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QuestionAnswer
Abdominal pressurepressure within the abdominal space. This is often used as a reference to intrathoracic pressures in order to calculate transdiaphragmatic pressures. This pressure is commonly measured in either the gastric space or the urinary bladder.
Absolute humiditythe amount of water vapor present in a gas mixture. Typically expressed in mgH2O/L.
Active heat and moisture exchangera device that combines a passive humidifier and a heated heated humidifier to reduce water usage and increase moisture output.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)a severe pulmonary inflammatory response to a variety of insults, resulting in capillary leak, interstitial edema, intrappulmonary compliance, decreased ventilation-perfusion matching, and progressive hypoxemic respiratory failure.
Active expirationexpiration assisted by ventilatory muscles.
Adaptive support ventilationa mode of ventialry support in which the ventilator can choose ventilator settings following the input of patient weight and % minute volume. The ventilator operates in the pressure control and pressure support modes and can change I:E during mandatory br
Air trappingsee intrinsic PEEP. This is sometimes also called “occult” PEEP. End-expiratory pressure in the lung as a consequence of excessive minute ventilation, and inadequately set expiratory time or airway obstruction preventing lung emptying. Intrinsic PEEP is s
Airway anatomythe anatomic structures in the head, neck, and thorax through which ventilation occurs.
Airway pressurepressure in the airways of the lung, often assumed to be identical to ventilator circuit problems.
Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV)a respiratory support pattern that provides a moderately high level of continuous airway pressure that is interspersed with brief deflation (release) periods. Spontaneous breaths can occur throughout the ventilatory cycle.
Alarma visual and /or auditory signal that occurs when a monitored parameter has exceeded a set limit.
Alarm eventany condition or occurrence that triggers an alarm and requires clinician awaresness or action.
Alternate care sitessites of care for mechanically ventilated patients that are outside the acute care hospital. Exampes include long-term facilities, skilled nursing facilities, and the home.
American Heart Association device classification systemthe system by which devices used during cardiopulmonary resuscitation are classified based on usefulness and possibility of doing harm. This system includes the following: Class I-A therapeutic option that is usually indicated, is always acceptable, and
Antibioticschemical angents that kill micro-organisms or inhibit heir growth.
APACHEan acronym for the Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation Score. It represent a simple scoring system used to predict outcome.
ARDSan acronym for the acute respiratory distress syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by an acute lung injury produing a noncardiogenic edema, bilateral chest X-ray infilitrates and severe hypoxemia.
Aspirationdescribes the introduction of oral, nasal, pharyngeal, or gastric contents into the lung.
Assessments for ventilator withdrawala series of clinical observations and physiologic measurements designed to determine the potential for patients to be withdrawn from mechanical ventilation.
Assisted expirationexpiratory flow generated by a negative change in transrespiratory pressure due to an external agent (such as a drop in airway pressure below baseline).
Assisted inspirationinspiratory flow generated by a positive change in transrespiratory pressure due to an external agent (such as a rise in airway pressure above baseline).
Assisted ventialtionthe process of providing a positive pressure breath in response to a patients inspiratory effort.
AutoPEEPsee intrinsic PEEP. This is sometimes also called “occult” PEEP. End-expiratory pressure in the lung as a consequence of excessive minute ventilation, and inadequately set expiratory time or airway obstruction preventing lung emptying. Intrinsic PEEP is
Bag valve resuscitatorconsists of a self-inflating bag, oxygen reservoir, and non-rebreathing valve. The operator ventilates the patient by squeezing the self-inflating bag, which forces air into the non-rebreathing valve and to the patient. The self-inflating bag is typicall
Barotrauma/volutraumainjury to the lung due to excessive pressure andor volume in the lung.
Barrier devicea flexible sheet that typically contains a vlave and/or filter separating the rescuer from the patient.
Basic airway managementprocedures to maintain a patent airway without the use of an endotracheal tube.
Bernoulli’s principlethe physical principle of a lowered pressure around a moving fluid or gas.
Broncho-alveolar lavagethe prcedure whereby distal regions of hte lung are washed with fluid for the purpose of obtaining samples for diagnosis.
Bronchodilatora drug that expands the lumina of the air passages of the lungs.
Bubble humidifiera humidifier that imparts heat and moisture to gas as it is released under the surface of the water and “bubbles” to the surface.
Calcium chloridea hygroscopic chemical substanc that enhances the heat- and moisture- exchanging capabilities of the passive humidifier.
Cardiopulmonary interactionsthe interactions of changes in intrathoracic pressures and volumeson cardiovascular function.
Cascade humidifiera typer of bubble humidifier that uses an underwater grid to increase the gas/liquid interface and increase humidity.
Chronic obstruction pulmonary disease (COPD)a disease process involving chronic inflammation of the airways. Variants include chronic bronchitis (disease predominance in the large airways) and emphysema (disease predominance ing the smaller airways and alveolar regions).
Closed ciruit suction cathetera suction catheter designed to be used in-line with the ventilator circuit so that the ventilator does not need to be disconnected. Closed circuit suctioning has been associated with fewer complications than traditional suctioning techniques.
Closed-loop controla control scheme in which the actual output of a system is measured and compared with the desired output. If there is a difference caused by external disturbances, the actual output is modified to bring it closer to the desired output.
Coloimetric CO2 detectora device which detects the presence of carbon diaoxide in expired gas and indicates the presence of CO2 by changing color (usually yellow to purple).
Compliancethe relative ease at which a body or tissue stretches or deforms.
Compressible volumethe volume of gas that distends the ventilator circuit during delivery of a positive pressure breath. This volume is considered “lost,” as it is not deliered to the paitent.
Compressora device that is designed to copress a gas (usually air).
Condensationwater that collects in the ventilator circuit as gas cools when the amount of water vapor present exceeds the carrying capacity of the gas.
Constant positive airway pressure (CPAP)a therapeutic modality that maintains a constant transrespiratory pressure. CPAP is not a ventilatory mode because it does not genterate a tidal volume.
Control circuitthe ventilator subsystem responsible for controlling the drive mechanism and/or the output control valves.
Control variablethe variable (either pressure, volume, flow, or time)that the ventilator manipulates to cause inspiration. This variable is identified by the fact that its behavior remains consistent despite changes in ventilatory load.
Convective gas transportgas transport that moves O2 and CO2 in discrete volumes (bulk flow”).
Cricoid pressurepushing sown on the cricoid membrane, thereby collapsing the esophagus against the cervical vertebrae. Cricoid pressure has been shown to prevent gastric insufflation during mask ventilation.
Cricothyroidotomythe procedure whereby an airway is obtained through the crycothyroid membrane into the trachea.
Cuff pressurethe pressure exerted by the tracheal tube cuff on the airway mucosa.
Cycleto end a mechanically supported inspiration.
Cycle timethe duration of the delivery of gas under positive pressure during inspiration until a cycle criterion is met.
Cycle synchronydead space. The process of matching the ventilator breath termination to the terminatinoof the patient;s effort during interactive breaths.
Dead volumevolume of medication in a nebulizer that cannot be aerosolized due to device construction.
Demand valvea valving system in a mechanical ventilator that responds to a patient effort.
Densitythe quality of being compact or dense.
Dual controlmodes of ventilation whereby two or more variables may contro breath delivery depending upon certain circumstances.
End-expiratory pressure (EEP)the baseline transrespiratory pressure that exists at the end of the expiratory time. This pressure is often positive (PEEP).
End-expiratory valvea mechanical valve that regulatespressure during the expiratory phase.
Endotracheal tubean artificial airway passed through the nose or mouth past the vocal cords and into the trachea.
End pointsmeasurements used to determine safety and efficiency.
Engineering assessmenttechniques to assess the mechanical performance of a device.
Esophageal obturator airwayartificial airway inserted in the esophagus. The device occludes the esophagus so that delivered ventilation enters the lung.
Esophageal pressurepressure measured in the midesophagus and taken to represent pleural pressure.
Expiratory flow timethe time during which expiratory flow occurs.
Expiratory phase (expiration)the part of the ventilatory cycle from the beginning of expiratory flow to the beginning of inspiratory flow.
Expiratory pause timethe time during the expiratory phase when no flow is occurring.
Expiratory timethe duration of the expiratory phase.
Expired air resuscitationrescue breathing during cardiopulmonary resucitaiton in which the rescuer’s exhaled gas provides ventilation for the victim. Types of expired air resuscitation include mouth-mouth and mouth-to-mask ventiation.
External compressora device external to the ventilator used to supply pneumatic source power.
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)a technique whereby blood is taken from a vein, passed through a device that adds oxygen, and then returned to the patient either into one of the great veins or the arterial circuit.
Flowrate of gas delivery in and out of the lung.
Flow synchronymatching of ventilator flow deliver to patient efforts during interactive breaths.
Food and Drug AdministrationUS government agency charged with ensuring safety and efficacy of medical devices.
Gas consumptiongas consumed by a ventilator that does not participate in ventilation on the patient. The gas is used to control ventilator function and is wasted.
Gastric insufflationforcing air into the stomach during positive pressure ventilation in an uninstrumented airway.
Gauge pressurepressure measured relative to atmospheric pressure.
Gravitational sedimentationdeposition of aerosol due to weight of the particle in a stagnant air stream.
Graham’s lawthe rapidity of diffusion of two gases varies inversely with the square root of their densities.
Heat and moisture exchangera passive humidifier that uses only physical means of heat and moisture exchange.
Heat and moisture exchanging filtera passive humidifier that uses physical means of heat and moisture exchange and includes a breathing circuit filter.
Heated wire circuita ventilator circuit that contains electric wires that heat the gas as it travels down the circuit. These devices help eliminate or minimize condensate.
Helium (He)a gas that is much less dense than air and/or oxygen and thus requires less pressure to effect flow through given resistance.
High flow humidifiera humidification device used to add moisture to inspired gases and flows used during mechanical ventilation.
High frequency ventilation (HFV)ventilatory support characterized by frequencies greater than physiologic breaths per minute.
HME boostera device that adds moisture to inspired gas between the passive humidifier and the patient.
Hygroscopic heat and moisture exchangera passive humidifier in which both physical and chemical means of heat and moisture exchange are used.
Hygroscopic heat and moisture exchanger filtera passive humidifier in which both physical and chemical means of heat and moisture exchange are used; it incorporates a breathing circuit filter.
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO)the administration of oxygen at high levels of pressure (greater than atmospheric; 760 mmHg). During hyperbaric exposure, plasmadissolved oxygen increases approximately 2vol % for every atmospher increase in inspired oxygen. Typical applications of HBO
Independent lung ventilation (ILV)a method by which the gas flow to each lung is effectively separated mechanically by either two small endotracheal tubes (ETT) or one specifically designed double-lumen ETT for the purpose of differential ventilation of each lung, with different ventilat
Indirect calorimetrya technique that measures oxygen consumption and CO2 production to predict nutritional needs and quantify metabolic activity.
Inertial impactionthe process of removing large aerosol particles from a carrier gas due to greater inertia. Larger particles travel in a straight trajectory and impact against objects in their path.
Inspiratory/expiratory timingthe ratio of inspiratory time to expiratory time (I:E ratio).
Inspiratory phase (inspiration)the part of the ventilatory cycle from the beginning of inspiratory flow to the beginning of expiratory flow. Any inspiratory pause is included in the inspiratory phase.
Inspiratory flow timethe time during the inspiratory phase when flow is being delivered.
Inspiratory pause timeinspiratory pause is a brief pause (0.5 to 2 sec) at end-inspiration during which pressure is held constant and flow is zero. Under those conditions, airway pressure is equal to end inspiratory alveolar pressure. The pause may also improve gas mixing.
Inspiratory timeinspiratory time (expressed in sec) is the duration of inspiration during mechanical ventilation. As inspiratory time increases, mean airway pressure increases and the I:E ratio becomes higher.
Inspired gas concentrationsthe partial pressures of oxygen, nitrogen, and other therapeutic gases such as helium or nitric oxide that may be in the inspired gas mixture.
Internal compressora device inside the ventilator used to convert either pneumatic or electric source power into inspiratory pressure.
Intravascular oxygenationa technique whereby blood oxygenation devices are inserted into the vasculature.
Intrinsic PEEPend-expiratory pressure in the lung as a consequence of excessive minute ventilation, an inadequately set expiratory time or airway obstruction preventing lung emptying. Intrinsic PEEP is sometimes referred to as air trapping, auto-PEEP, and occult PEEP.
Jetsventialtory devices used in a technique to deliver HFV.
Laminar flowflow through a tube that flows parallel to the tube walls in concentric layers with linear velocities that increase toward the center of the tube.
Laryngeal mask airwaya device used to direct gas delivery into the larynx without an endotraceal tube.
Laryngoscopedevice designed to permit visualization of the larynx and airways through the mouth.
Lithium chloridea hygroscopic chemical substance that enhances the heat-and moisture-exchanging capabilities of the passive humidifier.
Limitto set a maximum value for pressure, volume, or flow during mechanically supported inspiration (or expiration); the preset maximum value for pressure, volume, or flow during an assisted inspiration (or expiration). Insiration (or expiration) does not term
Lung protective strategiesmechanical ventilation strategies designed to limit/reduce overdistension and under-recruitment of the lung so as to minimize iatrogenic lung injury.
Mandatory breatha mechanical breath that is initiated and terminated b the ventilator rather than by the patient’s ventilatory drive.
Mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD)the particle diameter around which the mass of particle diameters is equally distributed.
Mean airway pressurethe average pressure that exists at the airway opening over the ventilatory period. It is usually measured as gauge pressure. Mean airway pressure is mathematically equivalent to the area under the time-pressure curve (from the beginning of one breath tot
Mechanical ventilationthe technique of providing by means of a machine either some or all of hte work of breathing for a patient.
Mechanical ventilation outcomedescriptions of the important results from using mechanical ventilation. Generally recognized important outcomes are mortality, length of stay on the ventilator, and iatrogenic complications.
Metered dose inhalera device in which a pressurized canister is used to deliver a precise dose of aerosolized medication.
Minimal occlusive techniquethe technique for maintaining the endotracheal tube cuff in which a volume of gas is used in the cuff sufficient to allow a small air leak at end-inspiration.
Minimal seal techniquethe technique for maintaining the endotracheal tube cuff in which uses a volume of gas is used in the cuff sufficient to prevent a leak at end-inspiration.
Minute ventilation(MV)the total amount of gas moving inor out of the lungs during 1 minute.
Monitora routine repetitive or continuous measurement of a parameter.
Moisture outputthe amount of moisture delivered to the patient from a passive humidifier expressed in mg H2O/L.
Mucociliary excalatorthe cilia and mucus layer that propel mucus and foreign bodies up the respiratorytree to be swallowed or expectorated.
Muscle fatiguea condition of muscle dysfunction that is recoverable by rest.
Muscle overloada condition in which the load on the muscles is excessive and may cause fatigue.
Myopathyany disease of muscle.
Non-convective gas transportmovement of O2 and CO2 by mechanisms other than bulk flow movement of discrete tidal volumes.
Obstructive lung diseasedisease characterized by airway narrowing.
Open-loop controla control scheme in which the output of a system is determined by the initial setting of the controller with no corrections made to accommodate disturbances in the output caused by external factors.
Oro-and nasoppharyngeal airwaysdevices inserted into the mouth or the nose to help maintain aiway patency.
Oscillatorsa technique to deliver HFV utilizing oscillating piston or membrane.
Overdistinsionthe process of providing excessive volume to lung regions, thereby causing a “stretch” injury.
Oxidant injuryan injury that can occur to living tissue when excessive oxygen concentrations are used. The mediators of oxygen injury are a variety of free radicals generated in the presence of high oxygen concentrations.
Oxygen (O)a chemical element. It constitutes about 20% of atmospheric air and is the essential agent in the respiration of plants and animals. Although noninflammable, it is necessary to support combustion.
Oxygen delivery systema device used to deliver oxygen concentrations above ambient air to the lungs through the upper airway.
Oxygen powered breathing devicea device that consists of a demand valve that can be manually or patient triggered. The OPD is connected to a 50-psig source of gas and connects to the patient via a standard 15/22 mm connector. During manual activation of the demand valve, the operator d
Oxygen toxicitythe pathologic response of the body and its tissues resulting from long-term exposure to high partial pressure of oxygen; pulmonary manifestations include cellular changes causing congestion, inflammation, and edema.
Paralysisloss or impairment of motor function in part due to a lesion of the neural or muscular mechanism; also, by analogy, impairment of sensory function.
Parenchymal lung injurylung injury resulting from processes affecting the alveolar capillary interface, the interstitium, or the vasculature.
Partial liquid ventilationthe achievement of gas exchange through the use of oxygen soluble (often perfluorocarbon) liquid in the functional residual capacity of the lung.
Partial ventilatory supportmechanical ventilatory support in which the patient and the ventilator share the ventilatory load.
Passive expirationexpiration not assisted by the ventilatory muscles.
Passover humidifiera humidifier that imparts heat and moisture to gas flowing over the surface of the water. Also, a humidifier that collects the patient’s expired heat and moisture and returns it on inspiration.
PEEPacronym for positive end-expiratory pressure.
Perfluorocarbonsperfluorocarbons are colorless, odorless, and inert liquids produced by the fluorination of common organic hydrocarbons. These liquids have gained papularity as an alternative respiratory medium because of their high solubilities for the respiratory gases
Permissive hypercapniaventilatory support strategy that accepts hypercapnia as a trade-off to excessive lung distension.
Peroxynitritica substance produced by nitric oxide that is potentially toxic.
Phaseone of four significant events that occure during a ventilatory cycle: (1) the change from expiratory time to inspiratory time, (2) inspiratory time, (3) the change from inspiratory time to expiratory time, and (4) expiratory time.
Phase variablea variable (such as pressure, volume, flwo, or time) that is measured and used to initiate some phase of the ventilatory cycle.
Phase variable valuethe magnitude of a phase variable.
Pleural pressurepressure inside the pleural space (between the lungs and chest wall) often reflected as esophageal pressure.
Pneumoniainfection in lung parenchyma.
Positive pressure ventilationuse of positive airway pressure to support ventilation.
Postextubation stridorthe sound that occurs in an extubated paient from flow through an upper airway narrowed by inflammation from an endotracheal tube.
Pressure gradientsthe difference in pressure across a resistance or a compliance structure.
Pressure-time producta quantification of ventilation load that is obtained by integrating pressure over time.
Pressure-volume plotsgraphical display of applied pressure over volume. The area of the plot is work.
Proportional assist ventilation (PAV)an interactive ventilatory support mode that provides patient-triggered breaths in which flow and volume delivery are controlled by clinician-set “gains” placed on sensed patient effort. With PAV, increases in patient effort result in increased flow, volu
Protected specimen brushthis is a small brush at the end of a long catheter designed to sample distal airways for microorganisms. It has an outer sheath to “protect” it from contamination from upper airway microorganisms.
Pulmonary artery hypertensionhigh pressures within the pulmonary vasculature. This is usually caused by an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance secondary to lung disease, and/or hypoxia.
Relative humiditythe amount of water vapor in a gas compared with the maximum amount of water that gas can carry. Relative humidity is expressed as a percent.
Resistanceimpedance to flow in a tube or conduit; quantified as ratio of the difference in pressure between the two points along a tube lenght divided by the volumetric flow of the fluid per unit time.
Respiratory distress syndrome(RDS)a result of surfactant deficiency and//or a pulmonary insult in the neonatal period, this condition is marked by tachypnea, hypoxemia, decreased pulmonary compliance, and alveolar collapse.
Respiatory insufficiencythe inability of the body to provide adequate arterial oxygenation.
Respiratory quotientratio of CO2 production to O2 consumption.
Responsivenessa description of demand valve performance that refers to how fast the valve can respond to a patient demand.
Resting energy expenditurethe caloric consumption of a patient.
Reynolds numbera dimensionless number that predicts whether flow will be laminar or trubulent based on gas velocity, viscosity, density, and tube diameter. A Reynolds number <2000 indicates laminar flow and >2000 indicates turbulent flow.
Right ventricular dysfunctiondysfunction of the right ventricle induced by high pulmonary vascular resistance (right ventricularor intrinsic heart disease).
Saturatedthe state of gas that is carrying the maximum possible amount of water vapor. Saturated gas is at 100% relative humidity.
Sedationthe allaying of irritability or excitement, especially by administration of a sedative.
Sedation level scorescore used to determine the adequacy of sedation based on patient response to stimuli.
Sellick maneuvertechnique of providing cricoid pressure named for its inventor.
Sensitivitya measure of the amount of effort that must be generated by a patient to trigger a mechanical ventilator into the inspiratory phase; alternatively, the mechanism used to set or control this level.
Shuntingpulmonary capillary blood completely bypassing ventilated alveoli.
Small-volume nebulizeran aerosol generator that requires a gas source to nebulize liquid medications.
Spacera device used to improve aerosol delivery by stabilizing particle size and reducing the need for breath/actuation coordination. Can be used in ambulatory and mechanically ventilated patients.
Spontaneous breathbreath that is both patient initiated and patient terminated.
Spontaneous ventilatory driveinherent ventilatory drive set by the patient’s ventilatory control center in the brain.
Suction catheterthin, hollow plastic tube containing several distal holes used for removal of airway secretions by application of negative pressure.
Surfactantlung lining fluid that reduces surface tensions.
Sympathomimeticsadrenergic; producing effects resembling those of impulses transmitted by the adrenergeic postganglionic fibers of the sympathic nervous system.
Total liquid ventilationthe achievement of gas exchange through the delivery of tidal volumes of perfluorocarbon liquid to the lungs, using a specialized mechanical liquid ventilator.
Total ventilatory supportmechanical ventilatory support supplying total unloading of a patient’s ventilatory muscles.
Tracheal gas insufflation (TGI)a technique whereby a low flow of fresh gas is delivered to the distal end of the endotracheal tube through a small diameter catheter. This flow can be either continuous (i.e., throughout the ventialtory cycle) or delivered only during exhalation. The pri
Tracheal intubationthe technique by which a tube is inserted into the trachea in order to supply a patent airway.
Train-of-foura method of monitoring neuromuscular blockade in patients. A sequence of four electrical stimuli are delivered to electrodes placed over a nerve (usually the temporal or radial nerve) and the twitch of the involved muscle group is measured to gauge neurom
Transducera device capable of converting one form of energy into another and commonly used for measurement of physical events; for example, a pressure transducer may convert the physical phenomenon of force per unit area into an analog electrical signal.
Tansrespiratory pressurethe pressure difference between airway and body surface.
Triggerto initiate the inspiratory phase of an assisted breath.
Turbulent flowflow characherized by formation of currents and eddies resulting in chaotic movement of gas molecules and a Reynolds number >2000.
Under-recruitmentthe phenomenon of alveolar collapse that persists because of inadequate expiratory pressure. Linked to lung injury.
Venoarterial bypasstechnique for cardiopulmonary bypass (see extracorporeal oxygenation).
Venovenous bypasstechnique for cardiopulmonary bypass (see extracorporeal oxygenation).
Ventilator circuitthe plastic nondisposable or disposable tubing (22 mm OD for adults) that connects the mechanical ventilator to the artificial airway or mask.
Ventilation distributionthe description of how the tidal volume is distributed to the millions of alveolar units.
Ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) relationshipsquantification of the relationship of ventilation to perfusion in alveolar capillary units. This is normally 1. Very high V/Q units are effectively dead space. V/Q units of 0 are shunts.
Ventilator dependenceneed for mechanical ventilation.
Ventilator discontinuationdiscontinuation of mechanical ventilation support from a patient.
Volumespace occupied by matter measured in milliliters or liters.
Volume-assured pressure supporta mode of ventilator operation that allows automated adjustment of inspiratory pressure (pressure support) based upon tidal volume.
Weaninggradual reduction in partial ventilatory support.
Weaning techniquesventilator strategies that accomplish weaning.
Worka quantification of ventilation load that is obtained by integrating pressure over volume. (See Pressure time product above for an alternative load expression).

QuestionAnswer
Scoliosislateral curvature of the spine
KyphosisConvex curvature of the spine
ErythemaRedness of the skin
Pectus CarinatumAnterior protrusion of the sternum
Tactile FremitusVibrations that are felt by the hand on the chest wall
Pectus ExcavatumDepression of part or all of the sternum
Vocal FremitusVoice vibrations on the chest wall
CrepitusBubbles of air under the skin, often represents the presence of subcutaneous emphysema
ObtundedDrowsy state, decreased cough or gag reflex
General MalaiseRun down, not feeling well, weakness, fatigue, headache. Related to electrolyte imbalance
Orthopneadifficulty breathing except while in the upright position Related to cardiac problems
Pack Years# of packs/day x # of years smoked
New Ballard ScoreEstimates gestational age in low birth weight infants
BruitsSounds made in an artery or vein when blood flow becomes turbulent or at abnormal speed. Hear over carotid artery
MurmurBlood is pushed through an abnormal opening such as arterial septum or PDA
AcidAny compound that is a proton (H+) Donor
PEFRPeak expiratory Flow Rate
BaseAny compound that accepts a proton
PlatypneaDifficulty in breathing when erect, relieved by lying down. Disease: Chronic Liver
DiffuseSpread throughout
BronchogramInjection of radio-opaque contrast into tracheobronchial tree
RadiolucentDark pattern, air (Normal)
HyperlucencyExtra pulmonary air
Radiodense/OpacityWhite pattern, solid, fluid Normal for bones, organs
Obliqueslanting or diagonal view
Apical Lordoticprojection of lung apices
Cachecticmuscle wasting
Kussmaul’sincreased respiratory rate, usually associated with metabolic acidosis
Apneusticprolonged gasping inspiration followed by extremely short, insufficient expiration
Babinski ReflexA neurologic test used to evaluate the brainstem and spinal function. Performed by stroking the sole of the foot and reaction of the toes
BCG VaccineTB vaccination
Colloid Osmotic PressureA test used to evaluate the cause of edema
Elict vomitingInduced vomiting with ipecac syrup 15-30ml may be repeated in 15-30 min.
Gag ReflexOne of the first reflexes to disappear in a drug overdose, anesthetized or myasthenia gravis patient.
Hering-Breuer ReflexA stretch reflex which limits inhalation, loss of this causes prolonged slow deep breathing.
Inductive plethsymographyused in sleep studies to monitor chest motion.
Inotropic AgentsDrugs that increase the contraction of the heart muscle. Digitalis and Digoxin
Moro ReflexA reflex in which an infant draws their arms across the chest in response to stimuli by striking the surface of the infant rests on.
Mueller ManeuverA forced inspiratory effort against a closed glottis
Tensilon TestDiagnostic test for myasthenia gravis
WOBWORK OF BREATHING CHANGE IN PRESSURE X CHANGE IN VOLUME
ASSIST MODEPATIENT INITIATES ALL BREATHS
CONTROL MODEVENTILATOR WILL INITIATE BREATHS AT PRESET RATE
ASSIST/CONTROL MODEALLOWS PATIENT TO SET RR VENT MAINTAINS A MINIMUM RATE
SIMV MODEALLOWS PATIENT TO BREATHE SPONTANEOUSLY. VENT PROVIDES A MINIMUM MIN. VENTILATION.
PCV PRESSURE CONTROLPRESSURE CONTROLLED BREATHS
IRVINVERSE RATIO VENTILATION PRESSURE OR VOLUME CONTROLLED BREATHS WITH AN INVERSE I:E RATIO
QuestionAnswer
abnormalirregular
adrenal glandsglands found in the endocrine system located above the kidneys. They produce hormones adrenalin and hydrocortisione
analysisseperating a substance into its component parts.
anemiadeficiency of hemoglobin in the blood
antepartumbefore birth
antibioticpertaining to a substance that works against germ of bacterial life
antibodya substance that works against germ. They are produced by white blood cells when germs enter the blood stream.
antigena foreign substance, such as bacteria or virus
aphasiaunable to speak
apneadifficulty breathing
atrophydecrease in size of cells within an organ
benignnoncancerous
bilateralon both sides
bradycardiapertaining to low heart beat or heart rate
congenital anomalybirth defect
dialysisseperation of waste completly
diarrheacomplete removal of watery waste from the colon
dysphagiadifficulty swallowing
dysplasiaabnormal development in organs
dyspneadifficulty breathing assoicated with pain
dysuriapainul, burning sensation during urination
ectopic pregnancypregnancy that takes place on top of the fallopian tubes; in a place outside of the uterus
endocrine glandsglands that secreat hormones
endoscopyviewing within an organ using a scope
epidural hematomaa mass of blood above the membrane surrounding the brain
excisioncutting out of a part of the body
extrahepaticpertaining to the outside of the body
hemigastrectomyremoval of half the stomach
hemiplegiaparalysis of half the body on one side
hyperglycemiapertaining to excessive amounts of sugar in the blood; high blood sugar
hypertensionhigh blood pressure
hyperthyroidismpertaining to the excessive amout of activity of the thyroid
hypertrophyovergrowth of of an organ or part of the body as a result of an increase i size of individual cells.
hypoglycemialow blood sugar
incisioncutting into
intervertebralpertaining to the within the back bones
intrauterinewithin the uterus
intravenouspertaining to within the veins
malignantcancerous
metacarpalbeyond the wrist bones
metastasiscondition of spreading of cancer
neonatalpertaing to new birth
neoplasticpertaining to new growth
paralysisloss of movement of an extremity or part of a body
paraplegiaparalysis of half the body; upper or lower sections
parathyroid glands4 glands found imbedded in the thyroid glands that help maintain proper calcium levels in the bones and blood
perianalsurrounding the anus
periosteumpertaining to the membranes that surround the bones
polydipsiaexcessive thirst
polyneuropathydisease of many nerves
polyuriaexcessive urination
postmortemafter death
postpartemafter birth
precancerousconditon before cancer
prolapsesliding forward
prosthesisreplacement of body part
quadriplegiaparalysis of 4 all sections of the body from the neck down
relapsereturn of desease aftr its apperent termination
remissionlessening of symptoms of a disease
resectionremoval of a organ or structure
retroperitonealpertaining to the back of the peritoneum
subcostalpertainging to below the ribss
subcutaneousunder the skin
subscapularpertaining to under the shoulder
subtotaljust under the total amount
syndromeset of signs and symptons that diagnos a certain disease
tachycardiapertaining to fast heart rate
tachypneapertaining to fast breathing
transabdominalacross the abdomen
transurethralacross the urethra
tricuspid valvefold of tissue between the upper and lower chambers on the right side of the heart. It has three cusps or points an d prcvents backflow of blood into thr ritht atrium when the heart is pumping blood.
ultrasonographyrecording of internal body stuctures with sound waves.
unilateralpertaining to one side
urinalysisexamining of urine to determine its contents
subdural hematomacollection of blood under the dura mater
QuestionAnswer
SPECIFIC PROTOCOL THAT PROVIDES EXPLICIT RULES FOR SOLVING A HEALTH CARE PROBLEMALGORITHM
PROCESS OF PEER COMPARISION THAT INCLUDES ALL EFOFORTS TO DETERMINE NOT THE AVERAGE UTILIZATION OF A PARTICULAR DIAGNOSIS BUT THE MOST MEDICALLY APPROPRIATE UTLIZATION PER DIAGNOSIS.BENCHMAKING IS THE FOUNDATIONAL TO THE STANDIAZATION OF HEALTH CARE DELIVERY AND THE MAXIMIZATION OF IT’S BENEFITS
ASSIST APPROPRIATE HEALTH CARE FOR SPECIFIC CLINICAL CIRCUMSTANCES. DEVELOPED BY PROFESIOANAL ASSOCIATIONS AND RELATED CLINICAL GROUPS TO ADDRESS BY SPECIFIYING INDICATIONS FOR TEST, PROCEDURES, TREATMENTS. GUIDELINES DESCRIBE THE”HOW TO”CLINICAL PRATICE GUIDELINES (CPG’S)
DESCRIPTION OF THE PROBABLE SEQUENCE OF EVENTS DURING A PATIENT’S COURSE OF HEALTH CARE; OUTLINES ALL THE TESTS, PROCEDURES, TREATMENTS, AND TEACHING SERVICES THAT PATIENTS MAY USE DURING A LENGTH OF STAYCRITICAL PATHWAY ( CP)
COMPEHENSIVE APPROACH TO SYSTEMATICALLY DOCUMENT ACHIEVABLE HEALTH CARE OUTOCMES ACROSS THE DISCIPLINES; ALSO CALLED EVIDENCE BASED HEALTH CAREEVEIDENCE-BASED MEDICINE( EBM)
HEALTH CARE SYSTEM THAT SEEKS TO ELIMINATE REDUNDANT SERVICES ADN FACILITIES, THEREBY REDUCING COSTS, THROUGH ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL OVER PRIMARY HEALTH CARE SERVICESMANAGED CARE
THE MOST EFFECTIVE CP TEAM INCLUDES A SIDE RANGE OF PROFESSIONS IN A ___TASK FORCE OFFERING A VARIETY OF VIEWS THAT INCLUDE MEETINGS, DOCUMENTS, AND PATHWAY REVIEWMULTIDISCIPLINARY
PATIENT CARE PLANS INITIATED AND IMPLEMENTED BY RT, ONE PURPOSE BEING STANDIZATION OF DECISION MAKING.RESPIRATORY CARE PROTOCOLS PROVIDE FLEXIBILITY,ACCORDING TO PATIENTS NEEDS ALSO REFERED AS TDPs , PDPs SIMPLY PROTOCOLSRESPIRATORY CARE PROTOCOL
PATIENT CARE PLANS INITIATED AND IMPLEMENTED BY RT, ONE PURPOSE BIENG THE STANDARDIZATION OF DECISION MAKING. RESPIRATORY CARE PROTOCOLS PROVIDE FLEXIBILTY ACCORDING TO PATIENT NEEDS, REFERRED TO AS TDPs, PDPs, OR SIMPLY PROTOCOLSTHERAPIST DRIVEN PROTOCOLS
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PATIENT CARE AND OUTCOMES DESCRIBED IN THE PATHWAY, PROTOCOL, OR GUIDELINE AND WHAT ACTUALLY HAPPENED. A METHOD OF ASSESSING THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WHAT YOU EXPECT AND WHAT YOU ACTUALLY FINDVARIANCE TRACKING
THE ULTIMATE GOAL IS THE UNDERSTANDING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF PROTOCOLS, GUIDELINES, AND PATHWAYS WILL CONTINUE TO IMPROVE THE ____AND ____OF RESPIRATORY CARETHERAPEUTIC VALUE AND COST EFFECTIVENESS
WHAT IS THE ABBREVATION FOR MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACTION PLANSMAPS
WHAT IS THE ABBREVATION FOR LENGHT OF STAYLOS
WHAT IS THE ABBREVATION FOR PROGRAM EVALUATION REVIEWPERT
WHAT IS THE ABBREVATION FOR CRITICAL PATH METHODCPM
THE KEY SEQUENCE OF EVENTS THAT DIRVES THE TIMELINE OF THE OVERAL PROJECT BY PROJECTING MAXIMUM AMOUNT OF TIME IT WILL TAKE TO COMPLETE EACH PROCESSCRITICAL PATH
PATIENT SATISFACTION, FUNCTIONALITY, QUALITY OF LIFE ARE WHAT TYPE OF OUTCOMESPATIENT
LENGTH OF STAY, MORBIDITY, COMPLICATIONS, COSTS OF CARE ARE WHAT TYPE OF OUTCOMESINSTITUTION
LOW STAFF MEMBER TURNOVER, ROLE IN DECISION MAKING, GREATER AUTONOMY IN CLINICAL PRACTICE, JOB SATISFACTION ARE WHAT TYPE OF OUTCOMESPROVIDER
TO TRACK DIFFERNCES BETWEEN EXPECTATIONS AND OCCURENCES IS THETHE PURPOSE OF VARIANCE TRACKING
WRITTEN NOTATIONS ON THE CP OR PROTOCOL, RESTROSPECTIVE CHART REVIEW, VARIANCE DATA COLLECTION SHETS , AND COMPTERIZED SYSTEMSMEHTODS OF VARIANCE TRACKING
ESTABLISHES CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS AMONG MEDICAL CONDITION, TRATMENT VARIABLES, AND RESOURCE USE WITHIN THE GIVEN PATHWAY OR PROTOCOL; GUIDES THE CQI PROCESSRESULTS OF VARIANCE TRACKING
POSSIBLE INHIBITION OF INDIVIDUAL JUDGEMENTS THAT CAN CAUSE VARIANCESPITFALLS OF VARIANCE TRACKING
NIH, AHCPR, AND AARC FUNDING PROMOTION OF OUTCOMES RESEARCH TO GAIN ADDITIONAL EVIDENCE TO GUIDE CLINICAL PRACTICECURRENT STATE OF VARIANCE TRACKING
EVIDENCE FROM A MULTISITE RANDOMIZED, CONTROLLED STUDY OR SEVERAL SINGLE-SITE CONTROLLED TRAILSLEVEL ONE OF EVIDENCE
EVIDENCE FROM A VARIETY OF QUASIEXPERIMENTAL STUDIESLEVEL TWO OF EVIDENCE
EVIDENCE INCLUDING CORRELATIONAL OR DESCRIPTIVE STUDIESLEVEL THREE OF EVIDENCE
___SPECIFIES ACCREDITATION STANDARDS THAT SUPPORT TEAMWORK AND LOOK TO THE ORGANIZATION TO IMPROVE QUALITY OF CARETHE JOINT COMMISSION ON ACCREDITATION OF HEALTHCARE ORGANIZTIONS ( JCAHO)
QuestionAnswer
Apical pulseausulated with stethoscope located at the apex of the heart
peripheral pulseuse fingers felt through walls of arteries (foot, arm, wrist, etc)
apneaabsent of breath
eupneanormal breathing
hypopneadecreased depth of respiration
intermittent breathingirregular breathing
bradypneaslow breathing less than 10 bpm
tachypneafast breathing more than 20 bpm
hyperpneaincreased depth of respiration
systolicpressure at its peak during contraction of systole of heart (top number)
diastolicpressure at its lowest when heart is relaxed between contractions
febrileincreased tempature
afrebilebody temp that is within normal limits
crisismark changed in intensity of signs and symptoms
hypothermiabody temp decreased
hyperthermiabody temp increased
tachycardiaincreased heart rate
bradycardiadecreased heart rate
hypertensionincreased blood pressure
hypotensiondecreased blood pressure
sensoriumdescribe patients mental awareness or consciousness
pulse deficitpresent when there is a sig diff between ausculated HR and palpated HR
pulsus paradoxuspulse that is weaker on inspiration and stronger on expiration
pulsus alternansalternating weak and strong pulse
pulse pressuredifference between systolic and diastolic
postural hypotensionblood pressure falls when patient sits up
syncopetemporary loss of consciousness caused by reduced blood flow and reduced supply of oxygen and nutrients to brain
clubbingpainless enlargement of ends of fingers and toes (carcinoma, COPD, cystic fibrosis, chronic cardiovascular disease)
cyanosisdiscoloration that includes more of a bluish color to skin
diaphragmatic excursionDiaphragmatic excursion is the movement of the thoracic diaphragm during breathing
hepatomegalyenlargement of liver
parenchymathe essential or functional elements of the organ
QuestionAnswer
antineoplasticprevent the development of neoplastic cells
benigna nonmalignant
biopsya piece of tissue that is removed for examinationor diagnoiss
cancergeneral term to describe malignant neoplasms
carcinogensubsttance or chemical that can increase developing cancer
chemotherapyslow the progress of the disease or kill the cell
dnacomplex bases for genetic continuance
invasivea tumor or mass move into nearby tissues or organs or both
leukemiaarked by malignancy of the blood-forming results in the circulation of abnormal blood cells
lymphomamalignant disorder of lymphoid tissue
malignantabnormal cell growth that is often fatal
sarcomaneoplastic growth arising from connective tissue
remissionmay be permanent or temporary
oncogeneretrovirus that causes a mutation and may produce cancer
neoplasman abnormal tissue growth
mutationunexpected change in the molecular structure
melanomapigmented cells of the skin
morphologyappearance of an organism, such as its size, shape, and charactertists
metastasismovement or spread of cancerous cells in distant area
mitosiscreates two identical daughter cells from the parent cell
QuestionAnswer
definition of Diffusionthe process by which oxygen and CO2 transfer across the AC membrane
properties gas must have to measure diffusing capacity-capable of diffusing across AC membrane – capable of being transported by hemoglobin – only o2 and CO could possible be considered – O2 can’t be used because it varies as blood flows past alveolus
Diffintion of end tidal samplingsampling of exhaled air late in the subject’s expiration.
Contraindicationsmental confusion, lack of muscle coordination, large meal before test, exercise, smoking, communicable disease
Things that will influence testheavy meals, smoking, body position, hemoglobin level, exercise, bronchodilator
What do most equipment use for gas mixture.3% CO, 10% Helium, balance air
Our equipment use for gas mixture.3% CO, 3 % CH4, (methane), 21% O2, Balance N2
How is carbon monoxide diffusion test recorded asmlCO/min/mmhg STPD
Factors that influence DLCOage (lowers), height (lowers with shortness), gender (lower in woman), ethnicity (lower in African americans by about .96 ml), Hb (lower Hb=lower DLCO)
equipment needed for testinginspired gas source, 5 way breathing valve, end tidal gas sampling (analyzer), monitoriing system to record inspired and expired volume
ProcedureTurn on all gas tanks, anaylyzer and computers. It takes 30 min for gas pump to warm up., calibrate with spirometer, pt breaths normally, pt exhale completely (raise finger when done), pt inhale completely and hold breath until complete (11 seconds)
How much of exhaled volume is discarded1000 ml (at east 750 ml)
Results are reported atSTPD
How many tests do you performat least 2 but no more than 5
How many times do you calibratedaily or 2 x a day
What does silica gel doabsorbs moisture
Normal predicted80-120%
Indications for DLCOasthma vs emphysema, follow up of emphysema, disability, effects of chemo or other drugs
Hemoglobin binds210 x faster
What is mormal diffusion25ml/min/mmhg STPD
What can cause decrease DLCOO2 toxicity, emphysema
What can cause increase DLCOpolycythemia, LEft heart failure, high altitudes, excercise
QuestionAnswer
atelectasisabnormal collapse of distal lung parenchyma
continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)method of ventilatory support whereby the patient breathes spontaneously without mechanical assistance against threshold resistance, with pressure above atmospheric maintained at the airway throughout breathing
intermittent positive airway pressure breathing (IPPB)application of positive pressure breaths to a patient for relatively short period of time (10 to 20 minutes)
incentive spirometry (IS)the process of encouraging the bedridden patient take deep breaths to avoid atelectasis; most often done with use of an incense barometer that provides feedback to the patient when a predetermined lung volume is reached during and inspiratory breath
lobar atelectasisalveolar collapse involving a specific lobe of the lung
passive atelectasiscollapse of distal in lung units due to persistent ventilation with small tidal volumes
positive expiratory pressure (PEP)airway clearance technique in which the patient exhales against a fixed orifice flow resister in order to help move secretions into the larger airways for expectoration via coughing or swallowing
resorption atelectasiscollapse of distal lung units due to mucous plugging of airway

 

QuestionAnswer
aerosolsuspension of solid or liquid particles in a gas
aerosol outputweight or mass of aerosol particles produced by nebulizer per unit time or volume
aging(aerosol) the process in which aerosol particles change size due to evaporation or hygroscopic properties
atomizerdevice that produces an aerosol suspension of liquid particles without using baffles to control particle size
bafflesurface in a nebulizer designed specifically to cause infection of large aerosol particles, causing either further fragmentation or removal from the suspension via condensation back into the reservoir
breath actuated nebulizeraerosol device that is responsive to the patient’s inspiratory effort and reduces or eliminates aerosol generation during exhalation
breath enhanced nebulizernebulizers that entrain air through the nebulizer during inspiration
chloroflurocarbons (CFCs)propellants such as freon that were once used to power MDIs
depositionrefers to the amount of medication that is deposited onto the airways
emitted dosemass of drug leaving the mouthpiece of the nebulizer or inhaler as aerosol
fine particle fractionthe portion of the drug mass in particles that are small enough to reach the lower respiratory tract
geometric standard deviation (GSD)the variability of particle sizes in an aerosol distribution set at one standard deviation above or below with the median
heterodispersereferring to an aerosol consisting of particles of varying diameters in sizes
hydrofluoroalkane (HFA)The new, more environmental friendly propellant for MDIs
hygroscopicattracting or absorbing moisture from the air
inertial impactiondeposition of particles by collision with a surface; the primary mechanism for pulmonary deposition of particles over 5 mm in diameter
inhaled massthe amount of drug inhaled
mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD)method used to describe aerosol particle size
nebulizerdevice that produces an aerosol suspension of what would particles in a gaseous medium using baffling to control particle size
propellantsomething that propels, provides thrust, as a propellant in a metered dose inhaler
residual drug volumemedication that remains in a small volume nebulizer after the device is no longer producing mist
respirable massproportion of aerosol drug of the proper particle size to reach the lower respiratory tract
scintigraphythe method used to measure the distribution of a drug utilizing radioactive tags
sedimentationprimary mechanism for deposition of particles 1 to 5 mm in diameter in the Central Airways, when particles slow and settle out of suspension
therapeutic indexdifference between the minimum therapeutic and minimum toxic concentrations of a drug
volume median diameterexpresses average particle size for laser diffraction
monodispersereferring to an aerosol in which particles are of uniform size
QuestionAnswer
Anemiaabnormal condition characterized by a reduction in the number of circulating red blood cells or the amount of normal hemoglobin available to carry oxygen
Bandsimmature neutrophils that have banned its shape of the nucleus
Erythrocytesred blood cell
Hyperglycemiaabnormal increase in serum glucose
Hyperkalemiagreater than normal amounts of potassium in the blood
Hypernatremiagreater than normal concentration of sodium in the blood; caused by excessive loss of water and electrolytes owing to polyurea, diarrhea, excessive sweating, or inadequate water intake
Hypochloremiadecreasing the chloride level in the blood serum below the normal range
Hypoglycemialess than normal amount of glucose in the blood, usually caused by administration of too much insulin, excessive secretion of insulin by the islet cells of the pancreas, or by dietary deficiency (normal blood glucose levels range from 70 to 105 mg/dL)
Hypokalemiacondition in which an inadequate amount of potassium, the major intracellular cation, is found in the circulating bloodstream you
Hyponatremialess than normal concentration of sodium in the blood, caused by inadequate excretion of water or by excessive water in the circulating blood stream
Leukocyteswhite blood cell, one of the formed elements of the circulating blood system
Leukocytosisabnormal increase in the number of circulating white blood cells
Leukopeniaabnormal decrease in white blood cells
Neutropeniaabnormal decrease in the number of neutrophils in the blood
Neutrophiliaelevation of the absolute value of neutrophils
Polycythemiaabnormal increase in the number of erythrocytes in the blood; term secondary if attributable to defined causes other than direct stimulation of the bone marrow, such as occurs in chronic hypoxemia
Pseudoneutrophiliasegmented neutrophils stored in some blood vessels that respond to a marginated process process
Segsmature neutrophils (named for the shape of the nucleus)
Thrombocytesplatelets
Thrombocytopeniaabnormal condition in which the number of blood platelets is reduced, usually associated with neoplastic diseases or an immune response to drug
QuestionAnswer
active cycle of breathing (ACB)airway clearance strategy consisting of repeated cycles of breathing control and thoracic expansion, followed by the forced expiratory technique
acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)a respiratory disorder characterized by respiratory insufficiency and hypoxemia
autogeneic drainage (AD)modification of directed cough, beginning with a low lung volume breathing, inspiratory breath holds, and controlled exhalation, and progressing to increased inspired volumes and expiratory flows
bronchiectasisabnormal condition of the bronchial tree characterized by irreversible dilation and destruction of the bronchial walls
ciliary dyskinetic syndromesconditions in which respiratory tract cilia do not function properly
forced expiration technique (FET)modification of the normal cough sequence designed to facilitate clearance of bronchial secretions while minimizing the likelihood of bronchiolar collapse
high frequency chest wall compression (HFCWC)mechanical technique for augmenting secretion clearance; small gas volumes are alternately injected into and withdrawn from a vest by an air pulse generator at a fast rate, creating an a oscillatory motion against the patient’s thorax
hertz (Hz)a physical term meaning cycles per second
“huff” coughtype of forced expiration with an open glottis to replace coughing when pain limits normal coughing
inspissation(of the fluid) thickened or hardened through a the absorption or evaporation of the liquid portion, as can occur with respiratory secretions when the upper airway is bypassed
intrapulmonary percussive ventilation (IPV)airway clearance technique that uses a pneumatic device to deliver a series pressurized gas mini bursts at higher rates to the respiratory tract, usually via a mouthpiece; usually combined with aerosol bronchodilator therapy
mucus pluggingretention of secretions resulting in full or partial obstruction of the airway
oscillationback-and-forth motion; vibration or the effects of mechanical or electrical vibration
positive expiratory pressure (PEP)airway clearance technique in which the patient exhales against a fixed orifice flow resister in order to help move secretions into the larger airways for expectoration via coughing or swallowing
splintingprocess of immobilizing, restraining, or supporting a body part
venostasisdisorder in which the normal flow of blood through a vein is slowed or halted
QuestionAnswer
atmospheric pressure absolute (ATA)measure of pressure used in hyperbaric medicine; 1 ATA equals 760 mmHg or 101.32 kPa
bronchopneumoniaacute inflammation of the lungs and bronchioles, characterized by chills, fever, high pulse and respiratory rates, bronchial breathing, cough with purulent bloody sputum, severe chest pain, and abdominal extension
bronchopulmonary dysplasiachronic respiratory disorder characterized by scarring of lung tissue, thickened pulmonary arterial walls, and mismatch between lung ventilation perfusion; it often occurs in infants who have been dependent on long
croupinfectious disorder of the upper airway occurring chiefly in infants and children that normally results in subglottic swelling and obstruction
cyclic guanosine 3’,5’monophosphate (cGMP)a cellular nucleotide that causes vascular smooth muscle relaxation
exudativerelating to the oozing of fluid and other materials from cells and tissues, usually as a result of inflammation or injury
fixed (O2 delivery)oxygen therapy equipment supplies inspired gases at a consistent preset oxygen concentration, also called high flow system
heliox therapylow density therapeutic mixture of helium with at least 20% oxygen; used in some centers to treat large airway obstruction
high flow systemoxygen therapy equipment that supplies inspired gases at a consistent preset oxygen concentration
hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapytherapeutic application of oxygen that pressures greater than 1 atmosphere, also called hyperbaric oxygenation
low flow systemvariable performance oxygen therapy device that delivers oxygen at a flow that provides only a portion of the patient’s inspired gas needs, also called variable performance system
neovascularizationformation of new capillary beds
neutral thermal environment (NTE)ambient environment that prevents or minimizes the loss of body heat
nitric oxideused as inhaled therapy to reduce pulmonary artery pressure and improve arterial oxygenation
reservoir systemoxygen delivery system that provides a reservoir oxygen volume that the patient taps into when the patient’s inspiratory flow exceeds the device flow
retinopathy of prematurity (ROP)abnormal ocular condition that occurs in some premature or low birth weight infants who receive oxygen, previously called retrolental fibroplasia
variable (O2 delivery)oxygen therapy device that delivers oxygen at a flow that provides only a portion of the patient’s inspired gas needs, also called low flow system
QuestionAnswer
Abdominal Paradoxabnormal breathing pattern seen as a sinking inward motion of the abdomen with each inspiratory effort; a sign of diaphragm fatigue.
adventitious lung sounds (ALS)abnormal lung sounds superimposed on the basic underlying breath sounds.
angina pectorisparoxysmal attack of severe chest pain associated with coronary insufficiency; commonly radiates from the heart to the shoulders and arms.
barrel chestabnormal increase in the anterior-posterior diameter of the chest due to hyperinflation of the lungs.
bradycardiaabnormally decreased heart rate.
bradypneaabnormal decrease in breathing rate.
bronchophonyabnormal voice sounds heard over lung consolidation.
clubbingbulbous swelling of the terminal phalanges of the fingers and toes, often associated with certain lung disease.
coughforceful expiratory effort designed to expel mucus and other foreign material from the upper airway.
cracklesdiscontinuous type of adventitious lung sound.
cyanosisabnormal bluish discoloration of the skin or mucous membranes.
diaphoresissecretion of sweat, especially the profuse secretion associated with an elevated body temperature, physical exertion, exposure to heat, and mental or emotional stress.
diastolic pressurebaseline blood pressure in the arteries during ventricular relaxation.
dyspneadifficult or labored breathing as perceived by the patient.
febrileto have a fever.
fetidfoul smelling.
feverabnormal elevation of body temperature due to disease.
gallop rhythmabnormal heart sound that resembles the gallop of a horse caused by addition of an S3 and/or S4; most often indicates heart failure.
heaveabnormal pulsation felt over the percordium; often due to ventricular hypertrophy.
hematemesisvomiting blood.
hemoptysiscoughing up blood from the respiratory tract.
hepatomegalyEnlargement of the liver.
hypertensionPersistently high arterial blood pressure.
hypotensionabnormal condition in which the blood pressure is not adequate for normal perfusion and oxygenation of the tissues.
hypothermiaLower than normal body temperature.
jugular venous distentionabnormal distention of the jugular veins; most often due to heart failure.
Kussmaul respirationhyperpnea associated with diabetic ketoacidosis.
Kussmaul’s signincreased jugular venous pressure during inspiration.
loud P2abnormally loud closure of the pulmonic valve as part of the second heart sound; usually due to pulmonary hypertension.
lymphadenopathyof or pertaining to a disease of the lymph nodes; refers also to the visualization of enlarged lymph nodes on radiographs.
mucoidresembling mucus.
murmursabnormal heart sound created by turbulent blood flow through a narrowed or incompetent heart valve.
orthodeoxiadecrease in PaO2 due to changes in position.
orthopnealabored breathing in the reclining position.
pedal edemaswelling of the ankles usually due to heart failure.
phlegmmucus from the tracheobronchial tree.
platypneaopposite of orthopnea; that is , an abnormal condition characterized by difficult breathing in the standing position, which is relieved in the lying or recumbent position
pneumothoraxpresence of air or gas in the pleural space of the thorax; if this air or gas is trapped under pressure, a tension pneumothorax exists.
pulse deficitdiscrepancy between the ventricular rate auscultated a the apex of the heart and the arterial rate of the radial pulse.
pulse pressuredifference between systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure.
pulsus alternansalternating between strong and weak heart beats.
pulsus paradoxusabnormal decrease in pulse pressure with each inspiratory effort.
purulentconsisting of or containing pus.
respiratory alternansalternating between use of eh diaphragm for short periods and use of eh accessory muscles to breathe. It is indicative of end-stage respiratory muscle fatigue.
retractionssinking inward of the skin around the chest cage with each inspiratory effort.
sputummucus from the respiratory tract that has passed through the mouth.
stridorhigh-pitched, continuous type of adventitious lung sound heard from the upper airway.
subcutaneous emphysemaaccumulation of air in the subcutaneous tissues (under the skin) due to leakage from the lung.
syncopetemporary unconsciousness; fainting.
systolic pressurepeak blood pressure occurring in the arteries during ventricular contraction.
tachycardiaabnormally elevated heart rate.
tachypneaabnormal elevation of breathing rate.
thrillsfine palpable vibration felt accompanying a cardiac or vascular murmur.
tripoddingbreathing technique most often used by patients with COPD in which they lean forward and place their elbows on a table or arms of a chair to support breathing with the accessory muscles.
wheezeshigh pitched, continuous type of adventitious lung sound.
QuestionAnswer
acuteshort period of time; mild, sudden, sharp.
adenocarcinomacancerous gland tumor
adenomatumor of the glands
amniocentesissurgical puncture to remove fluid from the amniotic sac
anastomosisnew surgical connection between two previously unconnected bowel parts, vessels or ducts
angiographyrecording of an artery
angioplastysurgical repair of the blood vessels
arteriosclerosishardening of the arteries
arthralgiapain of the joints
arthropathydisease of the joints
atherosclerosishardening of the arteries
axillarypertaining to the armpit
bronchitisinflammation of the bronchial tubes
bronchoscopyvewing of bronchial tubes using an instrument
carcinomacancerous tumor
cardiomegalyenlarged heart
cardiomyopathydisease of the heart muscle
chemotherapytreatment with chemical or drugs
cholecystectomyremoval of the gallbladder
chronictime; pertaining to long term illness
colitislarge colon inflammtion
colostomyopening on the outside of the body from the colon
colocolostomynew surgical connection between 2 priviously unconnected portions of the colon.
craniotomyincision into the skull
cystitisinflammation of the urinary bladder
dialysisremoving completly; complete seperation waste
electroencephalographyrecord of the electrical activity of the brain
encephalopathydisease of the brain
esophagealpertaining to the esophagus
esophagitisinflammation of the esopohagitis
hematomacollection of blood
hematuriablood in the urine
hemorrhageuncontrollable bleeding
hysterectomyremoval of the uterus
infarctionarea of dead tissue; decreased blood flow to a body flow
inguinalpertaining to the groin
ischemiablockage of blood flow
laparoscopyviewing of the abdomen using an instrument
laparotomyincision of the abdomen
laryngitisinflammation of the larynx
laryngoscopyviewing of the larynx using an instrument
leukemiaincrease in cancerous white blood cells and the bone marrow
leukocytosisincreased white blood cells
mammogramrecord of the breast
mammographyrecord of the breast exam
mammoplastysurgical repair of the breast
mastectomyremoval of the breast
menigitisinflammation of the meninges; highly contagious
menorrhagiaincreased blood flow during menstrual cycle
myalgiapain of the muscles
myelogramrecord of the spinal cord by injecting a contrast to the membranes for viewing irregularities or abnormalities
myelomamalignant tumor of bone marrow
myocardialpertaining to the heart muscle
myomanoncancerous tumor in the muscles
myosarcomacancerous muscle tumor
necrosisdead tissue
nephrosiscondition of the kidney
neuralgianerve pain
oophorectomyremoval of the ovary
otalgiaear pain
pelvicpertaining to the pelvis
peritonealpertaining to the peritonial; the membrane that surrounds the bones
phlebitisinflammation of the veins
phlebotomyincision of the vein
pneumoninapertaining to the lungs
pulmonarypertaining to the lungs
radiotherapytreatment using radiation
renalpertaining to the kidney
rhinoplastysurgical repair of the nose
rhinorrhearunny nose; flow or discharge of fluid from the nose
salpingectomyremoval of the fallopian tubes
septicemiablood poisoning; blood infection
thoracentesissurgical puncture to remove fluid from the chest cavity
tonsillectomyremoval of the tonsils
tracheostomyan opening on the outside of the body for the throat (trachea)
uremiablood in the urine
vascularpertaining to the blood vessels
erythrocytosisincresed red blood cells
QuestionAnswer
anesthesiologystudfy of how provide loss of sensation during surgery or surgical procedures
cardiologistone who specializes in disorders of the heart
cardiovascular surgeonone who operates o the heart.
clinicalinvolving patient care
colorectal surgeonone who operates on the rectum or colon
colostomynew surgical opeining outside the body for the colon
dermatologistone who specializes in skin disorderss
dermatologyone who studies the skin
emergency medicineimmediate action for care of patients
endocrinologistone who studies disorders of the endocrine glands
enteritisinflammation of the intestines
family practitionerprimary care physician
gastroenterologistone who specializes in te stomach and intestine disorders
gastroscopythe process of viewing the stomach using a scope
geriatricpertaining to the treatment the older aged generation
geriatricianone who specializes in the treatment of the older aged generation
gynecologistone who studies disorders of females
gynecologystudy of female disorders
hematologistone who specializes in blood and blood disorders
hematomacollection of blood centralized in one area. a bruise or black and blue mark.
iatrogenicpertaining to a pts. abnormal condition that results unexpectedly from a specific treatment: a allegic reaction
infectious diseasedisorders that are caused by bacteria. usuall very contagious
internal medicinebranch of medicine specializing int he diagnois of disorders and treatment with drugs.
laryngitisinflammation of the voice box
lymphadenopathydisease of the lymph glands
nephrologistone who specializes in the disorders of the kidneys
nephrostomynew opening on the outside of the body for the kidney
neuralgianerve pain
Urologistone who specializes in disorders of the kidney
neurosurgeonone who operates on the brain or nerves
nosocomialhospital stay accquired infections
obstetricianone who delivers babies
obstetricsthe branch of medicine that pertains to the care and well being of women during pregnancy and post partum
oncogenicpertaining to growing cancerous tumors
oncologistone who specializes in cancer treatment
opthalmologistone who specializes in the treatment of eye disorders
othalmologythe study of the eye
opticianone who fill prescriptions for glasses
optometristone who examines the eyes
orthopedistone who corrects disorders of the musculoskeletal system
otitisinflammation of the ear
otolaryngologistone who specializes in the disorders of the ear, nose and throat
pathologistone who specializes in the examing dead tissues and performs autopsy
pathologythe study of the dead tissues and dead bodies
pediatricpertaining to the treatment of children
pediatricianone who treats children and childhood diseases
psychiatristone who treats people with mental disorders of the mind
psychosisconditon of the mind that has loss a sense of reality
pulmonary specialistone who specializes in the treatment of lung and breathing disorders
radiation oncologistone who performs radiology treatment for cancer patients
radiologistone who reads x-ray reports to diagnose ailments
radiotherapyradiaton treatment
rectocelehernia in the rectum into the vagina
researchlab investigations of medical problems
rheumatologistone who studies disorders of the joints
rheumatologythe study of the swelling of joints and connective tisues
rhinorrheathe discharge of the nose
surgerybranch of medicine that treats disease by manual or operative means
thoracic surgeonone who performs surgery on the chest cavity
thoracotomyto cut into the chest cavity
urologistone who studies disorders of the urinary system
vasculitisinflammation of the blood vessels
QuestionAnswer
abdomenspace below the chest that contains the stomach, liver intestiones. gall bladder
abdominal cavitylies between the diaphrahm and pelvis
anteriorpertaining to the front
bronchial tubestube that carries air form the treache to the lungs
bronchoscopyisual exam of the bronchial tubes
cartilagefibrous connective tissues
cervicalpertaing to the neck or the neck of uterus
circulatory systemgroup of organs that carry blood through the body
coccygealpertaining to the tail bone
coccyxtailbone
cranial cavityspace surrounding the by the skull
craniotomyinsicison of the skull
diaphragmmuscle that seperates the chest from the abdomen
digestive systemgroup of organs that bring food into the the body and breaks it down
disk (disc)pad of cartiledge that is between each backbone (vertebrae)
endocrine systemendocrine glands, pituitary, adreanal, thyroid, pancreas
epithelialpertaining to skin surface
esophagaelpertaining to the esophagus tube leadin to the throat to the stomach.
female reproductimv systemgroup of organs that transport and produc egg cells and excrete hormones wher the fetus will grow
frontal planepertainin to the front anterior
hepatitisinflammation of the liver, viral infection, highly contagious, various strains
hpyochondriacpertainin to the upper abdomen beneath the lower rib cage
laparoscopyview the abdomen using an instrument
laparotomyincision of the abdomen
laryngealpertaining to the larynx voice box
laryngectomyremoval of larynx voice box
larynxvoice box
lateralpertaining to the side
lumbarpertaing to the waist, loins verebrae in the lower back
lymphocytewhite blood cell that is found in lymphs.
mediastinalpertainin to the mediastinum
musculoskeleal systemgoroup of organs that suppport the body and allow it to move
nervous systemgroup of organs that transmit electrical messages throughout the body.brain, spinal cord, nerves
ovaryone of 2 organs in the female abdomen that produce egg cells and hormoanrs.
pelvic cavityspace between the hipsbones and lower part of the back bone
pelvisthe bone of the hips
peritonealpertainitnig to the peritonium
peritoneummembrane that surround bone
pharyngealpertaining to the pharynx throat
pharynxorgan behind the mouth that receives swallowed food and takes to the esophogus
pituitary glandorgan at the base of the brain that secrets hormones
pleuradouble membrane that surrouonds the lungs
nervous systemgroup of organs that transmit electrical messages throughout the body.brain, spinal cord, nerves
ovaryone of 2 organs in the female abdomen that produce egg cells and hormoanrs.
pelvic cavityspace between the hipsbones and lower part of the back bone
pelvisthe bone so the hips
peritonealpertainitnig to the peritonium
peritoneummembrane that surround bone
pharyngealpertaining to the pharynx throat
pharynxorgan behind the m outh that recieves swallowed food and takes to the esophogus
pituitary glandorgan at the base of the brain that secrets hormones
pleuradouble membrane that surrouonds the lungs
thoracotomyincision of the chest
tracheawindpipe, carries air from the throat to the bronchial tubes
tracheotomyincision of the windpipe (bronchial tubes)
transverse planeacross
ureter1 of 2 tubes that lead from the kidney to the urinary bladder
urethratube that carries urine form the bladder to the outside of the body
urinary systemgroup of organs that produce and sends urine ort of the body, kidneys, urethra, ureter.bladder
vertebraeback bones
vertebraone back bone
vertebralpertaining to back bones
abdonmin/oabdomen
anter.ofront
bronch/obronchial tubes
cervic/oneck
chondr/ocartilage
coccyg/otailbone coccyx
crani/obrain
epitheli.oskin tissue
hepat/oliver
lapar/oabdomen
laryng/ovoice box
later/oside
lumb/owaist
lymph/olymph
midiastin/omediastinum
pelv/opelvis
peritone/operitonium
pharyng/ovoice box
pleur/opleura
poster/oback
sacr/osacrum
spin/obackbones
throac/ochest
trache/owind pipe
vertebr/oback bones
-ac, -al, -ar, -eal, -icpertaining to
-cytecell
-omatumor
the five divisions of the spinal columncervical, thoracic,lumbar, sacral, coccygeal