Question Answer
What is the RBC count range? Men 4.6-6.2×10/mm3 Women 4.2-5.4×10/mm3
What is the hemoglobin range? Men 13.5-16.5g/dl Women 12-15g/dl
What is the erythrocyte index values? Mean Cell Volume-90-96mm3 Mean Cell Hemoglobin-27-31pg Mean Cell hemoglobin concentration-32%-36%
What is the normal WBC count range? 4500-11,500/mm3
What is the normal hematocrit range? Men 40%-54% Women 38%-47%
Hematocrit ratio of red cell volume to that of whole blood.
What is the normal differential eosinophil? 0%-6% (0-600)
What is the range of platelets? 140,000-440,000/mm3
leukocytosis abnormal increase in the WBC count
neutrophilia increase in neutrophils
What is the common response to inflammation and infection neutrophilia
A significant leukocytosis with a left shift indicate the bone marrow is attempting to respond to…? infection
eosinophilia often seen in allergic states and pasitic infestations.
What kind of asthma is eosinophilia seen? extrinsic types
lymphocytosis is usually seen in what? viral infections
When does lymphocytopenia seen in trauma and acute infection
Chronic diseases such as TB, syphilis, typhoid fever, and subacute bacterial endocarditis causes what? Monocytosis
What are the two main red blood cell abnormalities? polycythemia and anemia
How do you treat anemia? blood transfusion
what are the disadvantages of polycythemia? increases the viscosity of blood, increased workload for the cor, and increases the risk of clots
thrombocytopenia reduction is the platelet count
thrombocytosis increase in the platelets
Question Answer
What the factors may lead to a weak cough? Reduced Lung recoil,Bronchospasm,and Weak inspiratory muscles.
A cough described as being persistent for more than three weeks would be called: Chronic
What are three problems associated with Hemapytosis? Tuberculosis,Lung Carcinoma, and Pneumonia.
Breathlessness or air hunger would be described as: Dyspnea
Shortness of breath in the upright position Platypnea
Difficulty breathing in the reclining position Orthopnea
What decade of life is snoring most present in adult males? 50-59 yrs.
What disease is associated with “Night Sweats”? Tuberculosis
The four classic vital signs are: Temperature,Respiratory rate,Blood Pressure, and pulse.
What is a baseline measurement? The initial reading from beginning of shift.
Normal temperature range for: Oral 97.0-99.5 F 36.5-37.5 C
Normal temperature range for: Axillary 96.7 F 35.9-36.9 C
Normal temperature range for:Rectal 98.7-100.5 F 37.1-38.1 C
Hypothermia is: body temp. below normal
Pulse and Respiratory Rate:Newborn P 90-170 RR 35 to 45-70 w/excitement
Pulse and Respiratory Rate:1 Year P 80 to 160 RR 25 to 30
Pulse and Respiratory Rate:Preschool P 80-120 RR 20-25
Pulse and Respiratory Rate:10 Years P 70-110 RR 15-20
Pulse and Respiratory Rate:Adult P 60-100 RR 12-20
Pulse and Respiratory Rate: Athlete P ~50 RR 12-20
What is a pulse deficit? The difference between the number of auscultlated beats and peripheral pulse beats.
When the patients pulse strength decreases with spontaneous inhalation? Pulsus Paradoxus
Intermittent breathing Irregular breathing w/ periods of apnea
Blood pressure persistently higher than 140/90 mm Hg is termed: Hypertension
Blood pressure that is significantly lower than 120/80 mm Hg is termed: Hypotension
Blood pressure that may fall significantly when patient sits up is called Orthostatic Hypotension
What is Cyanosis? Lack of oxygen to the tissue
Diaphoresis Sweating
Mydriasis Dilated an fixed pupils
Diplopia Double or blurred vision
Pytosis Drooping
Nystagmus Cyclic movemment of the eyeballs
What is often the result of Jugular Venous Distention? Right heart failure
Pectus carinatum Sternal protrusion anteriorly
Pectus excavatum Depression of all or part of the sternnum,which can produce a restrictive lung defect
Kyphosis Curvature
Scoliosis Spinal deformity;lateral curvature
Kyphoscoliosis Combination of both deformities
Barrel chest When ribs lose their normal 45 degree angle of slope in relationship to the spine and become horizontal
Apnea No breathing
Biot’s Irregular breathing with long periods of apnea
Cheyne-Stokes Irregular type of breathing;increase and decrease in depth and rate with long periods of apnea.
Kussmaul’s Deep and fast
Asthmatic Prolonged exhalation
Define Vocal fremitus Vibrations from vocals during phonation
Define Vescular or normal Low pitch,soft intensity;Peripheral lung areas
Define Bronchovesicular Moderate
Define Tracheal High pitch,loud intensity;over trachea
Define Crackles Discontinuous
Define Wallop rhythne Gheezes High pitched continuous;low pitched continuous
What is Precordium technique? Inspection,palpitation, and auscultation
Define Gallop Rhythm an abnormal sound which a third or forth heart sound
What is Cyanosis? Lack of oxygen to the tissue
Diaphoresis Sweating
Mydriasis Dilated an fixed pupils
Diplopia Double or blurred vision
Pytosis Drooping
Nystagmus Cyclic movemment of the eyeballs
What is often the result of Jugular Venous Distention? Right heart failure
Pectus carinatum Sternal protrusion anteriorly
Pectus excavatum Depression of all or part of the sternnum,which can produce a restrictive lung defect
Kyphosis Curvature
Scoliosis Spinal deformity;lateral curvature
Kyphoscoliosis Combination of both deformities
Barrel chest When ribs lose their normal 45 degree angle of slope in relationship to the spine and become horizontal
Apnea No breathing
Biot’s Irregular breathing with long periods of apnea
Cheyne-Stokes Irregular type of breathing;increase and decrease in depth and rate with long periods of apnea.
Kussmaul’s Deep and fast
Asthmatic Prolonged exhalation
Define Vocal fremitus Vibrations from vocals during phonation
Define Vescular or normal Low pitch,soft intensity;Peripheral lung areas
Define Bronchovesicular Moderate
Define Tracheal High pitch,loud intensity;over trachea
Define Crackles Discontinuous
Define Wallop rhythne Gheezes High pitched continuous;low pitched continuous
What is Precordium technique? Inspection,palpitation, and auscultation
Define Gallop Rhythm an abnormal sound which a third or forth heart sound
What is Cyanosis? Lack of oxygen to the tissue
Diaphoresis Sweating
Mydriasis Dilated an fixed pupils
Diplopia Double or blurred vision
Pytosis Drooping
Nystagmus Cyclic movemment of the eyeballs
What is often the result of Jugular Venous Distention? Right heart failure
Pectus carinatum Sternal protrusion anteriorly
Pectus excavatum Depression of all or part of the sternnum,which can produce a restrictive lung defect
Kyphosis Curvature
Scoliosis Spinal deformity;lateral curvature
Kyphoscoliosis Combination of both deformities
Barrel chest When ribs lose their normal 45 degree angle of slope in relationship to the spine and become horizontal
Apnea No breathing
Biot’s Irregular breathing with long periods of apnea
Cheyne-Stokes Irregular type of breathing;increase and decrease in depth and rate with long periods of apnea.
Kussmaul’s Deep and fast
Asthmatic Prolonged exhalation
Define Vocal fremitus Vibrations from vocals during phonation
Define Vescular or normal Low pitch,soft intensity;Peripheral lung areas
Define Bronchovesicular Moderate
Define Tracheal High pitch,loud intensity;over trachea
Define Crackles Discontinuous
Define Wallop rhythne Gheezes High pitched continuous;low pitched continuous
What is Precordium technique? Inspection,palpitation, and auscultation
Define Gallop Rhythm An abnormal sound which a third or forth heart sound is present
What is clubbing Painless enlargement of the phalanges of fingers and toes.
Pursed-lips are often seen in patients with: COPD
Question Answer
Settings for Vt and f should reflect a Ve that is derived from the initial calculation based on _______ ,________ and _______.(ApQ)(TM) Gender, BSA, pts pathology(TM)(ApQ)
The advantage of VS is?(RQ)(TM) Spontaneously breathing pts can establish their own RR and Vt.(TM)(RQ)
A pt with ARDS who is 5’4″ and weighs 195 lbs needs to be changed from a CPAP of 10 cmH2O to VC-CMV. What tidal volume and rate would you set and why?(AzQ)(TM) 4-8ml/kg and RR 15-30bpm because these are appropriate for ARDS pts(AzQ)(TM)
Define Mechanical Tidal Volume. (RQ) Set volume delivered to the patient; amount breathed in during 1 breath. (CG)
5’2″ pt. What is her VT range? (ApQ) 418.2mL-627.3mL (CG)
5’7″ pt on pressure ventilation with PIP of 15 cmH2O, PEEP 5cmH2O, RR 14bpm. Actual Vt is 350ml. What setting should you modify to achieve appropriate Vt? (AzQ) Increase PIP to give bigger breaths (CG)
What is the IBW for a 6’1″ male in kg? And what would you expect his VT, RR, and VE(min) to be? (BSA = 2.08) (Az Q) 83.6 kg, 585 ml – 836 ml, 12-18 bpm, 8.3 Lpm (ACE)
What is mechanical dead space? (RQ) The volume of gas that is rebreathed during ventilation (ACE)
What’s the equation for respiratory frequency? (AP Q) f= VE(min)/VT (ACE)
What basic settings help improve ventilation? (RQ) RR, Vt or PC level, PS (KMH)
5’6″female patient–what is her Vt range? (ApQ) 488-732ml (KMH)
What is a normal flow range? Do COPDers like a high flow or low flow and why? (AzQ) 40-60lpm–high flow–they like their flows given to them fast with a short I time to increase E time (KMH)
What will improve a pts VE leading to a decrease in CO2 and improves ventilation? (RQ) RR (MK)
A 5’8′ pt has a RR of 15bpm. What is her TCT? (ApQ) 60/15=4 seconds (MK)
A pt has a TCT of 7 seconds. They have an I Time % of 30%. What is their I Time, E time and I:E ratio? Is their I:E ratio normal? (AzQ) I time=2.1 sec E time=4.9 sec I:E=1:2.3–yes (MK)
We will use Itime to manipulate what other value? KRM Flow
Pt has the following: RR 15, Itime % of 35% and Flow 45 Lpm. Find the TCT, Itime, and Etime. KRM TCT=4 seconds, Itime=1.4, Etime=2.6 second
What are 3 factors we look for to check the body’s ability ot oxygenate the tissues? KRM Hemoglobin, Circulation and adequate ventilation.
What would be the first setting you would change on a ventilator to improve ventilation? RQ RR(JB)
Increasing PEEP has what kind of side effects? Apq increase in intrathoracic pressure, decrease venous return, decreased bp, increase in ICP, (JB)
If you have a TCT of 7 and an itime of 20%, what would be your Itime set in seconds? AzQ intime=TCTXItime%. 7X.20= 1.4s (JB)
A female 5’4″ patient is on a ventilator. You check her values and her Vt is is 354 ml. What is her tidal volume range and is hers adequate right now?(AzQ) 454 to 682 mL. NO. (AT)
What is the normal PS range? (RQ) 5 to 15 cmH2O (AT)
Find the tidal volume if you have a flow of 30 lpm and an I-time of 0.8 (ApQ) 400 mL (AT)
Pressure support only effects what type of Pts?RQ Spontaneously breathing (MC)
What is the goal Vt for a Pt that is 6 foot 2inches? ApQ 687-1032 mL (MC)
If you have a Pt who has CHF and you notice that their PEEP is at 10 cmH2O and their heart rate begins to rise and their BP begins to drop what should you do and why is this occurring?AZQ The pt is having to much intrathorasic pressure causing restriction on the heart. Decrease PEEP and notify the MD. (MC)
Basic settings for 100: Respiratory rate falls under this categorize (RK) What is Ventilation (RQ)
Basic settings for 250: This oxygenation setting holds the alveoli open. there normal values are..(RK) What is PEEP, normal 5-15cmH2O good starting point around 10cmH2O (AqQ)
Basic settings for 500: These are all normal ranges for all basic settings to start mechanical ventilation. (RK) What is RR:12-20bpm Vt:8-12ml/kg PC:15-20cmH2O FiO2:SpO2 >90% PEEP:5-15cmH2O Itime:.8-1.2sec (Azq)
What would be some settings to change on a vent to help improve oxygenation? (RQ) FiO2, PEEP, Itime (KAH)
If your patient in ICU on a vent had a change in FiO2 of 15% over your 8 hour shift what would you do? (AzQ) The physician should be contacted, this pt could be having a worsening disease process or a diffusion problem (KAH)
What is the “PEEP rule?” (RQ) If FiO2 is at 60% or higher and there is little to no change in PaO2 then PEEP maybe be needed to fight refractory hypoxemia.
List the settings that affect ventilation, and then those that affect oxygenation. (ApQ) -Ventilation: RR, Vt or PC, and PS -Oxygenation: FiO2, PEEP, Itime, Hgb, circulation, adequate ventilation (BH)
You are giving an aerosol to a ventilated patient and they look like they are having a hard time taking a breath when they want to. What is the problem and how would you fix it? (AzQ) The patient’s vent is on a flow trigger setting and the extra flow being added to the circuit by the aerosol causes it to be too much for the patient to trigger. While delivering the aerosol the vent should be changed to pressure triggering. (BH)
How does PEEP affect the lungs? (ApQ) It applies pressure into the lungs, and holds the alveoli open to improve oxygenation. (KJ)
When you are in _____ ______, you can’t have a ____ and a _____ set at the same time. This setting will do what for your patient, and will over come _____. (AZQ) Pressure Support. Pressure Control, Tidal Volume. This setting will provide a boost to overcome AW resistance and compliance of the ET Tube. (KJ)
On Vt, the faster the Itime, the bigger the ____. When increasing the Vt, we want to be careful of what? Surface Area, slower flow. Barotrauma, which can lead to damage of the lungs. It stretches the alveoli. (KJ)
Pressure control level is only set in which type of ventilation? (RQ) BL Pressure ventilation
When setting the Itime for a COPD or asthma patients, where would you set it at? What does this do for them? (AzQ) BL 0.8 cmH2O or the lower side because it gives them higher flows and gives them a longer Etime for their airtrapping.
what would the tidal volume range for a 5’9 male? What two ways can you calculate this? (ApQ) BL 582-873mL or 728mL Find by IBW in kg multiplied by 8 and 12ml OR find IBW in kg and multiply by ten for quick reference.
What are three setting that would effect Oxygenation on a ventilated patient? (RQ) MB FiO2, PEEP, Itime. MB
You have a 5’2″ male what would be his Vt range? (RpQ) MB 430-644 mL MB
Where would you most likely set the Itime for a COPD patient? (RpQ) MB Most likely 0.8-1 sec MB
Which setting would you change first to adjust ventilation? (AH) RR
When would you not want to set a Pressure Support? (AH) When pt is not spontaneously breathing.
A patient’a mechanical ventilator settings are: RR 16 Vt 650ml, PEEP 15cmH20, Itime 1sec, FiO2 50%, PS 0. Pt’s blood pressure is 75/43. What can be causing the low blood pressure? (AH) PEEP of 15cmH2O. Peep causes increased ICP and decreased BP.
What is mechanical deadspace? (Marianne B.) It is the volume of gas that is rebreathed during ventilation. (RQ)
Calculate CT with a volume change of 50 ml and a pressure change of 25 cm H2O. (Marianne B.) It is 2 ml/cm H2O. (ApQ)
If a physician orders a Vt of 600 ml and 14 bpm for a 25 year old female with a BSA of 3.0. Is the ordered VE adequate? (Marianne B.) No it is not. The ordered VE is 8.4 L and the estimated VE is 10.5 L. So the patient would have to take additional breaths. (AzQ)
What is your first choice in settings to change when you want to change ventilation? (ApQ)(CZ) Respiratory rate
What is one setting we can change without a physician’s order? (RQ)(CZ) FiO2It is ordered most often in order to keep the patient’s SpO2 over 90% Itime, Flow, and Trigger could also be changed without a MD order.
Your patient is set at 12 RR. Her I time is 1 sec and tidal volume is 450 ml. What is her TCT? Etime? flow? (AzQ) (CZ) TCT is 5, Etime is 4 sec, flow is 27 lpm
6’0″ male, what is his Vt and IBW? ApQ (JM) IBW is 178 lbs. 80.9 kg Vt on vent is 647 to 970 ml
Define respiratory distress.RQ (JM) This has a sudden onset, pt appears alarmed, sweating, flushed, anxious, or panicked. Pt can talk in short broken sentences. HR will be increased and irregular.
What is this pts I:E ratio and why is that important to know? Itime=1.8 sec, TCT is 3.4 AzQ (JM) This is an inverse I:E ratio and indicated a severe obstruction. Itime should be less than Etime.
Your pt is showing increased use of the sternocleidomastoid muscle during inspiration on a PSV mode. What does this indicate & how might you adjust your vent? (NMB) May indicate that the level of pressure support is not high enough for the pt. Adjust by increasing your patients pressure support value. (ApQ)
What mode of ventilation provides closed-loop pressure breaths & targets the pressure to achieve the set volume? This mode is also a pressure-limited & time-cycled mode. (NMB) PRVC (Pressure Regulated Volume Control) (RQ)
Your pt has set PS of 10cmH2O and a PEEP of 5cmH20. How much total pressure are you delivering to your pt? (NMB) 10cmH2O + 5cmH20 = 15cmH20 (AzQ)
A ventilated patient has been transferred from an acute care facility to a long-term care patient. What pressures would you use? (RQ) rt 1/3 of previous PIP or 15-20 cwp. rt
What two functions does setting the RR do? ApQ rt 1) provide a trigger 2) provide cycling (rt)
A patient with pneumonia on volume control has a PIP of 32; ABGs show that the patient is growing hypercapnic. What can you do to improve ventilation? AzQ-rt Decrease Vt and increase RR. (rt)
An unresponsive person was brought in by a family member. They are breathing shallow with periods of apnea. What Fio2 would you put them on? (Jenn B) If a previous FiO2 is unknown then start the patient at 100% and wean them down.
What is the volume of gas that is rebreathed during mechanical ventilation? (Jenn B) Mechanical dead space (Vdmech).
A patient is breathing 15 bpm with Vt 500ml and Flow of 35 lpm. What is their Itime? What is thier I:E? (Jenn B) Itime=.86, I:E= 1:3.65
Question Answer
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF BLOOD FLOW TO DELIVER OXYGEN TO THE CELLS OF THE BODY
WHAT DOES THE CIRCUALTORY SYSTEM CONSISTS OF BLOOD, HEART(PUMP) AND VASCULAR SYSTEM
WHAT LIQUED SUBSTANCE BLOOD AND NUMEROUS SPECIALIZED CELLS SUSPENDED IN PLASMA
WHAT CELLS IN THE PLASMA INCLUDE ERYTHROCYTES ( RED BLOOD CELLS), LEUKOCYTES( WHTIE BLOOD CELLS) ADN THROMBOCYTES( PLATELETS )
CELL FRAGMENTS ARE ACTUALLY THROMBOCYTES
IN A HEALTH ADULT HOW MANY RED BLOOD CELLS ARE THERE 5 MILLION ( RBC) IN EACH CUBIC MILLIMETER OF BLOOD( mm3)
HOW MANY RED BLOOD CELLS ARE IN A HEALTHY ADULT WOMEN 4 MILLION RBC/mm3
WHAT IS THE PERCENTAGE OF RBC IN RELATION TO THE TOTAL BLOOD VOLUME HEMATOCRIT
WHAT IS THE NORMAL HEMATOCRIT OF A ADULT MAN APPROXIMATELY 45 PERCENT
WHAT IS THE NORMAL HEMATOCRIT OF A ADULT WOMAN APPROXIMATELY 42 PERCENT
WHAT IS THE NORMAL HEMATOCRIT RANGE FOR NEWBORNS 45 PERCENT AND 60 PERCENT
MICROSCOPICALLY THE RBC APPEAR AS WHAT? BICONCAE DISCS
WHAT IS THE AVERAGE SIZE AND THICKNESS OF THE RBC’S 7.5 DIAMETER ADN 2.5 THICKNESS
WHERE ARE RBC PRODUCED RED BONE MARROW IN THE SPONGY BONE OF THE CRANIUM, BODIES OF VERTEBRAE, RIBS, STERNUM ADN PROXIMAL EPIPHYSES OF THE HUMERUS AND FEMUR
WHAT IS THE RATE OF WHICH RBC ARE PRODUCED 2 MILLION PER SECOND
WHERE ARE THE RBC DESTROYED SPLEEN AND LIVER
WHAT IS THE LIFE SPAN OF RBC 120 DAYS
WHAT IS THE MAJOR CONSTITUENT OF THE RBC’S HEMOGLOBIN
WHAT IS THE PRIMARY SUBSTANCE FOR THE TRANSPORT OF OXYGEN ADN CARBON DIOXIDE HEMOGLOBIN
WHAT IS THE PRIMARY FUNCTION OF THE LEUKOCYTES OR WHITE BLOOD CELLS TO PROTECT AGANIST BACTERIA , VIRUS, PARASITES, TOXINS, AND TUMORS
ARE LEUKOCYTES LESS NUMEROUS THAN RBC TRUE OR FALSE TRUE
WHAT IS THE AVERAGE AMOUNT OF RBC 4000 AND 11,000CELLS/MM
WHERE ARE RBC CONFINED BLOODSTREAM
THE WBC ARE ABLE TO LEAVE THE CAPILLARY BLOOD VESSELS BY WHICH PROCESS____WHEN NEED FOR INFLAMMATORY OR IMMUNE RESPONSE DIAPEDESIS
WHAT IS ACTIVATED BY A CHEMICAL SIGNAL RELEASED BY THE DAMAGED CELLS ( POSTIVE CHEMOTAXIS) DIAPEDESIS
WHAT IS THE DAMAGED CELLS CHEMICAL THAT ACTIVATES DIAPEDSIS POSTIVE CHEMOTAXIS
ONCE OUT OF THE BLOOD STREAM, THE LEUKOCYTES FORM CYTOPLASMIC EXTENSIONS THAT MOVE THEM ALONG THROUGH THE TISSURE SPACES TOWARD THE DAMAGED CELLS CALLED AMOEBOID MOTION
A WBC COUNT GREATER THAN 11000 CELLS/mm3 IS CALLED LEUKOCYTOSIS
WHEN THE CONDITION OF INCREASED WBC SEEN BACTERIAL OR VIRAL INFECTIONS
WHAT TWO CATERGORIES ARE LEUKOCYTES GROUPED AS GRANULOCYTES AND AGRANULOCYTES
____WHICH INCLUDE THE NEUTROPHILS, BASOPHILS, EOSINOPHILS, ARE SPHERICAL IN SHAPE AND MUCH LARGER THAN ERYTHOROCYTES GRANULOCYTES
____ARE THE MOST NUMEROUS OF THE WBCs NEUTROPHILS
NEUTROPHILS CONTAIN SMALL GRANULES THAT PRODUCE POTENT ANTIBIOTIC-LIKE PROTEINS CALLED DEFENSINS
___ARE FOUND AT INFLAMATION SITES CAUSED BY BACTERIA AND SOME FUNGI, WHICH INGEST ADN DESTROY DEFENSINS
NEUTROPHILS KILL BACTERIA BY MEANS OF A PROCESS CALLED RESPIRATORY BUST
____LESSEN THE SEVERITY OF ALLERGIES BY PAHGOCYTIZING IMMUNE ( ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY) COMPLEXES INVOLVED IN ALLERGIC ATTACKS EOSINOPHILS
EOSINOPHILS ACCOUNT FOR ___% OF ALL LEUKOCYTES 1-4
___ALSO COMBAT ALLERGIC REACTIONS BASOPHILS
BASOPHILS ARE THE SMALLEST GROUP OF WBCs ACCOUNTING FOR ___% OF THE LEUKOCYTE POPULATION 1
____IS AN INFLAMMATORY SUBSTANCE THAT CAUSES VASODILATION AND ATTRACTS OTHER WBCs TO THE INFLAMED SITE HISTAMINE
___, WHICH INCLUDE THE LYMPHOCYTES AND MONOCYTES, LACK CYTOPLASMIC GRANULES AGRANULOCYTES
___NUCLEI ARE TYPICALLY SHERICAL OR KIDNEY SHAPED AGRANULOCYTES
___SECOND MOST NUMEROUS LEUKOCYTES IN THE BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES
MOST OF THER LYMPOCYTES ARE FOUND IN THE ____WHERE THEY PLAY AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN IMMUNITY LYMPHOID TISSUES ( LYMPH NODES)
_____FUNCTION IN THE IMMUNE RESPONSE BY ACTING DIRECTLY AGANIST VIRUS-INFECTED CELLS AND TUMORS T LYMPHOCYTES ( T-CELLS)
____GIVE RISE TO PLASMA CELLS, WHICH PRODUCE ANTIBODIES THAT WORK TO INACTIVEATE INVADING ANTIGENS B-LYMPHOCYTES ( B-CELLS)
WHAT IS ANOTHER NAME FOR ANTIBODIES IMMUNOGLOBULINS
MONOCYTES ACCOUNT FOR ___%OF WBCs 4-8
IN THE TISSUE___DIFFERENTIATE INTO HIGHLY MOBLE ____ WITH LARGE APPETITES MONOCYTES, MACROPHGES
____ARE ALOS EFFECTIVE AGAINST VIRUSES AND CERTAIN INTRACELLUAL BACTERIAL PARASITES MONOCYTES
____ARE THE SMALLEST OF THE FORMED ELEMENTS IN THE PLASMA THROMBOCYTES OR BLOOD PLATELETS
WHAT IS THE NORMAL PLATELET COUNT RANGES 150,000-400,00 AND 250,000 ADN 500,000
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF PLATELETS TO PREVENT BLOOD LOSS FROM A TRAUMATIZED AREA OF THE BODY INVOLVING THE SMALLEST BLOOD VESSELS
WHAT IS THE SUBSTANCE ACTIVATED WHEN THE BODY IS TRAUMATIZZED PLATELET FACTOR
____IS A STICY SUBSTANCE THAT CAUSES BLOOD CLOTTING AT THE TRAUMATIZED SITE PLATELET FACTOR
THE PLATELETS ALSO CONTAIN ____WHICH, WHEN RELEASED, CAUSES SMOOTH MUSCLES CONTRICTION AND REDUCED BLOOD FLOW SEROTONIN
WHEN ALL THE CELLS ARE REMOVED FROM THE BLOOD, A STRAW COLORED LIQUID CALLED ___ PLASMA REMAINS
PLASMA CONSTITUES ABOUT ___% OF THE TOTAL BLOOD VOLUME 55
WHAT ___% OF PLASMA CONSISTS OF WATER 90
THE REMAIN 10 PERCENT OF PLASMA IS COMPOSED OF WHAT PROTEINS, ELECTROLYTES, FOOD SUBSTANCES, RESPIRATORY GASES, HORMONES, VITAMINS, AND WASTE PRODUCTS
THE ___IS A HOLLOW FOUR CHAMBERED MUSCULAR ORGAN THAT CONSISTS OF THE UPPER RIGHT AND LEFT ATRIA AND THE LOWER RIGHT AND LEFT VENTRICLES HEART
THE ___IS SEPERATED BY A THIN MUSCULAR WALLINTERATRIAL SEPTUM ATRIA
THE ATRIA ARE SEPERATED BY A THIN MUSCULAR WALL CALLED __ INTERTRIAL SEPTUM
___ ARE SEPEATED BY A THICK MUSCULAR WALL CALL THE INTEVENTRICULA SEPTUM VENTRICLES
THE VENTRICLES ARE SEPERATED BY A THICK MUSCULAR WALL CALLED ___ INTERVENTRICULAR SEPTUM
THE HEART ACTUALLY FUNCTIONS AS TWO SEPERATE PUMPS
______ACT AS ONE PUMP TO PROPEL UNOXYGENATED BLOOD TO THE LUNGS RIGHT ATRIUM AND VENTRICLE
______ACT AS ANOTHER PUMP TO PROPEL OXYGENATED BLOOD THROUGHOUT THE SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION LEFT ATRIUM AND VENTRICLE
WHAT ARE SMALL THIN WALLED CHAMBERS ATRIA AND VENTRICLES
WHAT IS THE SHAPE OF THE HEART CONE-SHAPED STRUCURE
WHAT IS THE WEIGHT OF THE HEART 250 AND 350 G
THE HEART IS ENCLOSED IN THE _____ EXTENDS OBLIQUELY BETWEEN THE ___RIB AND __ INTERCOSTAL SPACE MEDIASTINUM, SECOND, FIFTH
THE HEART REST ON ___SURFACE OF THE ___, ANTERIOR TO THE ___COLUMN ADN POSTERIOR TO THE ___ SUPERIOR, DIAPHRAGM, VERTEBRAL
THE LEFT ADN RIGHT LATERAL PORTION OF THER HEART ARE FLANKED BY THE LUNGS
APPROXIMATELY __- OF THE HEART LIES TO THE ___ OF THE MIDSTERNAL LINE THE BALANCE EXTENDS TO THE RIGHT 2/3 , LEFT
THE ___ OF THE HEART IS BROAD AND FLAT ABOUT 9 CM AND POINTS TOWARD THE RIGHT SHOULDER BASE
THE ___POINTS INFERIORLY TOWARD THER LEFT HIP APEX
THE HEART BEAT CAN BE FELT WHERE BETWEEN THE FIFTH AND SIXTH RIBS, BELOW LEFT NIPPLE, WHERE THE APEX IS IN CONTACT WITH THE INTERNAL CHEST WALL
POINT OF MAXIMAL INTENSITY (PMI) THE SITE OF WHERE THE HEART BEAT CAN BE FELT
THE HEART IS ENCLOSED IN A DOUBLE-WALLED SAC CALLED PERICARDIUM
THE OUTER WALL, THE____IS A TOUGH, DENSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE LAYER FIBROUS PERICARDIUM
WHAT IS THE PRIMARY FUNCTION OF THE FIBROUS PERICARDIUM 1. TO PROTEC THE HEART 2. ANCHOR THE HEART TO SURROUNDING STRUCTURES SUCH AS THE DIAPHRAGM AND GREAT VESSELS 3. PREVENT THE HEART FROM OVERFILLING
THE INNER WALL, THE ___, IS A THIN, SLIPPERY, SEROUS MEMBRANE SEROUS PERICARDIUM
THE SEROUS PERICARDIUM IS COMPOSED OF TWO LAYERS____ THE PARIETAL LAYER AND THE VISCERAL LAYER
___LINES THE INTERNAL SURFACE OF THER PERICARDIUM PARIETAL LAYER
____IS AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE HEART OFTEN DESCRIBED AS THE OUTERMOST LAYER OF THE HEART VISCERAL LAYER ( EPICARDIUM)
WHAT IS THE VISCERAL LAYER ALSO CALLED EPICARDIUM
WHAT ALLOWS THE PARIETAL AND VISCERAL MEMBRANES TO GLIDE SMOOTHLY AGAINST ONE ANOTHER, WHICH IN TURN PERMITS THER HEART TO WORK IN A RELATIVELY FRICTION-FREE ENVIRONMENT FILM OF SEROUS FLUID BETWEEN THE TWO LAYERS OF THER SEROUS PERICARDIUM
THE HEART WALL IS COMPOSED OF THE FOLLOWING 3 LAYERS 1. EPICARDIUM (VISCERAL PERICARDIUM) 2. MYOCARDIUM 3. ENDOCARDIUM
___OF THE PERICARDIUM IS COMPOSED OF A SINGLE SHEET OF SQUAMOUS EITHELIAL CELLS OVERLYING DLICATE CONNECTIVE TISSUE EPICARDIUM (VISCERAL LAYER)
—IS A THICH CONTRACTILE MIDDLE LAYER OF UNIQUELY CONSTRUCTED AND ARRANGED MUSCLE CELLS MYOCARDIUM
WHAT IS THE LAYER OF THE HEART THAT ACTUALLY CONTACTS MYOCARDIUM
____OF THER MYOCARDIUM IS COMPOSED OF FIBERS WITH THE CAHARCTERISTIC CROSS-STRIATIONS OF MUSCULAR TISSUE CONTRACTILE TISSUE
___ARE INTERCONNECTED TO FORM A NETWORK SPIRAL OR CIRCULAR BUNDLES CARDIAC MUSCLE CELLS
COLLECTIVELY, THE SPIRAL BUNDLES FORM A DENSE NETWORK CALLED FIRBROUS SKELETON OF THE HEART
____REINFORCES THER INTERNAL PORTION OF THER MYOCARDIUM FIBROUS SKELETON OF THER HEART
___IS A GLISTENING WHITE SHEET OF SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM THAT RESTS ON A THIN, CONNECTIVE TISSUE LAYER ENDOCARDIUM
WHAT IS LOCATED IN THER INNER MYOCARDIAL SURFACE AND LINES THER HEART’S CHAMBERS ENDOCARDIUM
THE ___CONTAINS SMALL BLOOD VESSELS AND A FEW BUNDLES OF SMOOTH MUSCLES ENDOCARDIUM
___IS CONTIUOUS WITH THE ENDOTHELIUM OF THE GREAT BLOOD VESSELS- THER SUPERIOR ADN INFERIOR VENA CAVA ENDOCARDIUM
THE BLOOD SUPPLY OF THE HEART ORIGINATES DIRECTLY FROM THER AORTA BY MEANS OF TWO ARTERIES LEFT CORONARY ARTERY ADN THE RIGHT CORONARY ARTERY
THE LEFT CORNARY ARTERY DIVEDES IN THE ___ AND THE ____ CIRCUMFLEX BRANCH, ANTERIOR INTERVENTIRICULAR BRANCH
THE ___RUNS POSTERIORLY ADN SUPPLEIS THE LEFT ATRIUM AND THE POSTERIOR WALL OF THE LEFT VENTRICLE CIRCUMFLEX BRANCH
___TRAVELS TOWARD THE APEX OF THE HEART ADN SUPPLIES THE ANTERIOR WALLS OF BOTH VENTRICLES AND THE INTERVENTRICULAR SEPTUM ANTERIOR INTERVENTRICULAR BARANCH
THE RIGHT CORNARY ARTERY SUPPLIES THER ATRIUM ADN THEN DIVIDES INTO THE ____ MARGINAL BRANCH, AND POSTERIOR INTERVENTRICULAR
THE ___SUPPLIES THE LATERAL WALLS OF THE RIGHT ATRIUM AND RIGHT VENTRICLE MARGINAL BRANCH
THE ___SUPPLIES THE POSTERIOR WALL OF BOTH VENTRICLES POSTERIOR INTERVENTRICULAR BRANCH
WHAT IS PARALLELS THE CORONARY ARTERIES OF THE HEART VENOUS SYSTEM
VENOUS BLOOD FROM THE ANTERIOR SIDE OF THE HEART EMPTIES INTO THE ____ GREAT CARDIAC VEINS
VENOUS BLOOD FROM THE POSTERIOR PORTION OF THE HEART IS COLLECTED BY THE ___ MIDDLE CARDIAC VEIN
THE ___AND __MERGE ADN EMPTY INTO A LARGE VENOUS CAVITY WITHIN THER POSTERIOR WALL OF THER RIGHT ATRIUM CALLED THER CORNARY SINUS THE GREAT ADN MIDDLE CARDIAC VEINS
WHAT IS THE LARGE VENOUS CAVITY WITHIN THE POSTEIOR WALL OF THE RIGHT ATRIUM CALLED CORNONARY SINUS
A SMALL AMOUNT OF VENOUS BLOOD IS COLLECT BY THE ___ THEBESIAN VEIN
THE ___EMPTIES DIRECTLY INTO BOTH THE RIGHT AND LEFT ATRIUM THEBESIAN VEIN
THE —-THAT FLOWS INTO THE LEFT ATRIUM CONTRIBUTES TO THE NORMAL ANATOMIC SHUNT, THE PHENOMENON WHEREBY, OXYGENATED MIXES WITH DEOXYGENATED BLOOD VENOUS DRAINAGE
THE RIGHT ATRIUM RECEIVES VENOUS BLOOD FROM THE __- INFERIOR VENA CAVA AND SUPERIOR VENA CAVA
A SMALL AMOUNT OF CARDIAC VENOUS BLOOD ENTERS THE RIGHT ATRIUM BY MEANS OF THE ___ THEBESIAN VEIN
WHAT BLOOD IS LOW IN OXYGEN AND HIGH IN CARBON DIOXIDE THE BLOOD RECEIVED BY THE RIGHT ATRIUM BY MEAS OF THE THEBESIAN VEIN
A ONE-WAY VALVE, THE ___, LIES BETWEEN THE RIGHT ATRIUM AND THE RIGHT VENTRICLE TRICUSPID VALVE
THE ___GETS IT NAME FROM ITS THREE VALVE LEAFLETS OR CUSPS TRICUSPID VALVE
THE TRICUSPID LEAFLETS ARE HELD IN PLACE BY TENDINOUS CORDS CALLED CHORDAE TENDINAE
THE ___, WHICH ARE SECURED TO THE VENTRICULAR WALL BY THE PAPILLARY MUSCLES CHORDAE TENDINAE
THE CHORDAE TENDINAE, WHICH ARE SECURED TO THE VENTRICULAR WALL BY THE __- PAPILLARY MUSCLES
WHEN THE VENTRICLES CONTRACT,T HE TRICUSPIKD VALVE CLOSES AND BLOOD LEAVES THE RIGHT VENTRICLE THROUGH ___ PULMONARY TRUNK
WHEN THE VENTRICLES CONTRACT, THE TRICUSPID VALVE CLOSES AND BLOOD LEAVES THE RIGHT VENTRICLE THROUGH THE PULMONARY TRUNK AND ENTERS THE LUNGS BY WAY OF RIGHT ADN LEFT ___ PULMONARY ARTERIES
THE ___SEPERATES THE RIGHT VENTRICLE FROM THE PULMONARY TRUNK PULMONARY SEMILUNAR VALVE
AFTER THE BLOOD PASSES THROUGH THE LUNGS, IT RETURNS TO THE LEFT ATRIUM BY WAY OF THE ___ PULMONARY VEINS
TEH RETURNING BLOOD FROM THE PULMONARY VEINS IS ___IN OXYGEN AND __IN CARBON DIOXIDE HIGH, LOW
THE ___ALSO CALLED ___LIES BETWEEN THE LEFT ATRIUM AND THE LEFT VENTRICLE BICUSPID VALVE , MITRAL VALVE
THE ___CONSIST OF TWO CUSPS, PREVENTS BLOOD FROM RETRUNING TO THE LEFT ATRIUM DURING VENTRICULAR CONTRACTION BISCUSPID, MITRAL VALVE
WHAT IS HELD IN PLACE BY THE CHORDAE TENDINAE AND PAPILLARY MUSCLES TRICUSPID VALVE, THE BICUSPID VALVE
THE LEFT VENTRICLE PUBPS BLOOD THROUGH THE ASCENDING ___ AORTA
THE ___, WHICH LIES AT THE BASE OF THER ASCENDING AORTA, HAS SEMILUNAR CUSPS ( VALVES) THAT CLOSE WHEN THE VENTRICLES RELAX AORTIC VALVE
THE CLOSURE OF THE ___PREVENT THE BACKFLOW OF BLOOD INTO THE LEFT VENTRICLE SEMILUNAR VALVES
THE VASCUALR NETWORK OF THER CIRCULARTORY SYSTEM IS COMPOSED OF TWO MAJOR SUBDIVISIONS THE SYSTEMIC SYSTEM AND THE PULMONRY SYSTEM
THE ___BEGINS WITH THE PULMONARY TRUNK AND ENDS IN THE LEFT ATRIUM PULMONARY SYSTEM
THE ___BEGINS WITH THE AORTA AND ENDS IN THE RIGHT ATRIUM SYSTEMIC SYSTEM
THE SYSTEMIC SYSTEM AND THE PULMONARY SYSTEMS ARE COMPOSED OF _____ ARTERIES, ARTERIOLES, CAPILLARIES, VENULES ADN VEINS
____ARE VESSELS THAT CARRY BLOOD AWAY FROM THE HEART ARTERIES
THE ___ARE STRONG ELASTIC VESSELS THAT ARE WELL SUITED FOR CARRYING BLOOD UNDER HIGH PRESSURE IN THE SYSTEMIC SYSTEM ARTERIES
THE ARTERIES SUBDIVIDE AS THEY MOVE AWAY FROM THE HEART INTO SMALLER VESSELS AND EVENTUALLY INTO VESSELS CALLED__- ARTERIOLES
ARTERIOLES PLAY A MAJOR ROLE IN THE DISTRUBUTION AND REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE AND REFERRED TO AS THE ____ RESISTANCE VESSELS
GAS EXCHANGE OCCURS IN THE ____ CAPILLARIES
IN THE CAPALLARIES OF THE PULMONARY SYSTEM, GAS EXCHANGE IS CALLED ___ EXTERNAL RESPIRATION
_____GAS EXHANGE BETWEEN BLOOD ADN AIR EXTERNAL RESPIRATION
IN THE CAPALLARIES OF THE SYSTEMIC SYSTEM, GAS EXCHANGE IS CALLED ____ INTERNAL RESPIRATION
____GAS EXCHANGE BETWEEN BLOOD AND TISSUES INTERNAL RESPIRATION
THE ___ARE TINY VEINS CONTINUOUS WITH THE CAPILLARIES VENULES
THE ___EMPTY INTO THE VEINS, WHICH CARRY BLOOD BACK TO THE HEART VENULES
THE ___DIFFER FROM THE ___IN THAT THEY ARE CAPABLE OF HOLDING A LARGE AMOUNT OF BLOOD WITH VERY LITTLE PRESSURE CHANGE VEINS, ARTERIES
THE VEINS DIFFER FROM THE ARTERIES IN THAT THEY ARE CAPABLE OF HOLDING A LARGE AMOUNT OF BLOOD WITH VERY LITTLE PRESSURE CHANGE. BECAUSE OF THIS UNIQUE FEATURE, THE VEINS ARE CALLED ____ CAPACITANCE VESSELS
WHERE ARE THE SYSYPATHETIC FIBERS FOUND ARTERIES, ATERIOLES AND TO LESSER DEGREE THE VEINS
THE ___, WHICH IS LOCATED IN THE MEDULLA OBLONGATA, GOVERNS THE NUMBER OF SYMPATHETIC IMPULSES SENT TO THE VASCULAR SYSTEM VASOMOTOR CENTER
THE VASOMOTOR CENTER TRANSMITS A CONTIUAL STREAM OF SYMPATHETIC IMPULSES TO THE BLOOD VESSELS, MAINTAINING THE VESSELS IN A MODERATE STATE OF CONSTRICTION ALL THE TIME. WHAT IS THE STATE OF VASCULAR CONTRACTION CALLED ___ VASOMOTOR TONE
THE VASOMOTOR CENTER COORDINATES BOTH ___ ADN ___BY CONTROLLING THE NUMBER OF SYMPATHETIC IMPULSES THAT LEAVE THE MEDULLA VASOCONSTRICTION AND VASODILATION
WORKING TOGETHER, THE VASOMOTOR CENTER AND THE CARDIAC CENTERS IN THE MEDULLA OBLONGATA REGULATE THE ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE IN RESPONSE TO SIGNALS RECEIVED FROM SPECIAL PRESSURE RECEPTORS LOCATED THROUGHOUT THE BODY THESE PRESSURE RECEPTORS ARE CALLED ARTERIAL BAROCECEPTORS
SPECIALIZED STRETCH RECEPTORS CALLED ___ARE LOCATED IN THE WALLS OF THER CAROTID ARTERIES AND THE AORTA BARORECEPTORS ALSO CALLED PRESSORECEPTORS
IN THE ___, THE BARORECEPTORS ARE FOUND IN THE CARTOID SINUSES LOCATED HIGH IN THE NECK WHERE THE COMMON CAROTIOD ARTERIES DIVIDE INTO THE EXTERNAL AND INTERANAL CAROTID ARTERIES CAROTID ARTERIES
THE AFFERENT FIBERS FROM THE CAROTID SINUSES TRAVEL WITH THE ___(NINTH CRANIAL) TO THE MEDULLA GLOSSOPHRYNGEAL NERVE
IN THE AORTA THE BARORECEPTORS ARE LOCATED IN THE ___ AORTIC ARCH
THE AFFERENT FIBERS FROM THE AORTIC ARCH BARORECEPTORS TRAVEL WITH THE ___ VAGUS NERVE ( TENTH CRANIAL)
THE ___REGUALTE THE ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE BY INITIATING REFLEX AND ADJUSTMENTS TO CHANGES IN BLOOD PRESSURE BARORECEPTORS
WHEN THE MEDULLA INCREASES ITS SYMPATHETIC ACTIVITY,WHICH IN TURN CAUSES AN INCREASE IN THE FOLLOWING ___ HEART RATE, MYOCARDIAL FORCE OF CONTRACTION, ATERIAL CONSTRICTION, VENOUS CONSTRICTION
AN INCREASE IN THE SYMPATHIC ACTIVITY WILL RESULTS IN 1.INCREASED CARDIAC OUTPUT (BECAUSE OF INCREASED HEART RATE AND VOLUME) 2 TOTAL PERIPHERAL RESISTANCE( INDUCED BY ATERIAL CONSTRICTION) 3. THE RETURN OF BLOOD PRESSURE TOWARD NORMAL
THE VASCUAL CONSTRICTION OCCURS PRIMARLY IN THE ABDOMAINL REGION INCLUDING ___ LIVER, SPLEEN, PANCREAS, STOMACH, INTESTINE, KIDNEYS, SKIN, AND SKELETAL MUSCLES
WHEN THE BLOOD PRESSURE INCREASES THE NEURAL IMPULESE FROM THE ___INCREASES ARTERIAL BARORECEPTORS
THE BARORECEPTORS FUNCTION AS _____REGULATORS OF ATERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE SHORT TERM
BARORECEPTORS ARE ALSO FOUND IN THE ___ LARGE ARTERIES, LARGE VEINS, AND PULMONARY VESSELS AND THE CARDIAC WALLS
WHAT ARE THE 3 DIFFERENT TYPES OF PRESSURES USED TO STUDY THE BLOOD FLOW INTRAVASCULAR, TRASMURAL AND DRIVING
____IS THE ACTUAL BLOOD PRESSURE IN THE LUMEN OF ANY VESSEL AT ANY POINT, RELATIVE TO THE BAROMETRIC PRESSURE INTRAVASCUALR PRESSURE
INTRAVASCULAR PRESSURE IS THE ACTUAL BLOOD PRESSURE IN THE LUMEN OF ANY VESSEL AT ANY POINT, RELATIVE TO THE BAROMETRIC PRESSURE. THIS PRESSURE IS KNOWN AS THE INTRALUMINAL PRESSURE
___ IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE INTRVASCULAR PRESSURE OF A VESSEL AND THE PRESSURE SURROUNDING THE VESSEL. TRANSMURAL PRESSURE
THE TRANSMURAL PRESSURE IS ____WHEN THE PRESSURE INSIDE THE VESSEL EXCEEDS THE PRESSURE OUTSIDE THE VESSEL AND __WHEN THE PRESSURE INSID THE VESSEL IS LESS THAN THE PRESSURE SURROUNDING THE VESSEL POSTIVE ;NEGATIVE
___IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE PRESSUR AT ONE POINT IN A VESSEL AND THE PRESSURE AT ANY OTHER POINT DOWNSTREAM IN THE VESSEL DRIVING PRESSURE
THE ____RISES ADN FALLS IN A PATETERN THAT CORRESPONDS TO THE PHASES OF THE CARDIAC CYCLE ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE
WHEN THE VENTRICLE CONTRACT ___BLOOD IS FORCED INTO THE PULMONARY ARTERY AND THE AORTA, AND THE PRESSURE IN THESE ARTERIES RISES SHARPLY VENTRICULAR SYSTOLE
THE MAXIMUM PRESSURE GENERATED DURING VENTRICULAR CONTRACTION IS THE ___ SYSTOLIC PRESSURE
WHEN THE VENTRICLES RELAX___THE ARTERIAL PRESSURE DROPS VENTRICULAR DIASTOLE
THE LOWEST PRESSURE THAT REMAINS IN THE ARTERIES PRIOR TO THE NEXT VENTRICUAL CONTRACTION IS THE DIASTOLIC PRESSURE
IN THE SYSTEMIC SYSTEM THE NORMAL SYSTOIC PRESSURE IS ABOUT___ AND NORMAL DIASTOLIC PRESSURE IS ABOUT ___ 120 mmHg : 80mmHg
IN THE PULMONARY SYSTEM THE NORMAL SYSTOLIC PRESSURE IS ABOUT ___AND THE NORMAL DIASTOLIC PRESSURE IS ABOUT___ 25mmHg : 8mmHg
THE PULMONARY SYSTEM IS A __PRESSURE SYSTEM LOW
THE MEAN PRESSURE IN THE PULMONARY ARTERY IS ABOUT__-AND THE MEAN PRESSURE IN THE LEFT ATRIUM IS ABOUT ___ 15mmHg : 5mmHg
THE DRIVING PRESSURE NEEDED TO MOVE BLOOD THROUGH THE LUNGS IS ___ 10mmHg
THE MEAN INTRALUMINAL PRESSURE IN THE AORTA IS ABOUT ___ ADN THE MEAN RIGHT ATRIAL PRESSURE IS ABOUT ___MAKING THE DRIVING PRESSURE THROUGH THE SYSTEMIC SYSTEM ABOUT __ 100mmHg: 2mmHg: 98mmHg
COMPARED WITH THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION, THE PRESSURE IN THE SYSTEMIC SYSTEM IS ABOUT __TIME GREATER 10
THE SURGE OF BLOOD RUSHIN INTO THE ARTERIAL SYSTEM DURING ___CAUSES THE ELASTIC WALLS OF THE ARTERIES TO EXAPND VENTRICULAR CONTRACTION
THE VOLUME OF BLOOD EJECTED FROM THE VENTRICLE DURING EACH CONTRACTION IS CALLED THE STROKE VOLUME
NORMALLY, THE STROKE VOLUME RANGES BETWEEN ___AND ___ 40ML AND 80ML
THE TOTAL VOLUME OF BLOOD DISCHARGED FROM THE VENTRICLES PER MINUTE IS CALLED CARDIAC OUTPUT
THE CARDIAC OUTPUT (CO) IS CALCULATED BY MUTIPLYING THE ___ BY THE ___ PER MINUTE STROKE VOLUME(SV) BY THE HEART RATE (HR) (CO=SV X HR)
IF STROK VOLUME IS 70mL AND THE HEART RATE IS 72 BEATS PER MINUTE (bpm) THE CARDICA OUTPUT IS 5040mL/MINUTE
UNDER NORMAL CIRCUMSTANCES, THE ___DIRECTLY INFLUENCES BLOOD PRESSURE CARDIAC OUTPUT
WHEN EITHER THE STROKE VOLUME OR HEART RATE INCREASES THE ____ INCREASES BLOOD PRESSURE
WHEN THE STROKE VOLUME OR THE HEART RATE DECREASED THE _____DECREASED BLOOD PRESSURE
THE TOTAL BLOOD VOLUME VARIES WITH AGE, BODY SIZE, ADN SEX, THE NORMAL ADULT VOLUME IS ABOUT — 5mL
WHAT % IS THE SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION BLOOD VOLUME OF AN ADULT, __IN THE HEART, AND __IN THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION 75% ; 15%; 10%
WHAT % OF THE TOTAL BLOOD VOLUME IS IN THE VEINS___ 60%
WHAT IS THE % OF TOTAL BLOOD VOLUME IN THE ARTERIES 10%
NORMALLY THE PULMONARY CAPIALLARY BED CONTAINS ABOUT __% OF BLOOD, ALTHOUGH IT HAS A CAPACITY OF ___mL 75 ; 200
IN THE UPRIGHT LUNG, BLOOD FLOW PROGRESSIVELY DECREASES FROM THE ____ THE BASE TO THE APEX
WHAT IS THE LINEAR DISTRIBUTION OF BLOOD FUNCTIONS 1.GRAVITY 2.CARDIAC OUTPUT 3. PULMONARY VASCULAR RESISTANCE
BECAUSE BLOOD IS REALATIVELY HEAVY SUBSTANCE IT IS ______- GRAVITY DEPENDENT
WHAT NATURALLY MOVES TO THE PROTION OF THE BODY, OR PROTION OF THE ORGAN , THAT IS CLOSED TO THE GROUND GRAVITY DEPENDENT
IN THE AVERAGE LUNG, WHAT IS THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE BASE AND THE APEX 30cm
THE BLOOD THAT FILLS THE LUNG FROM THE BOTTOM TO THE TOP IS ANALOGOUS TO THE COLUMN OF WATER ____ AND THEREFORE, EXERTS A PRESSURE OF ABOUT ___BETWEEN THE BASE AND APEX 30cm ; 30cmH2O
THE PULMONARY ARTERY ENTERS EACH LUNG ABOUT MIDWAY BETWEEN THE TOP AND BOTTOM OF THE, THE PULMONARY ARTERY PRESSURE MUST BE GREATER THAN ___ TO OVERCOME THE GRAVITIONAL FORCE ADN THERBY, SUPPLY BLOOD TO THE LUNG APEX 15cmH2O
WHEN THE ALVEOLI ARE VENTILATED BUT NOT PERFUSED, NO GAS EXCHANGE CAN OCCUR AND ____IS SAID TO EXIST ALVEOLAR DEAD SPACE
WHAT IS STROKE VOLUME DETERMINED BY 1. VENTRICULAR PRELOAD, 2. VENTRICULAR AFTERLOAD, 3. MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTILITY
____REFERS TO THE DEGREE THAT THE MYOCARDIAL FIBER IS STRETCHED PRIOR TO CONTRACTION (END-DIASTOLE) VENTRICULAR PRELOAD
____DEFINED AS THE FORCE AGAINST WHICH THE VENTRICLES MUST WORK TO PUMP BLOOD. VENTRICULAR AFTERLOAD
____MAY BE REGARDED AS THE FORCE GENERATED BY THE MYOCARDIUM WHEN THE VENTRICULAR MUSCLE FIBERS SHORTEN MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTILITY
AN INCREASE IN MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTILITY IS REFERRED TO AS POSTIVE INOTROPISM
A DECREASED IN MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTILITY IS REFERRED TO AS NEGATIVE INOTROPISM
___IS DERIVED BY DIVIDING THE MEAN BLOOD PRESSURE(BP) BY THE CARDIAC OUTPUT(CO) RESISTANCE=_BP/CO
WHEN THE ____RESISTANCE INCREASES, THE __PRESSURE INCREASES( WHICH IN TURN INCREASES THE VENTRICULAR AFTERLOAD) VASCULAR, BLOOD
IN THE PULMONARY SYSTEM, THERE ARE SEVERAL KNOWN MECHANISMS THAT CHANGE THE VASCULAR RESISTANCE. AND ARE CLASSIFIED AS ___ ACTIVE OR PASSIVE MECHANISMS
ACTIVE MECHANISM THAT EFEECT VASCULAR RESISTNCE INCLUED ___ ABNORMAL BLOOD GASES, PHARMACOLOGIC STIMULATION, PATHOLOGIC CONDITIOINS
THE PULMONARY VASCULAR SYSTEM CONTRICTS IN RESPONSE TO A DECREASED ____ ALVEOLARY OXYGEN PRESSURE ( HYPOXIA)
PULMONARY VASCULAR RESISTANCE INCREASES IN RESPONSE TO AN ACUTE INCREASE IN THE ___ Pco2 LEVEL ( HYPERCAPNIA)
PULMONARY VASOCONSTRICTION DEVELOPS IN RESPONSE TO DECREASED __( INCREASED___ )OR ___, OF EITHER METABOLIC OR RESPIRATORY ORGIN PH; H+; ACIDEMIA
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE VEDP(DEGREE OF MYOCARDIAL STRETCH) AND CARDIAC OUTPUT(STROKE VOLUME) IS KNOWN AS ___ FRANK STARLING CURVE
THE REDUCTION OF THE PERIPHERAL RESISTANCE( AFTERLOAD REDUCTION), THE STROKE VOLUME INCREASES WITH LITTLE OR CHANGE IN THE BLOOD PRESSURE. THIS IS BECAUSE BLOOD PRESSURE(BP) IS A FUNCTION OF CARDIAC OUTPUT(CO) TIMES THE SYSTEMIC VASCULARY RESISTANCE ( SVR BP=CO X SVR
PYLMONARY VASOCONSTRICTION DEVELOPS IN RESPONSE TO DECREASED __( INCREASED ___CONCETRATION) OR __, OF EITHER METABLOIC OR RESPRIATORY ORGIN pH; H+; ACIDEMIA
PHARMACOLOGIC STIMULATION. THE PULMONARY VESSEL CONSTRICT IN RESPONSE TO VARIOUS PHARMACOLOGIC AGENTS INCLUDING EPINEPHRINE, NOREPHINEPHRINE, DOBUTAMINE, DOPAMINE, PHENYLEPHRINE
CONSTRICTED PULMONARY VESSELS RELAX IN RESPONSE TO THE FOLLOWING AGENTS OXYGEN, ISOPROTERENOL, AMINOPHYLLINE, CALCIUM-CHANNEL BLOCKING AGENTS
PULMONARY VASCULAR RESISTNCEINCREASES IN RESPONSED TO A NUMBER OF PATHOLOGIC CONDITIONS INCLUDING VESSEL BLOCKAGE OR OBSTRUCTION, VESSEL WALL DISEASE, VESSEL DESTRUCTIION OR OBLITERATION, VESSEL COMPRESSION
____CAUSED BY A THROMBUS OR AN EMBOLUS( BLOOD CLOT, FAT CELL, AIR BUBBLE, OR TUMOR MASS VESSL BLOCKAGE OR OBSTRUCTION
____SCLEROSIS, POLYARTERITIS OR SCLERODERMA VESSEL WALL DISEASE
___EMPHYSEMA OR PULMONARY INTERSTITIAL FIBROSIS VESSEL DESTRUCTION OR OBLITERATION
___PHNEUMOTHROAX, HEMOTHROAX, OR TUMOR MASS VESSEL COMPRESSION
PATHOLOGIC DISTURBANCES IN THE PULMONARY VASCULARY SYSTEM CAN DEVELOP IN ____ ARTERIES, ARTERIOLES, CAPILLARIES, VENULES, OR VEINS
WHEN INCREASED VASCUALR RESISTANCE ORGINATES IN THE VENULES OR VEINS, THE TRANSUMURAL PRESSURE INCREASES AND IN SEVERE CASES, CAUSED THE CAPIALLRY FLUIED TO SPILL INTO THE ALVEOLI AND THIS IS CALLED ___ PULMONARY EDEMA
THE TERM ____REFERS TO A SCONDARY CHANGE I PULMONARY VASCULAR RESISTANCE THAT OCCURS IN RESPONSE TO ANOTHER MECHANICAL CHANGE PASSIVE MECHANISM
THE PULMONARY VASCULAR RESISTNCE DECREASES BECAUSE OF THE INCREASE IN INTRALUMINAL DISTENDING PRESSURE, WHICH INCREASES THE TOTAL CROSS-SECTIONAL AREAS OF THE PULMONARY VASCULAR SYSTEM TRHOUGH THE MECHANISMS OF __ AND __ RECRUITMENT AND DISTENSION
____DECREASES PULMONARY VASCUALR RESISTANCE INCREASED MEAN PULMONARY ATRERIAL PRESSURE
___MEANS THE OPENING OF VESSELS THAT WERE CLOSED OR NOT BEING UTILIZED FOR BLOOD FLOW BEFORE THE VASCULAR PRESSURE INCREASED RECRUITMENT
___MEANS THE STRETCHING OR WIDENING OF VESSELS THAT WERE OPEN, BUT NOT TO THEIR FULL CAPACITY. DISTENTION
______, WHILE THE LUNG VOLUME AND PULMONARY ARTERIAL PRESSURE ARE HELD CONSTANT, PULMONARY VASCULAR RESISTANCE DECREASES LEFT ATRIAL PRESSURE CHANGES
____EFFECT THE CHANGES IN LUNG VOLUME ON PULMONARY VASCUALR RESISTANCE VARIES ACCORDING TO THE LOCATION OF THE VESSEL LUNG VOLUME CHANGES
___VESSELS THAT SUROUND THE ALVEOLI ( PULMOANRY CAPILLARIES ALVEOLAR VESSELS
____ THE LARGER ARTERIS AND VEINS
DURING NORMAL INSPIRATION,____ PROGRESSIVELY STRETCH AND FLATTEN ALVEOLAR VESSELS
—THE RECRUITMENT AND DISTRENSION OF PULMONARY VESSELS WILL ENSUE, AND PULMONARY VASCULAR RESISTANCE WILL TEND TO DECREASE BLOOD VOLUME CHANGES
___IS DERIVED FROM THE HEMATOCRIT, THE INTERITY OF RED BLOOD CELLS, AND THE COMPOSITION OF PLASMA. AS___INCREASES, THE PULMONARY VASCULAR RESISTANCE INCREASES BLOOD VISCOSITY CHANGES
THE TRANSPORT OF OXYGEN TO THE CELLS OF THE BODY IS A FUNCTION OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
THE ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM CONSIST OF BLOOD, HEART, AND THE PULMONARY AND SYSTEMIC VASCULAR SYSTEM
BLOOD CONSIST OF A VARIETY OF SPECIALIZED CELLS THAT ARE SUSPENDED IN FLUID CALLED PLASMA
THE CELLS IN THE PLASMA INCLUDE ERYTHROCYTES, LEUKOCYTES, THROMBOCYTES
ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS OF THE HEART INCLUDE THE RIGHT AND LEFT ATRIA, VENTRICLES, AND THE INTERVENTRICULAR SEPTUM, PERICARDIUM
ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS OF THE HEART INCLUDE THE WALLS OF THE HEART( EPICARDIUM, MYOCARDIUM, ENDOCARDIUM )
ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS OF THE HEART INCLUDE THE ARTERIAL SUPPLY OF THE HEART ( THE LEFT AND RIGHT CORORNARY ARTERY) THE VENOUS DRAINAGE ( THE GREAT CARDIAC VEINS, MIDDLE CARDIAC VEINS, CORONARY SINUS, AND THEBESIAN VEIN AND THE BLOOD FLOW THROUGH THE HEART
THE PULMONARY AND SYSTEMIC VASCUALRY SYSTEM ARE COMPOSED OF THE ARTERIES, ARTERIOLES, ACAPPILLARIES, VENULES, VEINS
THE PULMONARY ARTERIOLES AND MOST OF THE ARTERIOLES IN THE SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION ARE CONTROLLED BY SYMPATHETIC IMPULES
SPECIALIZED STRETCH RECEPTORS CALLED BARORECEPTORS
THREE TYPES OF PRESSURES ARE USED TO STUDY THE BLOOD FLOW IN THE PULMONARY ADN SYSTEMIC VASCULAR SYSTEMS INCLUDE INTRAVASCULAR, TRANSMURAL, AND DRIVING
DURING EACH CARDIC CYCLE THE ____AND ___HAVE A DIRECT RELATIONSHIP TO THE BLOOD PRESSURE SYSTOLE AND DIASTOLE
DURING ___ THE ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE SHARPLY INCREASES, DURING ____, THE ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE DECREASES VENTRICULAR SYSTOLE, VENTRICULAR DIASTOLE
THE HIGH AND LOW BLOOD PRESSURE GENERATED BY VENTRICULAR SYSTOLE AND DIASTOLE REULTS IN MEAN ____THROUGHOUT THE PULMONARY AND SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION INTRALUMINAL BLOOD PRESSURE
THE MEAN ____PRESSURE IS ABOUT 10 TIMES THAT OF THE PULMONARY VASCULAR SYSTEM SYSTEMIC VASCULAR
THE DISTRIBUTION OF PULMONARY BLOOD FLOW IS A FUNCITON OF ___- 1. GRAVITY, 2. CARDIAC OUTPUT, 3. PULMONRY VASCULAR RESISTANCE
THE INFLUENCE OF GRAIVITY IN THE UPPER RIGHT LUNG IS DESCRIBED IN TERMS OF ZONE 1,2, 3 IS THE MOST GRAVITY- DEPENDENT AREA
DETERMINANTS OF CARDIAC OUTPUT IS A FUNCTION OF VENTRICULAR PRELOAD, VENTRICULAR AFTERLOAD, MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTILITY
THE PULMONARY VASCULAR RESISTANCE MAY INCREASE OR DECREASE AS A RESULT OF __AND __ ACTIVE AND PASSIVE MECHANISMS
ACTIVE MECHANISMS INCLUDE ABNORMAL BLOOD GASES, PHARMOLOGIC STIMULATION, PATHOLOGIC CONDIDITONS
PASSIVE MECHANISMS INCLUDE INCREASED PULMONARY ARTERIAL PRESSURE, INCREASED LEFT ARTERIAL PRESSURE, LUNG VOLUME CHANGES, ADN BLOOD VOLUME AND BLOOD VISCOSITY CHANGES
Question Answer
The total carbon dioxide (CO2) value is linked to what electrolyte in the blood serum? Bicarbonate (HCO3-)
Which of the following is NOT one of the formed elements in the blood? Electrolytes
Which of the following symptoms is least often associated with hypoglycemia? Shortness of breath
What should be done in response to a sputum sample that has many epithelial cells in it? Obtain new sputum sample
Which of the following values represents a normal serum potassium level? 3.5 to 4.8 mEq/L
Your patient has an elevated creatine kinase level. What two organs are most likely diseased? Heart and skeletal muscle
What term is used to describe a potassium concentration that is below normal in the blood serum? Hypokalemia
In which of the following clinical settings would hyperkalemia be a significant problem? During weaning from mechanical ventilation
Which of the following Gram stain results suggests the most legitimate sputum sample in a patient with pneumonia? Few epithelial cells and many pus cells
What is the upper limit of normal for the fasting blood glucose level? 140 mg/dl
What term is used to describe a red blood cell (RBC) count that is above normal values? Polycythemia
What term is used to describe a platelet count below normal? Thrombocytopenia
What term is used to describe a white blood cell (WBC) count that is above normal values? Polycythemia
What term is used to describe a platelet count below normal? Thrombocytopenia
What term is used to describe a white blood cell (WBC) count that is above normal values? Leukocytosis
What is the name used for immature neutrophils? Bands
Bands Cystic fibrosis
What type of white blood cell increases in response to allergic reactions? Eosinophils
What is the normal anion gap? 8 to 16 mEq/L
What term is used to describe a sodium concentration that is below normal in the blood serum? Hyponatremia
What term is used to describe a white blood cell (WBC) count that is below normal values? Leukopenia
What term is used to describe the increase in neutrophils due to recruitment of marginated cells back into the circulating blood? Pseudoneutrophilia
Your patient has an elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST). What two organs are most likely diseased? heart and liver
What is indicated by an elevation of the anion gap? Metabolic acidosis
What term is used to describe a red blood cell (RBC) count that is below normal values? Anemia
What test is useful for evaluating the blood-clotting ability of your patient? Platelet count
What type of white blood cell increases in response to viral infections? Lymphocytes
Which of the following tests is used to evaluate renal function? Creatinine
What abnormality in the complete blood count is often seen in a patient with chronic lung disease that causes significant hypoxemia? Polycythemia
Which of the following is NOT a cause of leukopenia? Antibiotics
Which of the following statements is NOT true about type 1 and type 2 diabetes? Type 1 is most often due to increased caloric intake.