Question Answer
proton positively charged and possesses a mass of one atomic mass unit (amu), is located within the nucleus of the atom
neutron occupies a position within the atom’s nucleus. They possess no charge (neutral) and have a mass of 1 amu
atomic mass The sum of the number of protons and the number of neutrons inside the nucleus of an atom constitutes the atom’s atomic mass
isotope has the same atomic number but differs in atomic mass
electron negative charge and contribute essentially nothing to the atomic mass of the atom. They are positioned at various levels around an away from the nucleus. They are positioned at various levels around and away from the nucleus
Electrovalent or ionic bond Results when the atoms of two or more elements combine with each other by transferring electrons
rule of 8 The tendency in nature is for all atoms to seek 8 electrons in the outermost electron shell
Ion charged bodies that have lost or gained electrons
Cation substance that has lost an electron
Anion substance that has gained electron
Covalent bonds Result from the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons
Kinetic Theory of Matter states that any given sample of matter is composed of many small particles (molecules, atoms, or ions) that are in constant motion.
van der Waals forces the forces between adjacent molecules, limit the mobility of molecules in a solid
liquids molecules are free to move about within the confines of the container
Define Pressure quantitatively defined as a force (F) acting perpendicularly to a surface area (A) or P = F / A
Acid a substance that releases hydrogen ions (H+), or donates protons. A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.
Base a compound that provides hydroxyl ions (OH-)
acidic Solutions that have greater amounts of H+ ions, as compared to the number of OH- ions
alkaline Solutions having a greater concentration of OH- ions relative to their H+ concentration
The mathematical expression indicating pH -log [H+] 
Term Definition
IDEAL GAS LAW PV= nRT GASES HAVE TWO WAYS THEY WILL REACT 1)DIRECT OR 2) INVERSLY
BOYLE’S LAW STATES THAT PRESSURE AND VOLUME OF A GAS WILL ACT INVERSELY IF THE TEMP.AND AMOUNT OF GAS ARE CONSTANT. P1XV1= P2XV2
CHARLES LAW STATES THAT TEMPERATURE AND VOLUME OF A GAS WILL ACT DIRECTLY IF THE AMOUNT OF GAS AND PRESSURE ARE CONSTANT. V1/T1=V2/T2 YOU MUST CONVERT THE TEMP TO KELVIN BEFORE CALCULATING
GAY LUSSACS STATES THAT PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE ARE DIRECTLY RELATED IF THE AMOUNT OF GAS AND VOLUME ARE CONSTANT. P1/T1=P2/T2 MUST CHANGE THE TEMP TO KELVIN BEFORE CALCULATING
COMBINED GAS LAW STATES THAT PRESSURE,VOLUME AND TEMP OF A GAS ARE SPECIFICALLY RELATED IF THE AMOUNT OF GAS REMAINS CONSTANT. P1XV1/T1=P2XV2/T2
DALTONS LAW OF PARTIAL PRESSURE HAS 4 PARTS PTOTAL=P1+P2+P3… %=Pp/PB…GASES ACT INDEPENDENTLY OF EACH OTHER AND WATER PRESSURE DOES NOT FOLLOW THE LAW
AVOGARDO’S LAW STATES THAT EQUAL VOLUMES OF ALL GASES AT THE SAME TEMP AND PRESSURE HAVE THE SAME # OF MOLECULES. 1MOLE=1 PARTICLE OF GAS AND 1MOLE=6.02X10^23
HENRYS LAW OF SOLUBILITY SAYS THE AMOUNT OF GAS THAT DISSOLVES INT A LIQUID AT A GIVEN TEMP IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO THE PARTIAL PRESSURE OF THE GAS ABOVE THE SURFACE OF THE LIQUID. CaO2=Hg(1.34).SaO2
GRAHAMS LAW OF DIFFUSION STATES THAT THE RELATIVE RATES OF DIFFUSION OF A GAS THROUGHT A LIQUID IS INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL TO THE SQUARE ROOT OF THE DENSITIES OR GMW. AS COMPOUNDS GET HEAVIER THE DIFFSUISON GETS SLOWER
FICKS LAW OF DIFFUSION DESCRIBES A BULK MOVEMENT OF GAS THROUGH A BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANE. THERE ARE 4 VARIABLES THAT GO ALONG WITH FICKS. 1) CROSS SECTIONAL AREA 2) DIFFUSION COEFFIENT OF GAS 3) THICKNESS OF MEMBRANE 4) PRESSURE GRADIENT ACROSS THE MEMBRANE. AXD(P1-P2)/THICKNESS
MOLARITY AND NORMALITY- SOLUTION A SUBSTANCE FORMED BY THE MIXTURE OF ONE OR MORE SOLUTES AND A SOLVENT
SOLUTE THE SUBSTANCE BEING DISSOLVED
SOLVENT THE MEDIUM IN WHICH THE SOLUTE IS DISSOLVED IN
A MOLE IS THE QUANTITY OF A SUBSTANCE WHOSE WEIGHT IN GRAMS IS NUMERICALLY EQUAL TO THE SUBSTANCE MOLECULAR WEIGHT IN ATOMIC MASS UNITS (AMU)
THE MATHMATICAL EQUATION FOR PH -LOG[H+]
NORMAL RANGES FOR ABG’S PH LEVEL=7.35-7.45 CO2 LEVEL=35-45TORR HCO3 LEVEL = 22-26 PAO2 LEVEL=80-100TORR SAO2= >95%
ALVEOLAR AIR EQUATION .FIO2(Pb-PH20)-PaCo2 (1.25) WATER VAPOR PRESSURE AT BODY TEMP. IS 47 TORR AND BODY TEMP IN CELCIUS IS 37 DEGREES
P(A-a) IS THE pA02-pa02 is the gradient from the alveoli to the artery. Normal DIFFERENCE IS 15-25 TORR
HENDERSON HASSELBALCH EQUATION PH=6.1+LOG[HCO3]/(PCO2)(0.03) THIS EQUATION IS HELPED TO TEST THE RELIABILIYT OF YOUR EQUIPMENT
DENSITY FOR SOLID AND LIQUID D=M/V FOR SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS
DENSITY FOR GAS D=M/V BUT THE VOLUME IS ALWAYS 22.4L OR MOLES AT STP AND THE MASS IS THE GRAM MOLECULAR WEIGHT
DENSITY OF 02 1.4 g/l
DENSITY OF AIR 1.29G/L
DENISTY OF CO2 1.96G/L
SPECIFIC GRAVITY COMPARES THE DENSITY TO AIR OR WATER. FOR GAS YOU COMPARE THE DENSITY OF THE SUBJECT TO THAT OF AIR OR 1.96 G/L AND FOR SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS YOU COMPARE THE DENSITY OF THE SUBJECT TO THAT OF WATER OR 1G/L
THERMAL ENERGY KINETIC ENGERGY + POTENTIAL ENERGY TOGETHER
TEMPERATURE IS THE AVERAGE KINETIC ENERGY
EQUATION FOR FAHRENHEIT F=1.8(C)+ 32
EQUATION FOR CELCIUS C=5/9(F-32)
EQUATION FOR KELVIN K=C+273 OR VISE VERA C=K-273
BOILING POINT FOR FAHRENHEIT 212 DEGREES
FREEZING POINT FOR FAHRENHEIT 32 DEGREES
BOILING POINT FOR CELCIUS 100 DEGREES
FREEZING POINT FOR CELCIUS O DEGREES
BOILING POINT FOR KELVIN 373 DEGREES
FREEZING POINT FOR KELVIN 273 DEGREES