglottis
46. ossification of the ribs ad sternum is normally complete by what age?: 25 years of age
47. palate: bony plate that separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity
48. parietal pleura: thin membrane covering the surface of the chest wall, mediastinum, and diaphragm that is continuous with the visceral pleura around the lung hilum
49. pharynx: the throat, tubular structure about 13cm long that extends from the base of the skull to the esophagus and s situated immediately in from of the cervical vertebrae. The pharynx
50. phrenic nerves: paired nerves that originate as branches of the spinal nerves C3-5, pass down along the mediastinum and innervate the diaphragm
51. pores of Kohn: openings between adjacent alveoli
52. primary lobule: the terminal bronchiole and the cluster of respiratory bronchioles that it supplies
53. pulmonary surfactant: promotes lung inflation, protects the alveolar surface, begins production around 24-25 weeks, comprised of phospholipids, protein and trace carbohydrates
54. rectus abdominus muscles: abdominal muscle group that functions as an accessory muscle in ventilation
55. scalene muscles: referring to eh three muscles arising from the cervical vertebrae, inserting into the first and second ribs, an accessory muscle in ventilation
56. segments: minor divisions of the lung, each segment is associated with a major branch of the airway
57. soft palate: structure composed of mucous membrane, muscular fibers, and mucous glands, suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate forming the roof of the mouth
58. sternal angle: the fused connection between the manubrium and the body of the sternum is known as the sternal angle of angle of Louis
59. sternocleidomastoid muscles: muscle of the neck that is attached to the mastoid process of the temporal bone and superior nuchal line and by separate heads to the sternum and clavicle; this muscle works together to flex the head
60. sternum: elongated flattened bone forming the middle portion of the anterior thorax
61. suprasternal notch: the notch above the sternum
62. This is a moveable shell that makes ventilation possible: the thorax
63. trachea: large main intrathoracic airway
64. true ribs: the first 7 ribs on each side of the thorax
65. turbinates: bony structures that extend from the lateral walls of the interior nasal passages
66. type 1 pneumocyte: cuboidal secretory epithelia that line the blind tubules of the acinus cells
67. type 2 pneumocyte: pneumocyte granular cells that are highly active forms part of the lining of the alveoli. These cells secrete surfactant and other substances
68. uvula: small cone shaped process suspended in the mouth from the middle of the posterior border of the soft palate
69. vallecula: folds that form a space between the tongue ad epiglottis. This is the key landmark for oral intubation
70. visceral pleura: thin membrane covered by mesothelial cells that cover the entire surface of the lung, dipping into the lobar fissures
71. what are 3 embryological distinct germinal tissue layers: endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm
72. what artery is the only artery in the body that carries deoxygenated blood?: pulmonary artery and its branches
73. what does the laryngotracheal tube form from?: from a groove in the 4th pharyngeal pouch
74. what is the adult alveolar-capillary membrane gas exchange surface area?: ~140 meters squared
75. What is the average alveolar size?: 0.2mm
76. What is the average amount of alveoli in an adult lung?: the average is 480 million, but estimates suggest we have 270-790 million
77. What is the name of the rule that provides an estimate of ventilation/gas exchange capacity for each lung: the 60 to 40 rule
78. what is the primary function of the respiratory system?: continuous absorption of oxygen and excretion of carbon dioxide
79. what is the primary muscle of ventilation: diaphragm
80. when does respiratory development begin?: on or about 22 days or the embryonic period
81. when does the anatomic closure of the ductus normally occurs: 3 weeks of birth,
82. xiphoid process: pointed lower portion of the sternum
Respiratory System Terms and Definitions:
1. Accessory muscle of breathing: The scalene, sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis and abdominal wall muscle are accessory muscle. Muscle use for more forceful breathing.
2. Acinus: Clusters of bronchioles, also referred to as primary lobule; amount is 10,000.
3. Alae: Flared openings that form the two external nares
4. Alveolar capillary membrane: Tissue that separates air from blood in the lungs.
5. Alveoli: Air sac of the lungs
6. Angle of Louis: Articulation point between the manubrium and the body of the sternum
7. Anterior Nares: opening to the nose
8. Apices: Uppermost portion of the lungs
9. Carina: Bifurcation of the trachea into the right and left main stem bronchi.
10. Cilia: finger like projections that aids in movement of particles.
11. Costal Cartilage: Fibrous tissues that connect the ribs to the sternum and to each other anteriorly.
12. Costophrenic Angle: Acute angle where the coastal pleura meets the diaphragm
13. Cricoid Cartilage: Ring of cartilage that forms the lower borders of the larynx.
14. Diaphragm: Large dome-shaped muscle that separates the thorax from the abdomen; the primary muscle of ventilation.
15. Ductus Arteriosis: Vascular channel in the fetus that joins the pulmonary artery directly to the descending aorta.
16. Epiglottis: Flat cartilage that extends to form the base of the tongue backward and upward
17. Eustachian Tube: Drains fluid out of the middle ear and allow gas to move in or out of the middle to equalize pressure on either side of the tympanic membrane.
18. External Nares: The outer flared openings
19. External Oblique: Abdominal muscle group that functions as an accessory muscle.
20. External Respiration: Gas exchange between the blood and the body exterior
21. False Ribs: 8-10 ribs that do not attach directly to the sternum
22. Fissure: Narrow cleft or slits; the lines that divide or separate the lobes of the lung glottis.
23. Floating Rib: 11-12 ribs that do not attach to the sternum, and it only attaches to the vertebrae column.
24. Foramen Ovale: Opening in the septum between the right and left atria in fetal heart. This opening provides a bypass for blood that would otherwise flow to the fetal lungs.
25. Gladiolus: Also known as the manubrium
26. Glottis: Variable opening between the vocal cords
27. Hilum: Vertical opening(s) on either side of the mediastinum through which all the airways and pulmonary vessels pass.
28. Hypopharynx: Lower portion of the upper airways between the oropharynx and larynx
29. Intercostal muscle: One of the primary muscle of ventilation
30. Intercostal Nerves: Are formed long before birth and are primary components of the somatic (motors) nervous system that carry the nervous signal from the brain stem to the respiratory muscle; helps aid in expanding and lifting the ribcage.
31. Internal Oblique: Abdominal muscle group that functions as an accessory muscle of ventilation.
32. Internal Respiration: Gas exchange between the blood and tissue cells.
33. Laryngopharynx: A subdivision of the pharynx inferior to the oropharynx
34. Larynx: Voicebox; Plays in role of speech; Primary functions are to protect the respiratory tract during eating and drinking and phonation.
35. Lobes: Major division of the lungs; the right lung has three lobes, and the left lung has two lobes.
36. Manubrium: Upper triangular portion of the sternum
37. Mediastinum: Portion of the thoracic cavity lying in the middle of the thorax. It extends from the vertebral column to the sternum and contains the trachea, esophagus, heart, and great vessels of the circulatory system and lymphatic structures are well.
38. Mucociliary Escalator: Pertaining to the ciliated mucosa. The stroking action of millions of cilia propels surrounding mucus at the speed of 2 cm per min.
39. Nasopharynx: Lies at the posterior end of the nasal cavity and extends to the tip of the uvula. Consist of the adenoid tonsils.
40. Oropharynx: Located posterior region of the oral cavity consists of the palatine tonsils.
41. Palate: Bony plate that separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity
42. Parietal Pleura: Thin membrane covering the surface of the chest walls, mediastinum, and diaphragm that is continuous with the visceral pleura around the lung hilum
43. Pharynx: The posterior portion of the nasal and oral cavities opens into
44. Phrenic Nerve: Paired nerves that originate as branches of spinal nerve c3-c5 pass down along the mediastinum, and innervates the diaphragm
45. Pores of Kohn: Opening to the adjacent alveoli
46. Primary Lobule: Consist of single terminal bronchioles
47. Pseudostratified Epithelial: Appears to be organized in layers, but in which each cell actually contacts the basement membranes.
48. Pulmonary Surfactant: Detergent-like substance secreted into the alveoli that reduce surface tension and stabilizes alveoli.
49. Rectus Abdominis Muscle: Group of muscle that acts as accessory muscle for ventilation
50. Scalene Muscle: The three muscle arising from the cervical vertebrae; inserting into the first and second rib; accessory muscle of ventilation
51. Segments: Minor division of the lungs, each segment is associated with a major branch of the airway.
52. Soft Palate: Soft posterior part of the palate that is not supported, consist of the uvula.
53. Sternal Angle: The fused connection between the manubrium and the body of the sternum
54. Sternocliedomastoid muscle: Location originates from the manubrium and clavicle and inserts on the mastoid process of the temporal bone. Function during shrugging lifts upper chest; muscle activated during forceful breathing.
55. Sternum: Elongated flattened bone forming the middle portion of the anterior thorax
56. Suprasternal notch: Notch located superior of the manubrium
57. Trachea: Large main intrathoracic airway
58. True Ribs: 1-7 ribs that attach to the sternum
59. Turbinates: Bony structures that extend from the lateral walls of the interior nasal passage
60. Type II Pneumocyte: Cuboidal Epithelia that are concentrated in the corners of the septa
61. Type I Pneumocyte: Squamous Epithelial that covers the septa
62. Uvula: The end of the soft palate hang down int the posterior portion of the oral cavity
63. Vallecula: A depression lying lateral to the median epiglottis folds and separating it from the pharyngoepiglottic fold
64. Visceral Pleura: Thin membrane covered by mesothelial cells that cover that enters the surface of the lungs, dipping into the lobular fissure.
65. Xiphoid Process: Pointed lower portion of the sternum
Respiratory System Definitions:
1. 2ml/kg: the amount of anatomic dead space in a typical adult
2. 10 cm: the length that the diaphragm can be pulled down during maximal inspiration
3. 12 pairs: the rib cage is formed by ____of ribs
4. 16-17: each alveolar sac opens into about ________alveoli
5. 60-to-40 rule: the right lung is slightly larger than the left lung because of the location of the heart, because of this the right lung is said to provide 60% of ventilation and left lung is assumed to provide the remaining 40%
6. absorption of O2 and excretion of CO2: primary function of the respiratory system
7. adventitia: an outer covering of connective tissue
8. afferent pathways: ascending pathways that transmit sensory impulses to the brain
9. alae: two flared openings that form the external nares
10. alveolar-capillary membrane: blood-gas barrier where gas exchange occurs between alveolar gas and pulmonary capillary blood
11. alveoli: the tiny airways only 0.3 mm in diameter ends in a cluster
12. angle of louis: external maker of the point where the trachea divides into the left and right main stem bronchi, also known as the sternal angle
13. anterior nares: openings to the internal nose, located posterior to the vestibules
14. apices: the uppermost regions of the lungs
15. C3, C4, C5: innervate each hemidiaphragm, spinal cord injuries at or above here result in diaphragm paralysis
16. canals of Lambert: openings that connect alveoli with secondary respiratory bronchioles
17. carina: important landmark that is used to identify the level where the two mainstem bronchi branch off from the trachea, at the base of the aortic arch
18. compliant; less: the thoracic wall in infants is more ____, and their muscles are ______developed than the muscles of adults and provide little structural support
19. conducting airways: the first 15 generations of the lower airways function to convey gas from the upper airway structures that participate in gas exchange with blood
20. costal cartilage: a cartilaginous joint that is on the lateral edges of the manubrium and the sternal body and forms the attachment between the ribs and sternum
21. costophrenic angle: the angle where the costal parietal pleura joins the diaphragmatic parietal pleura
22. cricoid cartilage: in a child, this is the narrowest region of the upper airway
23. diaphragm: normally does not actively participate in exhalation.
24. diaphragm and intercostal muscles: primary muscles of ventilation
25. ductus venosus, ductus arteriosus, and foramen ovale: three important bypass pathways of function in the developing fetus to enhance the flow of blood to developing organs
26. efferent pathways: descending pathways that send sensory impulses from the brain
27. epiglottis: in an infant, this is longer, less flexible, and lies in a more horizontal position
28. eustachian tubes: link the upper airway to the middle ear and drain fluid out of the middle ear and allow gas to move in or out of the middle to equalize pressure on either side of the tympanic membrane
29. external respiration: the exchange of gas between the atmosphere and blood
30. floating ribs: rib pairs 11 and 12 because they are not attached to the sternum
31. glottis: in an adult, this is the narrowest region of the upper airway
32. internal respiration: the exchange of gas between blood and tissues
33. larynx: lies below the hypopharynx and is formed by a complex arrangement of nine cartilages and numerous muscles; functions to protect the respiratory tract during eating, drinking, and phonation
34. left lung: has an upper and lower lobe separated by one fissure
35. lobes; fissures: each lung is divided into two or three ______ which are separated by one or more ________
36. L/S ratio of 2 or more: indicates a relatively low risk for development of respiratory distress syndrome
37. L/S ratio of less than 1.5: associated with a high risk for development of respiratory distress syndrome
38. macrophages: defensive cells that patrol the alveolar region and phagocytize foreign particles and cells
39. mediastinum: lies between the left and right pleural cavities that contain the lungs
40. mucociliary escalator: the stroking action of millions of cilia that propels the surrounding mucus
41. mucosa: an inner layer that forms a mucous membrane primarily composed of epithelial
42. nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx, laryngopharynx: subdivisions of the pharynx
43. pairs 1-7: true ribs because they are attached directly to the sternum
44. pairs 8-12: false ribs because they are either indirectly attached to the sternum or not attached at all
45. palate: the floor of the nasal cavity primarily formed by the maxilla
46. parietal pleura: the inner layer of the thoracic wall is lined with a serous membrane called _________
47. pharynx: the posterior portion of the nasal and oral cavities that is lined with stratified squamous epithelium
48. phrenic nerves and intercostal nerves: are formed long before birth and are primary components of the somatic nervous system that carry nervous signals from the brainstem to the respiratory muscles
49. pleural space: fluid filled space between teh parietal and visceral pleural membranes
50. pores of kohn: the openings that allow gas to move from one alveolus to another
51. primary function of the lymphatic system: is to clear fluid from the interstitial and pleural spaces to help maintain the fluid balance in the lungs
52. primary lobule: a single terminal bronchiole supplies a cluster of respiratory bronchioles; acinus
53. pulmonary surfactant: promotes lung inflation and protects the alveolar surface, beings to be produced around 24 to 25 weeks of development by type II pneumocytes
54. respiratory airways: the microscopic airways beyond the conducting airways that carry out gas exchange with blood
55. right lung: upper, middle, and lower lobes separated by two fissures
56. scalene, sternocleidomastoid, pectoral, and abdominal wall muscles: predominant accessory muscles
57. segments: the further division of the lobes; anatomists say their are 10 on each side
58. “sniff position”: extension of the head and lower jaw to alleviate obstruction in an unconscious patient
59. soft palate: the posterior portion of the oral cavity, has soft tissue composition and ability to move upward to seal off the nasal cavity
60. sternal angle: the fused connection between the manubrium and the body
61. sternum: long, vertical flat bone found on the anterior side that is composed of the manubrium, the body, and the xiphoid process
62. suprasternal notch: a shallow depression on the superior edge of the manubrium
63. terminal bronchioles: the smallest conducting airways and function to supply gas to the respiratory zone of the lung
64.thoracic cavity: cone-shaped cavity that house the lungs and the contents of the mediastinum; functions to protect the vital organs within and is capable fo changing shape to enable air to be moved into and out of the lungs
65. trachea: extends from its connection to the cricoid cartilage down through the neck and into the thorax to the articulation point between the manubrium and body of the sternum
66. turbinates: three shelflike bones that protrude into the cavity from the lateral walls
67. type II pneumocytes: rounded secretory cells
68. type I pneumocytes: flatter squamous epithelial cells
69. type I pneumocytes: the alveolar septa are covered with extremely flat squamous epithelia called _____________.
70. upper respiratory tract: the airways that start at the nose and mouth and extend down to the trachea
71. uvula: the part of the soft palate that hangs down into the posterior portion of the oral cavity
72. visceral pleura: serous membrane covering the lungs