Question Answer
How is pH defined? Negative logarithm of the H+ ion concentration of a solution.
The ease with which a gas dissolves into a solvent is at least partially determined by which of the following? Gas temperature
An adult's insensible water through the lungs averages what level? 200 ml/day
What is a normal K+ blood level? 3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L.
If airway humidification is inadequate, a patient with a tracheostomy can have additional water losses as high as what level? 700 ml/day
Which of the following describes serum Ca2+? Serum Ca2+ is present in three forms: ionized, protein bound, and complex.
Signs and symptoms of hyperkalemia would NOT include which of the following? Metabolic alkalosis
What type of solution could have 1 gEq of solute per L of solution? Normal
During recovery from a serious surgery or trauma, how much water is likely to be produced in a 24-hour period by the catabolism of fat and proteins? 1000 ml
By what process is water replenished? II. Ingestion III. Metabolism
A serum value of 140 mEq/L of Na is equivalent to how many mg/dl? 322 mg/dl
What is the relation between pure water and acid-base balance? The concentrations of both H+ and OH- ions are equal.
A solution holding the maximum amount of solute in a given volume at a constant temperature is said to be what? Saturated
Which of following is NOT a nonhydroxide base? Ammonium
Clinical symptoms of hyponatremia would NOT include which of the following? Bradycardia
Clinical manifestations of hypocalcemia would NOT include which of the following? Depressed tendon reflexes
Patients with what condition are prone to evaporative water loss through the lungs? I. Artificial airways III. Increased ventilation
You prepare a solution by combining 5 g of glucose with 95 g of water. What type of solution are you making? Percent
What is the normal range for serum phosphate? 1.2 to 2.3 mEq/L.
Intracellular water represents about what proportion of total body water? 2/3
Which of the following drugs can be used to temporarily lower K+ in severe hyperkalemia? Insulin
Pick the correct statement as it relates to hemoglobin and acid-base buffering. Deoxygenated hemoglobin is a fairly strong base
How is the gram-equivalent (gEq) weight of a substance computed? Dividing its gram atomic weight by its valence.
What is the smallest fluid sub-compartment of extracellular water? Transcellular
Supply the definition for a base substance. Any compound that will accept a proton.
Which of the following describe roles played by HCO3-? II. It is the primary vehicle for blood carbon dioxide transport. III. It plays a key role in acid-base homeostasis.
Which of the following is FALSE regarding body fluids and electrolytes? Interstitial fluid contains substantially more protein than does plasma.
In which of the following solutions do the molecules of solute remain intact? Nonpolar covalent
An adult's insensible water loss averages what level? 900 ml/day
Which of the following is FALSE regarding water balance and the gastrointestinal tract? The gastrointestinal tract is responsible for the most sensible fluid loss.
What is the most common cause of hyperkalemia? Renal failure
What is the gEq weight of an acid? Amount of the acid containing 1 mol of replaceable H+ ions.
I. Postsurgical patients II. Those with renal disease III. Trauma victims
Positive ions are referred to as what? Cations
Hypokalemia disturbs cellular function in ALL but one of the following systems. Which one does it NOT affect? Hepatic
Which of the following describes an aspect of pH? Any solution with a pH of 7 is neutral.
Which of the following are true regarding water in the human body? II. Total body water depends on an individual's weight and sex. III. Water constitutes about 45% to 80% of an individual's body weight
What is the most prominent anion in the body? Cl-
Where is most of the Mg 2+ found in the body? In the cells
Which answer best describes the relationship between K+ movement and acid-base balance? Excess extracellular H+ ions are exchanged for intracellular K+.
The most important physiological characteristic of solutions is their ability to exert pressure. True
What is the attractive force of solute particles in a concentrated solution? Osmotic pressure
What is the average urine output in a healthy adult? 1000 to 1200 ml/day
Water can be lost from the body through what organ systems? I. Gastrointestinal tractIII. Lungs IV. Skin
The combination of red blood cells in plasma is a good example of what? Suspension
Which of the following is an isotonic solution? 0.90% NaCl
If a 60% solution (A) were exposed to a 10% solution (B) across a semipermeable membrane, what would be the strength of each solution following equilibrium? Solution A 35%/solution B 35%
What are the main intracellular electrolytes? I. K+ III. Phosphate IV. Sulfate
What is a characteristic of an acid? Is a proton donor
50. Question: Which of the following is NOT a major extracellular electrolyte? K+

Question Answer
What are the 7 Major electrolytes? SODIUM, CHLORIDE, POTASSIUM, CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM, Bicarbonate AND PHOSPHATE
What is the normal blood serum range for sodium? 135-145 mEq/L
What is Hyponatremia? Low Sodium
What are the causes of Hyponatremia? GI loss, sweating, fever, diuretics, ascities, CHF, Kidney Failure
What are the symptoms of Hyponatremia? weakness, apathy, headache, tachycardia and hypotension
What is Hypernatremia? High Sodium
What are the causes of Hypernatremia? Net sodium Gain, Net Water loss, increased aldosterone, steroid therapy (theopholine, prednisone)
What are the symptoms of Hypernatremia? tremors, irritability, ataxia, confusion, seizures, coma
What Fluids can electrolytes be found? Blood Urine and saliva
What is the Normal blood serum level for Chloride? 98-106
Where is chloride present? Red and white blood cells, GI mucosa and sweat
What is Hypochloremia? What are the causes? Low chloride. GI loss and Diuretics
What are the symptoms of hypochloremia? Metabolic alkalosis, muscle spasm,and coma
What is Hyperchloremia? What are the causes? High Chloride. Dehydration, metaboloic acidosis
what are the symptoms of Hyperchloremia? minimal
What is the normal blood serum level of Potasium?  3.5-5.0 mEq/L
what is hypokalemia? what are the causes? Low potassium. Dieretics, steroid therapy, renal disease, vomiting/ diarrhea, malnutrition, trauma, albuterol
what are the symptoms of hypokalemia? Muscle weakness, paraltsis, ECG changes, circulatory failure, cardiac arrest
what is Hyperkalemia? What are the causes? High potassium. chronic renal disease, hemorage, tissue necrosis, nonsteroidal, antiinflamitory drugs, ace inhibitors, potassium sparing dieuretics
what are the symptoms of hyperkalemia? ECG changes, Ventricular arrhhthmias, cardiac arrest
where is calcium stored? bones
what are the normal levels in blood for calcium? 9.0-10.5 mg/L or 4.5-5.25 mEq/L
what is hypocalcemia and what are the causes? Low calcium. hyperparathyroidism, pancereatitis, renal failure, trauma
what are the symptoms of hypocalcemia? hyperactive tendon reflexes, muscle twitching, abdominal cramps, ECG changes, convulsions
what is hypercalcemia and what are the causes? High calcium. hyperthyroidism, bone cancer, sarcoidosis
What are the symptoms of hypercalcemia? fatigue, depression, muscle weakness, nausea/ vomitting/constipation
what is the normal blood level for Magnesium? 1.3-2.1 mEq/L
what is hypomagnesmia and what are thae causes? Low magnesium. Inadequite intake/ impared absorption, alcholism, panceatitis
what are the symptoms of hypomagnesmia? muscle weakness, irritability, ECG changes, delirium, convulsions
what is hypermagnesemia and what are the causes? High magnesium. Dehydration, renal INSUF. Tissue trauma
What are the symptoms? ECG changes, Cardiac and Respiratory muscle paralysis.
where in the body is Phosphorus found? Bones, teeth and muscle tissue
what is the normal blood level for phosphorus? 1.2-2.3 mEq/L
what is hypophosphatemia and what causes it? Low PO4. starvation, malabsorption, thyroid disorders, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus
what are the symptoms? weakness,
What is hyperphosphatemia and what are the causes of it? High PO4. endocrine disorders, chronic renal INUF.
what are the symptoms? minimal
what does Bicarbonate play a role in? Acid base balance (ABG)
what is the normal level in blood for HCO3? 22.26 mEq/L
where is HCO3 higher? In venous blood