Respiratory Therapy Clinical Practice Basics Practice Questions):

 

1. The lymphoid tissues located behind the nasal cavity are called: tonsils “small mass or almond”

2. Both food and air travel through the: mouth and pharynx or throat

3. The double-sac membrane that covers each lung and lines the thoracic cavity is the: pleura

4. The surgical term for the puncture of the chest cavity in order to aspirate fluid is called: thoracocentesis

5. The medical term ‘hypoxemia’ means: deficient oxygen in the blood

6. The area in the lungs where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged is called the: alveolus or cavity (alveolar sacs)

7. Pulmonary Endo/scop/y is best used to _____________ diseases of the Respiratory System. view and diagnose

8. The term Ortho/dont/ist literally means: straight/teeth/specialist

9. The term Eu/pnea actually means: well, easy, true, normal, or good breathing

10. The term Dys/phasia means difficult or faulty: speech or utterance

11. The term Trache/os/tom/y actually means: creation of an artificial mouth-like opening in the throat and neck

12. The suffix ___________ is added to word part Pneumono-/________ to refer to the surgical procedure of puncturing the lung and aspirating fluids like blood, pus, & lymph. This procedure promotes easy breathing and cell oxygenation.: -centesis

13. The diagnostic term for pus in the pleural space in the chest is: pyo/thorax

14. The diagnostic term for narrowing or contraction of the larynx or voice box is: laryngospasm or laryngo/stenosis

15. A patient with diagnosis of blood in the chest has a: hemo/thorax

16. The condition where the bronchi of the lungs are dilated outward is: bronchi/ect/asis

17. When lung tissue swells as a result of distention and loss of elasticity in the alveoli, the condition is called: emphysema “puffed up”

18. The diagnostic abbreviation for an infection of the nose, pharynx, larynx, and trachea is: upper respiratory infection “URI”

19. The diagnostic term that is also referred to as whooping cough is: per/tussis “through/cough”

20. The diagnostic term for a chronic respiratory disease characterized by paroxysms of coughing, wheezing, panting with shortness of breath is: asthma “to pant”

21. Pigeon Breeders Chest is different from Pigeon Chest in that the first condition is inherited or caused by Rickets (lack of Vitamin A and D), but the latter condition is caused by a(n) ______________ etiologic agent. fungal

22. A term that refers to food inhalation that blocks the airway: aspiration “process of/without/breath”

23. The term that means difficulty in speaking or making a sound is: dys/phasic or dys/phonic

24. Lobar Pneumonia refers to a lung infection in: one or more of the 5 lobes in the 2 lungs

25. The medical term Hypo/pnea actually means: deficient rate and depth of breathing

26. The medical term that means containing both mucus and pus is: muco/purulent

27. The medical term Nebuliz/er is defined as: a device “one who” creates a fine spray or mist

28. The medical term Chord/itis or Cord/itis actually means: inflammation of the vocal cords

29. The medical term Emphysema literally means: puffed up

30. The medical term Asthma literally means: panting

31. Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an inherited exocrine gland disorder that causes thick secretions of ________________ to accumulation in the lungs.: mucus and pus from respiratory infections

32. The medical term Dipther/ia literally means: membrane/refers

33. The medical term Pertussis actually refers to: whooping cough and the bacteria Bordetella pertussis

34. The disease of Histoplasmosis or Darlings Disease is a _______________ infection caused by Histoplasma acapsulatum. Bird or cat feces is the source and the disease is characterized by fever, malaise, coughing, respiratory failure, and lymph/adeno/path/y. A major problem for pregnant women & her child.: fungus or fungus spore

35. Tuberculosis (worlds leading killer) is caused by a bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis and causes bacteria colony swellings (tubers) in the lungs and other body parts. TB infects approximately ___________ People.: 2 Billion of the worlds 6 Billion

36. The Schick Skin Test is used to detect _______________, which is caused by the bacteria Corynebacterium diphtheriae.: Diphtheria

37. The Mantoux Skin Test is used to diagnose: Tuberculosis “Mycobacterium tuberculosis rod-shaped bacteria”

38. Anthrax infections (Bacillus anthracis bacteria) are classified as infecting the: all of the above

39. Bronchitis often progresses to a more severe lung condition called _____________________, which was the leading world killer around 1900 A.D.: Pneumonia

40. The Etiologic Agent (E.A.) or causative agent that is responsible for Anthrax is: Bacillus anthracis

41. An Upper Respiratory Infection is referred to with the Abbreviation: URI

42. Spiro/metry means to measure the breath and is used to evaluate: Lung Capacity

43. The term Dys/lexia literally means difficult or faulty:
words “reading and writing”

44. The term Dys/phonia actually means difficult or faulty: sound or voice “hoarseness”

45. The disease of Crypto/cocc/o/sis is a _______________that can infect the lungs, skin, brain (CNS), bones, and urinary tract causing death.: yeast-like budding fungus “no spores”

46. The disease of Aspergill/osis (to sprinkle/condition) is a soil or dust fungus that causes granular lesion on or in any body organ. Prognosis is poor like most systemic fungal infections. It is treated with: fungi/cidal drugs

47. The condition referred to as ________ is an acute viral infection that is usually seen in infants before 3 years of age (Y/O: years old). It occurs after an URI and causes vocal cord swelling, voice loss, hypoxia, & possible choking: Croup

48. Pneumonia can be caused by: all of the above

49. Emphysema causes shortness of breath and a(n): Barreled Chest Look “Advanced Stages”

50. Influenza (Flu) (to influence) viruses are highly contagious airborne droplets that infect the respiratory tract for 2 to 7 (10) days. It is caused by a myxo/virus (mucus/poison). It usually kills over 20,000 people in this country each year. Symptoms include sore throat, cough, fever, muscular pains, and weakness. The incubation period is brief from ____ to ____ days.: 1 to 3 days

51) Which of the following is NOT considered a function of the respiratory system?
A) regulation of acid base balance
B) production of red blood cells
C) filtering inspired air
D) transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide to tissue cells
E) intake of oxygen and elimination of carbon dioxide

52) Which of the following is NOT a function of the nose?
A) warming of incoming air
B) acting as a resonating chamber for speech
C) filtering incoming air
D) detecting olfactory stimuli
E) gas exchange

53) Which of the following lists the structures in the correct order of air flow?
A) trachea, laryngopharynx, nasopharynx, oropharynx, larynx
B) nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx, trachea, larynx
C) nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx, larynx, trachea
D) oropharynx, laryngopharynx, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea
E) nasopharynx, laryngopharynx, oropharynx, larynx, trachea

54) Air pressure in the middle ear is equalized via the auditory tube, which opens into the:
A) nasal cavity.
B) maxillary sinus.
C) nasopharynx.
D) oropharynx.
E) laryngopharynx.

55) The vocal folds are part of the:
A) nasal cavity.
B) laryngopharynx.
C) trachea.
D) larynx.
E) lungs.

56) The function of the epiglottis is to:
A) hold the pharynx open during speech.
B) produce surfactant.
C) close off the nasal cavity during swallowing.
D) close off the larynx during swallowing.
E) vibrate to produce sound as air passes over it.

57) The trachea extends from the:
A) larynx to vertebra T5.
B) soft palate to the hyoid bone.
C) atlas to vertebra C7.
D) epiglottis to the thyroid cartilage.
E) foramen magnum to vertebra C5.

58) C shaped cartilage rings support the:
A) laryngopharynx.
B) larynx.
C) trachea.
D) tertiary bronchi.
E) All of these are supported by C shaped rings.

59) What is the anatomic name of the structure known as the Adam’s apple?
A) Cricoid cartilage
B) Epiglottis
C) Fauces
D) Pharynx
E) Thyroid cartilage

60) The trachea and bronchi
A) Move as a result of impulses arising in the cerebrum
B) Have “rings” of cartilage in their walls
C) Are collapsed during a normal breathing cycle
D) Move partially by peristalsis
E) Help to lower the diaphragm during inhalation

61) The cough reflex is triggered by irritation of an important medical landmark called the:
A) carina.
B) fauces.
C) cardiac notch.
D) cricoid cartilage.
E) internal choanae.

62. Place the following structures of the respiratory tree in order, considering how air enters the tree:
1. Secondary bronchi
2. Bronchioles
3. Alveolar ducts
4. Primary bronchi
5. Respiratory bronchioles
6. Alveoli
7. Terminal bronchioles
A. 2,4,1,7,5,3,6.
B. 4,1,2,7,5,3,6.
C. 1,4,3,5,6,3,6.
D. 2,4,7,3,6,1,5.
E. 1,2,3,4,5,6,7.

63) The roof of the nasal cavity is formed by the
A. Superior concha
B. Middle concha
C. Ethmoid bone
D. Nasal bones.
E. Frontal bones

64) What is normally found between the visceral and parietal layers of the pleura?
A) the lungs
B) venous blood
C) serous fluid
D) air
E) lymph

65) A function of type II alveolar cells is to:
A) help control what passes between squamous epithelial cells of the alveoli.
B) produce surfactant.
C) act as phagocytes.
D) produce mucus in the upper respiratory tract.
E) store oxygen until it can be transported into the blood.

66) The respiratory membrane through which gases diffuse includes ALL of the following EXCEPT :
A) type I alveolar cells.
B) type II alveolar cells.
C) capillary endothelium.
D) an epithelial basement membrane.
E) a layer of smooth muscle.

67) Several small alveoli merge to form one single, larger air space. This results in a(n):
A) increased rate of gas exchange due to an increased volume of air within the alveolus.
B) increased rate of gas exchange due to increased partial pressure of oxygen and decreased partial pressure of carbon dioxide within the alveolus.
C) decreased rate of gas exchange due to decreased partial pressure of oxygen and decreased partial pressure of carbon dioxide within the alveolus
D) decreased rate of gas exchange due to a decrease in surface area.
E) decreased rate of gas exchange due to an increase in the thickness of the respiratory membrane.

68) Boyle’s law states that:
A) at a constant temperature, the volume of a gas varies inversely with the pressure.
B) at a constant pressure, the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the temperature.
C) the rate of diffusion is directly proportional to the surface area of the membrane.
D) in a mixture of gases each gas exerts its own partial pressure.
E) at a constant temperature, the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the pressure.

69) During normal resting pulmonary ventilation, ALL of the following are TRUE EXCEPT :
A) the phrenic nerve stimulates contraction of the diaphragm.
B) intrapleural pressure increases above atmospheric pressure during exhalation.
C) air comes in during inspiration because alveolar pressure falls below atmospheric pressure.
D) thoracic volume increases as the diaphragm contracts during inspiration.
E) the diaphragm forms a dome as it relaxes.

70) Which of the following muscles helps increase the size of the thoracic cavity during forced inspiration?
A) external oblique
B) external intercostals
C) internal oblique
D) internal intercostals
E) pectoralis major

71) Airway resistance is affected primarily by the:
A) amount of surfactant.
B) thickness of the cartilage in the bronchial wall.
C) amount of elastic tissue in the lungs.
D) diameter of the bronchioles.
E) partial pressure of each type of gas in inspired air.

72) Surface tension exists in alveoli because:
A) surfactant is very sticky.
B) elastic fibers in the basement membrane form linkages that collapse alveoli.
C) movement of gas molecules within alveoli creates electrical charges that attract each other.
D) polar water molecules are more strongly attracted to each other than to gas molecules in the air.
E) polar water molecules are more strongly attracted to gas molecules in the air than to each other.

73) Compliance is affected primarily by the amount of elastic tissue in the lungs and the:
A) amount of surfactant.
B) thickness of the cartilage in the bronchial wall.
C) partial pressure of oxygen in inspired air.
D) diameter of the bronchioles.
E) temperature of inspired air.

74. When the diaphragm contracts
A. The size of the chest cavity increases
B. The lungs expand to fill the extra space in the chest cavity
C. Air from outside rushes into the lungs
D. Intrathoracic pressure decreases
E. All answers above are correct.

75) The normal resting minute volume is:
A) 6 liters/minute.
B) 500 mL/minute.
C) 4.5 liters/minute.
D) 1200 mL/minute.
E) 3.6 liters/minute.

76) The minute ventilation volume for someone whose tidal volume equal 450 mL, whose dead space air equal 150 mL, and whose respiratory rate is 15 respirations per minute is:
A) 2250 mL/min.
B) 4500 mL/min.
C) 6750 mL/min.
D) 9000 mL/min.
E) There is not enough nformation to calculate the alveolar ventilation rate.

77) The alveolar ventilation rate for someone whose tidal volume equal 450 mL, whose dead space air equal 150 mL, and whose respiratory rate is15 respirations per minute is:
A) 2250 mL/min.
B) 4500 mL/min.
C) 6750 mL/min.
D) 9000 mL/min.
E) There is not enough information to calculate the alveolar ventilation rate.

78) The residual volume is the amount of air:
A) remaining in the lungs after the lungs collapse.
B) that can be inhaled above tidal volume.
C) remaining in the lungs after forced expiration.
D) contained in air spaces above the alveoli.
E) that can be exhaled above tidal volume.

79) The tidal volume is the:
A) volume of air the lungs can hold when maximally inflated.
B) volume of air moved in and out of the lungs in a single quiet breath.
C) percentage of alveolar air that is water vapor.
D) sum of the inspiratory and expiratory reserve volumes.
E) volume of air left in the lungs after a forced expiration.

80) Which of the following refers to the amount of air that can be maximally inspired after a maximal expiration
A. Expiratory reserve volume
B. Inspiratory reserve volume
C. Inspiratory capacity
D. Vital capacity
E. All answers are correct.

81) On a very humid day, people with chronic respiratory diseases may experience greater difficulty breathing because:
A) they are dehydrated.
B) atmospheric pressure is much lower, so respiratory gradients are decreased.
C) water vapor contributes a greater partial pressure to inhaled air, thus interfering with normal gradients of other respiratory gases.
D) the water vapor condenses within the alveoli.
E) the water vapor decreases the solubility of oxygen.

82) Dalton’s Law states that:
A) at a constant temperature, the volume of a gas varies inversely with the pressure.
B) at a constant pressure, the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the temperature.
C) the rate of diffusion is directly proportional to the surface area of the membrane.
D) in a mixture of gases each gas exerts its own partial pressure.
E) at a constant temperature, the volume of a gas is directly proportional to thepressure.

83) Where would you expect to find the highest partial pressure of carbon dioxide?
A) in the atmosphere
B) in pulmonary arteries
C) in pulmonary veins
D) in alveolar air
E) in the intracellular fluid

84) The reason the gradients for carbon dioxide can be smaller that those for oxygen and still meet the body’s gas exchange needs is that:
A) carbon dioxide is a smaller molecule than oxygen.
B) carbon dioxide is more water soluble than oxygen.
C) carbon dioxide receives assistance crossing membranes from a carrier molecule.
D) much of the oxygen, but not the carbon dioxide, is consumed by red blood cells during transport.
E) oxygen forms ions once it enters the alveoli, and the electrical charges slow its movement across membranes.

85) Expired air has a greater oxygen content than alveolar air because:
A) more oxygen diffuses in across the mucosa of the bronchioles and bronchi.
B) newly inspired air is entering as expired as it is leaving.
C) oxygen is being generated by microbes in the upper respiratory tract.
D) alveolar air mixes with air in the anatomic dead space on its way out.
E) some carbon dioxide is converted to oxygen in respiratory passages.

86) Most oxygen is transported in blood by:
A) the heme portion of hemoglobin.
B) the globin portion of hemoglobin.
C) simply dissolving in plasma.
D) conversion to bicarbonate ion.
E) any type of plasma protein.

87) You would expect the partial pressure of oxygen to be highest in the:
A) pulmonary arteries.
B) pulmonary veins.
C) hepatic portal vein.
D) intracellular fluid.
E) interstitial fluid.

88) If the pH of blood and interstitial fluid rises within homeostatic range, then:
A) more oxygen can combine with hemoglobin.
B) less oxygen can stay attached to hemoglobin.
C) the level of hydrogen ions in these fluids has increased.
D) the increase was caused by an elevated partial pressure of carbon dioxide.
E) respiratory rate will increase to compensate.

89) To say that hemoglobin is fully saturated means that:
A) the red blood cells contain as many hemoglobin molecules as possible.
B) oxygen is attached to both the heme and the globin portions of the molecule.
C) it is carrying both oxygen and carbon dioxide simultaneously.
D) some molecule other than oxygen is attached to the oxygen binding sites on hemoglobin.
E) there is an oxygen molecule attached to each of the four heme groups.

90) Which of the following would be TRUE if the oxygen hemoglobin dissociation curve is shifted to the right?
A) Partial pressure of carbon dioxide is increased.
B) pH is increased.
C) Temperature is decreased.
D) Levels of BPG are decreased.
E) Partial pressure of oxygen is decreased.

91) In metabolically active tissues you would expect:
A) the percent saturation of hemoglobin will be less than it is near the lungs.
B) the partial pressure of oxygen will be higher than in the alveoli.
C) the pH will be slightly higher than it is in the fluid close to the lungs.
D) the partial pressure of carbon dioxide will be at its lowest point.
E) All of these are correct.

92) If the partial pressure of carbon dioxide is decreasing, then:
A) the partial pressure of oxygen must be increasing.
B) the pH will also be decreasing.
C) the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen is decreasing.
D) there is an increase in the rate of the reaction converting carbonic acid into water and carbon dioxide.
E) there is an increase in the rate of the reaction converting carbonic acid into hydrogen ion and bicarbonate ion.

93) BPG is a substance that:
A) is responsible for the detergent activity of surfactant.
B) catalyzes the conversion of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate ion.
C) is produced during glycolysis in erythrocytes and increases the dissociation of oxygen from hemoglobin.
D) inhibits the activity of the central chemoreceptors to prolong inspiration.
E) binds extra oxygen onto fetal hemoglobin.

94) Hemoglobin will tend to bind more oxygen at a given partial pressure of oxygen if:
A) the partial pressure of carbon dioxide is increased.
B) the temperature is increased.
C) the pH is increased.
D) BPG concentration increases.
E) the concentration of hydrogen ions increases.

95) High partial pressure of carbon dioxide favors the formation of:
A) BPG.
B) carbaminohemoglobin.
C) chloride ions.
D) oxyhemoglobin.
E) carbon monoxide.

96) Carbonic acid is produced when:
A) oxygen combines with bicarbonate ion.
B) carbon dioxide combines with bicarbonate ion.
C) carbon dioxide combines with water.
D) oxygen and carbon dioxide combine.
E) carbon dioxide attached to hemoglobin.

97) Most carbon dioxide is transported in blood by:
A) the heme portion of hemoglobin.
B) the globin portion of hemoglobin.
C) simply dissolving in plasma.
D) conversion to bicarbonate ion.
E) any plasma protein.

98) The basic pattern of breathing is set by nuclei of neurons located in the:
A) pons.
B) diaphragm.
C) medulla oblongata.
D) lungs.
E) thoracic region of the spinal cord.

99) The apneustic and pneumotaxic areas are located in the:
A) pons.
B) diaphragm.
C) medulla oblongata.
D) lungs.
E) thoracic region of the spinal cord.

100. An enzyme that speeds the reaction of carbon dioxide and water is
A. Carbonic decarboxylase
B. Carbonic carboxylase
C. Carbonic anhydrase
D. Carbonic dehydrogenase