Question Answer
Abdominal pressure pressure within the abdominal space. This is often used as a reference to intrathoracic pressures in order to calculate transdiaphragmatic pressures. This pressure is commonly measured in either the gastric space or the urinary bladder.
Absolute humidity the amount of water vapor present in a gas mixture. Typically expressed in mgH2O/L.
Active heat and moisture exchanger a device that combines a passive humidifier and a heated heated humidifier to reduce water usage and increase moisture output.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) a severe pulmonary inflammatory response to a variety of insults, resulting in capillary leak, interstitial edema, intrappulmonary compliance, decreased ventilation-perfusion matching, and progressive hypoxemic respiratory failure.
Active expiration expiration assisted by ventilatory muscles.
Adaptive support ventilation a mode of ventialry support in which the ventilator can choose ventilator settings following the input of patient weight and % minute volume. The ventilator operates in the pressure control and pressure support modes and can change I:E during mandatory br
Air trapping see intrinsic PEEP. This is sometimes also called “occult” PEEP. End-expiratory pressure in the lung as a consequence of excessive minute ventilation, and inadequately set expiratory time or airway obstruction preventing lung emptying. Intrinsic PEEP is s
Airway anatomy the anatomic structures in the head, neck, and thorax through which ventilation occurs.
Airway pressure pressure in the airways of the lung, often assumed to be identical to ventilator circuit problems.
Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) a respiratory support pattern that provides a moderately high level of continuous airway pressure that is interspersed with brief deflation (release) periods. Spontaneous breaths can occur throughout the ventilatory cycle.
Alarm a visual and /or auditory signal that occurs when a monitored parameter has exceeded a set limit.
Alarm event any condition or occurrence that triggers an alarm and requires clinician awaresness or action.
Alternate care sites sites of care for mechanically ventilated patients that are outside the acute care hospital. Exampes include long-term facilities, skilled nursing facilities, and the home.
American Heart Association device classification system the system by which devices used during cardiopulmonary resuscitation are classified based on usefulness and possibility of doing harm. This system includes the following: Class I-A therapeutic option that is usually indicated, is always acceptable, and
Antibiotics chemical angents that kill micro-organisms or inhibit heir growth.
APACHE an acronym for the Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation Score. It represent a simple scoring system used to predict outcome.
ARDS an acronym for the acute respiratory distress syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by an acute lung injury produing a noncardiogenic edema, bilateral chest X-ray infilitrates and severe hypoxemia.
Aspiration describes the introduction of oral, nasal, pharyngeal, or gastric contents into the lung.
Assessments for ventilator withdrawal a series of clinical observations and physiologic measurements designed to determine the potential for patients to be withdrawn from mechanical ventilation.
Assisted expiration expiratory flow generated by a negative change in transrespiratory pressure due to an external agent (such as a drop in airway pressure below baseline).
Assisted inspiration inspiratory flow generated by a positive change in transrespiratory pressure due to an external agent (such as a rise in airway pressure above baseline).
Assisted ventialtion the process of providing a positive pressure breath in response to a patients inspiratory effort.
AutoPEEP see intrinsic PEEP. This is sometimes also called “occult” PEEP. End-expiratory pressure in the lung as a consequence of excessive minute ventilation, and inadequately set expiratory time or airway obstruction preventing lung emptying. Intrinsic PEEP is
Bag valve resuscitator consists of a self-inflating bag, oxygen reservoir, and non-rebreathing valve. The operator ventilates the patient by squeezing the self-inflating bag, which forces air into the non-rebreathing valve and to the patient. The self-inflating bag is typicall
Barotrauma/volutrauma injury to the lung due to excessive pressure andor volume in the lung.
Barrier device a flexible sheet that typically contains a vlave and/or filter separating the rescuer from the patient.
Basic airway management procedures to maintain a patent airway without the use of an endotracheal tube.
Bernoulli’s principle the physical principle of a lowered pressure around a moving fluid or gas.
Broncho-alveolar lavage the prcedure whereby distal regions of hte lung are washed with fluid for the purpose of obtaining samples for diagnosis.
Bronchodilator a drug that expands the lumina of the air passages of the lungs.
Bubble humidifier a humidifier that imparts heat and moisture to gas as it is released under the surface of the water and “bubbles” to the surface.
Calcium chloride a hygroscopic chemical substanc that enhances the heat- and moisture- exchanging capabilities of the passive humidifier.
Cardiopulmonary interactions the interactions of changes in intrathoracic pressures and volumeson cardiovascular function.
Cascade humidifier a typer of bubble humidifier that uses an underwater grid to increase the gas/liquid interface and increase humidity.
Chronic obstruction pulmonary disease (COPD) a disease process involving chronic inflammation of the airways. Variants include chronic bronchitis (disease predominance in the large airways) and emphysema (disease predominance ing the smaller airways and alveolar regions).
Closed ciruit suction catheter a suction catheter designed to be used in-line with the ventilator circuit so that the ventilator does not need to be disconnected. Closed circuit suctioning has been associated with fewer complications than traditional suctioning techniques.
Closed-loop control a control scheme in which the actual output of a system is measured and compared with the desired output. If there is a difference caused by external disturbances, the actual output is modified to bring it closer to the desired output.
Coloimetric CO2 detector a device which detects the presence of carbon diaoxide in expired gas and indicates the presence of CO2 by changing color (usually yellow to purple).
Compliance the relative ease at which a body or tissue stretches or deforms.
Compressible volume the volume of gas that distends the ventilator circuit during delivery of a positive pressure breath. This volume is considered “lost,” as it is not deliered to the paitent.
Compressor a device that is designed to copress a gas (usually air).
Condensation water that collects in the ventilator circuit as gas cools when the amount of water vapor present exceeds the carrying capacity of the gas.
Constant positive airway pressure (CPAP) a therapeutic modality that maintains a constant transrespiratory pressure. CPAP is not a ventilatory mode because it does not genterate a tidal volume.
Control circuit the ventilator subsystem responsible for controlling the drive mechanism and/or the output control valves.
Control variable the variable (either pressure, volume, flow, or time)that the ventilator manipulates to cause inspiration. This variable is identified by the fact that its behavior remains consistent despite changes in ventilatory load.
Convective gas transport gas transport that moves O2 and CO2 in discrete volumes (bulk flow”).
Cricoid pressure pushing sown on the cricoid membrane, thereby collapsing the esophagus against the cervical vertebrae. Cricoid pressure has been shown to prevent gastric insufflation during mask ventilation.
Cricothyroidotomy the procedure whereby an airway is obtained through the crycothyroid membrane into the trachea.
Cuff pressure the pressure exerted by the tracheal tube cuff on the airway mucosa.
Cycle to end a mechanically supported inspiration.
Cycle time the duration of the delivery of gas under positive pressure during inspiration until a cycle criterion is met.
Cycle synchrony dead space. The process of matching the ventilator breath termination to the terminatinoof the patient;s effort during interactive breaths.
Dead volume volume of medication in a nebulizer that cannot be aerosolized due to device construction.
Demand valve a valving system in a mechanical ventilator that responds to a patient effort.
Density the quality of being compact or dense.
Dual control modes of ventilation whereby two or more variables may contro breath delivery depending upon certain circumstances.
End-expiratory pressure (EEP) the baseline transrespiratory pressure that exists at the end of the expiratory time. This pressure is often positive (PEEP).
End-expiratory valve a mechanical valve that regulatespressure during the expiratory phase.
Endotracheal tube an artificial airway passed through the nose or mouth past the vocal cords and into the trachea.
End points measurements used to determine safety and efficiency.
Engineering assessment techniques to assess the mechanical performance of a device.
Esophageal obturator airway artificial airway inserted in the esophagus. The device occludes the esophagus so that delivered ventilation enters the lung.
Esophageal pressure pressure measured in the midesophagus and taken to represent pleural pressure.
Expiratory flow time the time during which expiratory flow occurs.
Expiratory phase (expiration) the part of the ventilatory cycle from the beginning of expiratory flow to the beginning of inspiratory flow.
Expiratory pause time the time during the expiratory phase when no flow is occurring.
Expiratory time the duration of the expiratory phase.
Expired air resuscitation rescue breathing during cardiopulmonary resucitaiton in which the rescuer’s exhaled gas provides ventilation for the victim. Types of expired air resuscitation include mouth-mouth and mouth-to-mask ventiation.
External compressor a device external to the ventilator used to supply pneumatic source power.
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) a technique whereby blood is taken from a vein, passed through a device that adds oxygen, and then returned to the patient either into one of the great veins or the arterial circuit.
Flow rate of gas delivery in and out of the lung.
Flow synchrony matching of ventilator flow deliver to patient efforts during interactive breaths.
Food and Drug Administration US government agency charged with ensuring safety and efficacy of medical devices.
Gas consumption gas consumed by a ventilator that does not participate in ventilation on the patient. The gas is used to control ventilator function and is wasted.
Gastric insufflation forcing air into the stomach during positive pressure ventilation in an uninstrumented airway.
Gauge pressure pressure measured relative to atmospheric pressure.
Gravitational sedimentation deposition of aerosol due to weight of the particle in a stagnant air stream.
Graham’s law the rapidity of diffusion of two gases varies inversely with the square root of their densities.
Heat and moisture exchanger a passive humidifier that uses only physical means of heat and moisture exchange.
Heat and moisture exchanging filter a passive humidifier that uses physical means of heat and moisture exchange and includes a breathing circuit filter.
Heated wire circuit a ventilator circuit that contains electric wires that heat the gas as it travels down the circuit. These devices help eliminate or minimize condensate.
Helium (He) a gas that is much less dense than air and/or oxygen and thus requires less pressure to effect flow through given resistance.
High flow humidifier a humidification device used to add moisture to inspired gases and flows used during mechanical ventilation.
High frequency ventilation (HFV) ventilatory support characterized by frequencies greater than physiologic breaths per minute.
HME booster a device that adds moisture to inspired gas between the passive humidifier and the patient.
Hygroscopic heat and moisture exchanger a passive humidifier in which both physical and chemical means of heat and moisture exchange are used.
Hygroscopic heat and moisture exchanger filter a passive humidifier in which both physical and chemical means of heat and moisture exchange are used; it incorporates a breathing circuit filter.
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) the administration of oxygen at high levels of pressure (greater than atmospheric; 760 mmHg). During hyperbaric exposure, plasmadissolved oxygen increases approximately 2vol % for every atmospher increase in inspired oxygen. Typical applications of HBO
Independent lung ventilation (ILV) a method by which the gas flow to each lung is effectively separated mechanically by either two small endotracheal tubes (ETT) or one specifically designed double-lumen ETT for the purpose of differential ventilation of each lung, with different ventilat
Indirect calorimetry a technique that measures oxygen consumption and CO2 production to predict nutritional needs and quantify metabolic activity.
Inertial impaction the process of removing large aerosol particles from a carrier gas due to greater inertia. Larger particles travel in a straight trajectory and impact against objects in their path.
Inspiratory/expiratory timing the ratio of inspiratory time to expiratory time (I:E ratio).
Inspiratory phase (inspiration) the part of the ventilatory cycle from the beginning of inspiratory flow to the beginning of expiratory flow. Any inspiratory pause is included in the inspiratory phase.
Inspiratory flow time the time during the inspiratory phase when flow is being delivered.
Inspiratory pause time inspiratory pause is a brief pause (0.5 to 2 sec) at end-inspiration during which pressure is held constant and flow is zero. Under those conditions, airway pressure is equal to end inspiratory alveolar pressure. The pause may also improve gas mixing.
Inspiratory time inspiratory time (expressed in sec) is the duration of inspiration during mechanical ventilation. As inspiratory time increases, mean airway pressure increases and the I:E ratio becomes higher.
Inspired gas concentrations the partial pressures of oxygen, nitrogen, and other therapeutic gases such as helium or nitric oxide that may be in the inspired gas mixture.
Internal compressor a device inside the ventilator used to convert either pneumatic or electric source power into inspiratory pressure.
Intravascular oxygenation a technique whereby blood oxygenation devices are inserted into the vasculature.
Intrinsic PEEP end-expiratory pressure in the lung as a consequence of excessive minute ventilation, an inadequately set expiratory time or airway obstruction preventing lung emptying. Intrinsic PEEP is sometimes referred to as air trapping, auto-PEEP, and occult PEEP.
Jets ventialtory devices used in a technique to deliver HFV.
Laminar flow flow through a tube that flows parallel to the tube walls in concentric layers with linear velocities that increase toward the center of the tube.
Laryngeal mask airway a device used to direct gas delivery into the larynx without an endotraceal tube.
Laryngoscope device designed to permit visualization of the larynx and airways through the mouth.
Lithium chloride a hygroscopic chemical substance that enhances the heat-and moisture-exchanging capabilities of the passive humidifier.
Limit to set a maximum value for pressure, volume, or flow during mechanically supported inspiration (or expiration); the preset maximum value for pressure, volume, or flow during an assisted inspiration (or expiration). Insiration (or expiration) does not term
Lung protective strategies mechanical ventilation strategies designed to limit/reduce overdistension and under-recruitment of the lung so as to minimize iatrogenic lung injury.
Mandatory breath a mechanical breath that is initiated and terminated b the ventilator rather than by the patient’s ventilatory drive.
Mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) the particle diameter around which the mass of particle diameters is equally distributed.
Mean airway pressure the average pressure that exists at the airway opening over the ventilatory period. It is usually measured as gauge pressure. Mean airway pressure is mathematically equivalent to the area under the time-pressure curve (from the beginning of one breath tot
Mechanical ventilation the technique of providing by means of a machine either some or all of hte work of breathing for a patient.
Mechanical ventilation outcome descriptions of the important results from using mechanical ventilation. Generally recognized important outcomes are mortality, length of stay on the ventilator, and iatrogenic complications.
Metered dose inhaler a device in which a pressurized canister is used to deliver a precise dose of aerosolized medication.
Minimal occlusive technique the technique for maintaining the endotracheal tube cuff in which a volume of gas is used in the cuff sufficient to allow a small air leak at end-inspiration.
Minimal seal technique the technique for maintaining the endotracheal tube cuff in which uses a volume of gas is used in the cuff sufficient to prevent a leak at end-inspiration.
Minute ventilation(MV) the total amount of gas moving inor out of the lungs during 1 minute.
Monitor a routine repetitive or continuous measurement of a parameter.
Moisture output the amount of moisture delivered to the patient from a passive humidifier expressed in mg H2O/L.
Mucociliary excalator the cilia and mucus layer that propel mucus and foreign bodies up the respiratorytree to be swallowed or expectorated.
Muscle fatigue a condition of muscle dysfunction that is recoverable by rest.
Muscle overload a condition in which the load on the muscles is excessive and may cause fatigue.
Myopathy any disease of muscle.
Non-convective gas transport movement of O2 and CO2 by mechanisms other than bulk flow movement of discrete tidal volumes.
Obstructive lung disease disease characterized by airway narrowing.
Open-loop control a control scheme in which the output of a system is determined by the initial setting of the controller with no corrections made to accommodate disturbances in the output caused by external factors.
Oro-and nasoppharyngeal airways devices inserted into the mouth or the nose to help maintain aiway patency.
Oscillators a technique to deliver HFV utilizing oscillating piston or membrane.
Overdistinsion the process of providing excessive volume to lung regions, thereby causing a “stretch” injury.
Oxidant injury an injury that can occur to living tissue when excessive oxygen concentrations are used. The mediators of oxygen injury are a variety of free radicals generated in the presence of high oxygen concentrations.
Oxygen (O) a chemical element. It constitutes about 20% of atmospheric air and is the essential agent in the respiration of plants and animals. Although noninflammable, it is necessary to support combustion.
Oxygen delivery system a device used to deliver oxygen concentrations above ambient air to the lungs through the upper airway.
Oxygen powered breathing device a device that consists of a demand valve that can be manually or patient triggered. The OPD is connected to a 50-psig source of gas and connects to the patient via a standard 15/22 mm connector. During manual activation of the demand valve, the operator d
Oxygen toxicity the pathologic response of the body and its tissues resulting from long-term exposure to high partial pressure of oxygen; pulmonary manifestations include cellular changes causing congestion, inflammation, and edema.
Paralysis loss or impairment of motor function in part due to a lesion of the neural or muscular mechanism; also, by analogy, impairment of sensory function.
Parenchymal lung injury lung injury resulting from processes affecting the alveolar capillary interface, the interstitium, or the vasculature.
Partial liquid ventilation the achievement of gas exchange through the use of oxygen soluble (often perfluorocarbon) liquid in the functional residual capacity of the lung.
Partial ventilatory support mechanical ventilatory support in which the patient and the ventilator share the ventilatory load.
Passive expiration expiration not assisted by the ventilatory muscles.
Passover humidifier a humidifier that imparts heat and moisture to gas flowing over the surface of the water. Also, a humidifier that collects the patient’s expired heat and moisture and returns it on inspiration.
PEEP acronym for positive end-expiratory pressure.
Perfluorocarbons perfluorocarbons are colorless, odorless, and inert liquids produced by the fluorination of common organic hydrocarbons. These liquids have gained papularity as an alternative respiratory medium because of their high solubilities for the respiratory gases
Permissive hypercapnia ventilatory support strategy that accepts hypercapnia as a trade-off to excessive lung distension.
Peroxynitritic a substance produced by nitric oxide that is potentially toxic.
Phase one of four significant events that occure during a ventilatory cycle: (1) the change from expiratory time to inspiratory time, (2) inspiratory time, (3) the change from inspiratory time to expiratory time, and (4) expiratory time.
Phase variable a variable (such as pressure, volume, flwo, or time) that is measured and used to initiate some phase of the ventilatory cycle.
Phase variable value the magnitude of a phase variable.
Pleural pressure pressure inside the pleural space (between the lungs and chest wall) often reflected as esophageal pressure.
Pneumonia infection in lung parenchyma.
Positive pressure ventilation use of positive airway pressure to support ventilation.
Postextubation stridor the sound that occurs in an extubated paient from flow through an upper airway narrowed by inflammation from an endotracheal tube.
Pressure gradients the difference in pressure across a resistance or a compliance structure.
Pressure-time product a quantification of ventilation load that is obtained by integrating pressure over time.
Pressure-volume plots graphical display of applied pressure over volume. The area of the plot is work.
Proportional assist ventilation (PAV) an interactive ventilatory support mode that provides patient-triggered breaths in which flow and volume delivery are controlled by clinician-set “gains” placed on sensed patient effort. With PAV, increases in patient effort result in increased flow, volu
Protected specimen brush this is a small brush at the end of a long catheter designed to sample distal airways for microorganisms. It has an outer sheath to “protect” it from contamination from upper airway microorganisms.
Pulmonary artery hypertension high pressures within the pulmonary vasculature. This is usually caused by an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance secondary to lung disease, and/or hypoxia.
Relative humidity the amount of water vapor in a gas compared with the maximum amount of water that gas can carry. Relative humidity is expressed as a percent.
Resistance impedance to flow in a tube or conduit; quantified as ratio of the difference in pressure between the two points along a tube lenght divided by the volumetric flow of the fluid per unit time.
Respiratory distress syndrome(RDS) a result of surfactant deficiency and//or a pulmonary insult in the neonatal period, this condition is marked by tachypnea, hypoxemia, decreased pulmonary compliance, and alveolar collapse.
Respiatory insufficiency the inability of the body to provide adequate arterial oxygenation.
Respiratory quotient ratio of CO2 production to O2 consumption.
Responsiveness a description of demand valve performance that refers to how fast the valve can respond to a patient demand.
Resting energy expenditure the caloric consumption of a patient.
Reynolds number a dimensionless number that predicts whether flow will be laminar or trubulent based on gas velocity, viscosity, density, and tube diameter. A Reynolds number <2000 indicates laminar flow and >2000 indicates turbulent flow.
Right ventricular dysfunction dysfunction of the right ventricle induced by high pulmonary vascular resistance (right ventricularor intrinsic heart disease).
Saturated the state of gas that is carrying the maximum possible amount of water vapor. Saturated gas is at 100% relative humidity.
Sedation the allaying of irritability or excitement, especially by administration of a sedative.
Sedation level score score used to determine the adequacy of sedation based on patient response to stimuli.
Sellick maneuver technique of providing cricoid pressure named for its inventor.
Sensitivity a measure of the amount of effort that must be generated by a patient to trigger a mechanical ventilator into the inspiratory phase; alternatively, the mechanism used to set or control this level.
Shunting pulmonary capillary blood completely bypassing ventilated alveoli.
Small-volume nebulizer an aerosol generator that requires a gas source to nebulize liquid medications.
Spacer a device used to improve aerosol delivery by stabilizing particle size and reducing the need for breath/actuation coordination. Can be used in ambulatory and mechanically ventilated patients.
Spontaneous breath breath that is both patient initiated and patient terminated.
Spontaneous ventilatory drive inherent ventilatory drive set by the patient’s ventilatory control center in the brain.
Suction catheter thin, hollow plastic tube containing several distal holes used for removal of airway secretions by application of negative pressure.
Surfactant lung lining fluid that reduces surface tensions.
Sympathomimetics adrenergic; producing effects resembling those of impulses transmitted by the adrenergeic postganglionic fibers of the sympathic nervous system.
Total liquid ventilation the achievement of gas exchange through the delivery of tidal volumes of perfluorocarbon liquid to the lungs, using a specialized mechanical liquid ventilator.
Total ventilatory support mechanical ventilatory support supplying total unloading of a patient’s ventilatory muscles.
Tracheal gas insufflation (TGI) a technique whereby a low flow of fresh gas is delivered to the distal end of the endotracheal tube through a small diameter catheter. This flow can be either continuous (i.e., throughout the ventialtory cycle) or delivered only during exhalation. The pri
Tracheal intubation the technique by which a tube is inserted into the trachea in order to supply a patent airway.
Train-of-four a method of monitoring neuromuscular blockade in patients. A sequence of four electrical stimuli are delivered to electrodes placed over a nerve (usually the temporal or radial nerve) and the twitch of the involved muscle group is measured to gauge neurom
Transducer a device capable of converting one form of energy into another and commonly used for measurement of physical events; for example, a pressure transducer may convert the physical phenomenon of force per unit area into an analog electrical signal.
Tansrespiratory pressure the pressure difference between airway and body surface.
Trigger to initiate the inspiratory phase of an assisted breath.
Turbulent flow flow characherized by formation of currents and eddies resulting in chaotic movement of gas molecules and a Reynolds number >2000.
Under-recruitment the phenomenon of alveolar collapse that persists because of inadequate expiratory pressure. Linked to lung injury.
Venoarterial bypass technique for cardiopulmonary bypass (see extracorporeal oxygenation).
Venovenous bypass technique for cardiopulmonary bypass (see extracorporeal oxygenation).
Ventilator circuit the plastic nondisposable or disposable tubing (22 mm OD for adults) that connects the mechanical ventilator to the artificial airway or mask.
Ventilation distribution the description of how the tidal volume is distributed to the millions of alveolar units.
Ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) relationships quantification of the relationship of ventilation to perfusion in alveolar capillary units. This is normally 1. Very high V/Q units are effectively dead space. V/Q units of 0 are shunts.
Ventilator dependence need for mechanical ventilation.
Ventilator discontinuation discontinuation of mechanical ventilation support from a patient.
Volume space occupied by matter measured in milliliters or liters.
Volume-assured pressure support a mode of ventilator operation that allows automated adjustment of inspiratory pressure (pressure support) based upon tidal volume.
Weaning gradual reduction in partial ventilatory support.
Weaning techniques ventilator strategies that accomplish weaning.
Work a quantification of ventilation load that is obtained by integrating pressure over volume. (See Pressure time product above for an alternative load expression).



Question Answer
Scoliosis lateral curvature of the spine
Kyphosis Convex curvature of the spine
Erythema Redness of the skin
Pectus Carinatum Anterior protrusion of the sternum
Tactile Fremitus Vibrations that are felt by the hand on the chest wall
Pectus Excavatum Depression of part or all of the sternum
Vocal Fremitus Voice vibrations on the chest wall
Crepitus Bubbles of air under the skin, often represents the presence of subcutaneous emphysema
Obtunded Drowsy state, decreased cough or gag reflex
General Malaise Run down, not feeling well, weakness, fatigue, headache. Related to electrolyte imbalance
Orthopnea difficulty breathing except while in the upright position Related to cardiac problems
Pack Years # of packs/day x # of years smoked
New Ballard Score Estimates gestational age in low birth weight infants
Bruits Sounds made in an artery or vein when blood flow becomes turbulent or at abnormal speed. Hear over carotid artery
Murmur Blood is pushed through an abnormal opening such as arterial septum or PDA
Acid Any compound that is a proton (H+) Donor
PEFR Peak expiratory Flow Rate
Base Any compound that accepts a proton
Platypnea Difficulty in breathing when erect, relieved by lying down. Disease: Chronic Liver
Diffuse Spread throughout
Bronchogram Injection of radio-opaque contrast into tracheobronchial tree
Radiolucent Dark pattern, air (Normal)
Hyperlucency Extra pulmonary air
Radiodense/Opacity White pattern, solid, fluid Normal for bones, organs
Oblique slanting or diagonal view
Apical Lordotic projection of lung apices
Cachectic muscle wasting
Kussmaul’s increased respiratory rate, usually associated with metabolic acidosis
Apneustic prolonged gasping inspiration followed by extremely short, insufficient expiration
Babinski Reflex A neurologic test used to evaluate the brainstem and spinal function. Performed by stroking the sole of the foot and reaction of the toes
BCG Vaccine TB vaccination
Colloid Osmotic Pressure A test used to evaluate the cause of edema
Elict vomiting Induced vomiting with ipecac syrup 15-30ml may be repeated in 15-30 min.
Gag Reflex One of the first reflexes to disappear in a drug overdose, anesthetized or myasthenia gravis patient.
Hering-Breuer Reflex A stretch reflex which limits inhalation, loss of this causes prolonged slow deep breathing.
Inductive plethsymography used in sleep studies to monitor chest motion.
Inotropic Agents Drugs that increase the contraction of the heart muscle. Digitalis and Digoxin
Moro Reflex A reflex in which an infant draws their arms across the chest in response to stimuli by striking the surface of the infant rests on.
Mueller Maneuver A forced inspiratory effort against a closed glottis
Tensilon Test Diagnostic test for myasthenia gravis
WOB WORK OF BREATHING CHANGE IN PRESSURE X CHANGE IN VOLUME
ASSIST MODE PATIENT INITIATES ALL BREATHS
CONTROL MODE VENTILATOR WILL INITIATE BREATHS AT PRESET RATE
ASSIST/CONTROL MODE ALLOWS PATIENT TO SET RR VENT MAINTAINS A MINIMUM RATE
SIMV MODE ALLOWS PATIENT TO BREATHE SPONTANEOUSLY. VENT PROVIDES A MINIMUM MIN. VENTILATION.
PCV PRESSURE CONTROL PRESSURE CONTROLLED BREATHS
IRV INVERSE RATIO VENTILATION PRESSURE OR VOLUME CONTROLLED BREATHS WITH AN INVERSE I:E RATIO
Question Answer
abnormal irregular
adrenal glands glands found in the endocrine system located above the kidneys. They produce hormones adrenalin and hydrocortisione
analysis seperating a substance into its component parts.
anemia deficiency of hemoglobin in the blood
antepartum before birth
antibiotic pertaining to a substance that works against germ of bacterial life
antibody a substance that works against germ. They are produced by white blood cells when germs enter the blood stream.
antigen a foreign substance, such as bacteria or virus
aphasia unable to speak
apnea difficulty breathing
atrophy decrease in size of cells within an organ
benign noncancerous
bilateral on both sides
bradycardia pertaining to low heart beat or heart rate
congenital anomaly birth defect
dialysis seperation of waste completly
diarrhea complete removal of watery waste from the colon
dysphagia difficulty swallowing
dysplasia abnormal development in organs
dyspnea difficulty breathing assoicated with pain
dysuria painul, burning sensation during urination
ectopic pregnancy pregnancy that takes place on top of the fallopian tubes; in a place outside of the uterus
endocrine glands glands that secreat hormones
endoscopy viewing within an organ using a scope
epidural hematoma a mass of blood above the membrane surrounding the brain
excision cutting out of a part of the body
extrahepatic pertaining to the outside of the body
hemigastrectomy removal of half the stomach
hemiplegia paralysis of half the body on one side
hyperglycemia pertaining to excessive amounts of sugar in the blood; high blood sugar
hypertension high blood pressure
hyperthyroidism pertaining to the excessive amout of activity of the thyroid
hypertrophy overgrowth of of an organ or part of the body as a result of an increase i size of individual cells.
hypoglycemia low blood sugar
incision cutting into
intervertebral pertaining to the within the back bones
intrauterine within the uterus
intravenous pertaining to within the veins
malignant cancerous
metacarpal beyond the wrist bones
metastasis condition of spreading of cancer
neonatal pertaing to new birth
neoplastic pertaining to new growth
paralysis loss of movement of an extremity or part of a body
paraplegia paralysis of half the body; upper or lower sections
parathyroid glands 4 glands found imbedded in the thyroid glands that help maintain proper calcium levels in the bones and blood
perianal surrounding the anus
periosteum pertaining to the membranes that surround the bones
polydipsia excessive thirst
polyneuropathy disease of many nerves
polyuria excessive urination
postmortem after death
postpartem after birth
precancerous conditon before cancer
prolapse sliding forward
prosthesis replacement of body part
quadriplegia paralysis of 4 all sections of the body from the neck down
relapse return of desease aftr its apperent termination
remission lessening of symptoms of a disease
resection removal of a organ or structure
retroperitoneal pertaining to the back of the peritoneum
subcostal pertainging to below the ribss
subcutaneous under the skin
subscapular pertaining to under the shoulder
subtotal just under the total amount
syndrome set of signs and symptons that diagnos a certain disease
tachycardia pertaining to fast heart rate
tachypnea pertaining to fast breathing
transabdominal across the abdomen
transurethral across the urethra
tricuspid valve fold of tissue between the upper and lower chambers on the right side of the heart. It has three cusps or points an d prcvents backflow of blood into thr ritht atrium when the heart is pumping blood.
ultrasonography recording of internal body stuctures with sound waves.
unilateral pertaining to one side
urinalysis examining of urine to determine its contents
subdural hematoma collection of blood under the dura mater
Question Answer
SPECIFIC PROTOCOL THAT PROVIDES EXPLICIT RULES FOR SOLVING A HEALTH CARE PROBLEM ALGORITHM
PROCESS OF PEER COMPARISION THAT INCLUDES ALL EFOFORTS TO DETERMINE NOT THE AVERAGE UTILIZATION OF A PARTICULAR DIAGNOSIS BUT THE MOST MEDICALLY APPROPRIATE UTLIZATION PER DIAGNOSIS. BENCHMAKING IS THE FOUNDATIONAL TO THE STANDIAZATION OF HEALTH CARE DELIVERY AND THE MAXIMIZATION OF IT’S BENEFITS
ASSIST APPROPRIATE HEALTH CARE FOR SPECIFIC CLINICAL CIRCUMSTANCES. DEVELOPED BY PROFESIOANAL ASSOCIATIONS AND RELATED CLINICAL GROUPS TO ADDRESS BY SPECIFIYING INDICATIONS FOR TEST, PROCEDURES, TREATMENTS. GUIDELINES DESCRIBE THE”HOW TO” CLINICAL PRATICE GUIDELINES (CPG’S)
DESCRIPTION OF THE PROBABLE SEQUENCE OF EVENTS DURING A PATIENT’S COURSE OF HEALTH CARE; OUTLINES ALL THE TESTS, PROCEDURES, TREATMENTS, AND TEACHING SERVICES THAT PATIENTS MAY USE DURING A LENGTH OF STAY CRITICAL PATHWAY ( CP)
COMPEHENSIVE APPROACH TO SYSTEMATICALLY DOCUMENT ACHIEVABLE HEALTH CARE OUTOCMES ACROSS THE DISCIPLINES; ALSO CALLED EVIDENCE BASED HEALTH CARE EVEIDENCE-BASED MEDICINE( EBM)
HEALTH CARE SYSTEM THAT SEEKS TO ELIMINATE REDUNDANT SERVICES ADN FACILITIES, THEREBY REDUCING COSTS, THROUGH ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL OVER PRIMARY HEALTH CARE SERVICES MANAGED CARE
THE MOST EFFECTIVE CP TEAM INCLUDES A SIDE RANGE OF PROFESSIONS IN A ___TASK FORCE OFFERING A VARIETY OF VIEWS THAT INCLUDE MEETINGS, DOCUMENTS, AND PATHWAY REVIEW MULTIDISCIPLINARY
PATIENT CARE PLANS INITIATED AND IMPLEMENTED BY RT, ONE PURPOSE BEING STANDIZATION OF DECISION MAKING.RESPIRATORY CARE PROTOCOLS PROVIDE FLEXIBILITY,ACCORDING TO PATIENTS NEEDS ALSO REFERED AS TDPs , PDPs SIMPLY PROTOCOLS RESPIRATORY CARE PROTOCOL
PATIENT CARE PLANS INITIATED AND IMPLEMENTED BY RT, ONE PURPOSE BIENG THE STANDARDIZATION OF DECISION MAKING. RESPIRATORY CARE PROTOCOLS PROVIDE FLEXIBILTY ACCORDING TO PATIENT NEEDS, REFERRED TO AS TDPs, PDPs, OR SIMPLY PROTOCOLS THERAPIST DRIVEN PROTOCOLS
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PATIENT CARE AND OUTCOMES DESCRIBED IN THE PATHWAY, PROTOCOL, OR GUIDELINE AND WHAT ACTUALLY HAPPENED. A METHOD OF ASSESSING THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WHAT YOU EXPECT AND WHAT YOU ACTUALLY FIND VARIANCE TRACKING
THE ULTIMATE GOAL IS THE UNDERSTANDING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF PROTOCOLS, GUIDELINES, AND PATHWAYS WILL CONTINUE TO IMPROVE THE ____AND ____OF RESPIRATORY CARE THERAPEUTIC VALUE AND COST EFFECTIVENESS
WHAT IS THE ABBREVATION FOR MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACTION PLANS MAPS
WHAT IS THE ABBREVATION FOR LENGHT OF STAY LOS
WHAT IS THE ABBREVATION FOR PROGRAM EVALUATION REVIEW PERT
WHAT IS THE ABBREVATION FOR CRITICAL PATH METHOD CPM
THE KEY SEQUENCE OF EVENTS THAT DIRVES THE TIMELINE OF THE OVERAL PROJECT BY PROJECTING MAXIMUM AMOUNT OF TIME IT WILL TAKE TO COMPLETE EACH PROCESS CRITICAL PATH
PATIENT SATISFACTION, FUNCTIONALITY, QUALITY OF LIFE ARE WHAT TYPE OF OUTCOMES PATIENT
LENGTH OF STAY, MORBIDITY, COMPLICATIONS, COSTS OF CARE ARE WHAT TYPE OF OUTCOMES INSTITUTION
LOW STAFF MEMBER TURNOVER, ROLE IN DECISION MAKING, GREATER AUTONOMY IN CLINICAL PRACTICE, JOB SATISFACTION ARE WHAT TYPE OF OUTCOMES PROVIDER
TO TRACK DIFFERNCES BETWEEN EXPECTATIONS AND OCCURENCES IS THE THE PURPOSE OF VARIANCE TRACKING
WRITTEN NOTATIONS ON THE CP OR PROTOCOL, RESTROSPECTIVE CHART REVIEW, VARIANCE DATA COLLECTION SHETS , AND COMPTERIZED SYSTEMS MEHTODS OF VARIANCE TRACKING
ESTABLISHES CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS AMONG MEDICAL CONDITION, TRATMENT VARIABLES, AND RESOURCE USE WITHIN THE GIVEN PATHWAY OR PROTOCOL; GUIDES THE CQI PROCESS RESULTS OF VARIANCE TRACKING
POSSIBLE INHIBITION OF INDIVIDUAL JUDGEMENTS THAT CAN CAUSE VARIANCES PITFALLS OF VARIANCE TRACKING
NIH, AHCPR, AND AARC FUNDING PROMOTION OF OUTCOMES RESEARCH TO GAIN ADDITIONAL EVIDENCE TO GUIDE CLINICAL PRACTICE CURRENT STATE OF VARIANCE TRACKING
EVIDENCE FROM A MULTISITE RANDOMIZED, CONTROLLED STUDY OR SEVERAL SINGLE-SITE CONTROLLED TRAILS LEVEL ONE OF EVIDENCE
EVIDENCE FROM A VARIETY OF QUASIEXPERIMENTAL STUDIES LEVEL TWO OF EVIDENCE
EVIDENCE INCLUDING CORRELATIONAL OR DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES LEVEL THREE OF EVIDENCE
___SPECIFIES ACCREDITATION STANDARDS THAT SUPPORT TEAMWORK AND LOOK TO THE ORGANIZATION TO IMPROVE QUALITY OF CARE THE JOINT COMMISSION ON ACCREDITATION OF HEALTHCARE ORGANIZTIONS ( JCAHO)
Question Answer
Apical pulse ausulated with stethoscope located at the apex of the heart
peripheral pulse use fingers felt through walls of arteries (foot, arm, wrist, etc)
apnea absent of breath
eupnea normal breathing
hypopnea decreased depth of respiration
intermittent breathing irregular breathing
bradypnea slow breathing less than 10 bpm
tachypnea fast breathing more than 20 bpm
hyperpnea increased depth of respiration
systolic pressure at its peak during contraction of systole of heart (top number)
diastolic pressure at its lowest when heart is relaxed between contractions
febrile increased tempature
afrebile body temp that is within normal limits
crisis mark changed in intensity of signs and symptoms
hypothermia body temp decreased
hyperthermia body temp increased
tachycardia increased heart rate
bradycardia decreased heart rate
hypertension increased blood pressure
hypotension decreased blood pressure
sensorium describe patients mental awareness or consciousness
pulse deficit present when there is a sig diff between ausculated HR and palpated HR
pulsus paradoxus pulse that is weaker on inspiration and stronger on expiration
pulsus alternans alternating weak and strong pulse
pulse pressure difference between systolic and diastolic
postural hypotension blood pressure falls when patient sits up
syncope temporary loss of consciousness caused by reduced blood flow and reduced supply of oxygen and nutrients to brain
clubbing painless enlargement of ends of fingers and toes (carcinoma, COPD, cystic fibrosis, chronic cardiovascular disease)
cyanosis discoloration that includes more of a bluish color to skin
diaphragmatic excursion Diaphragmatic excursion is the movement of the thoracic diaphragm during breathing
hepatomegaly enlargement of liver
parenchyma the essential or functional elements of the organ
Question Answer
antineoplastic prevent the development of neoplastic cells
benign a nonmalignant
biopsy a piece of tissue that is removed for examinationor diagnoiss
cancer general term to describe malignant neoplasms
carcinogen substtance or chemical that can increase developing cancer
chemotherapy slow the progress of the disease or kill the cell
dna complex bases for genetic continuance
invasive a tumor or mass move into nearby tissues or organs or both
leukemia arked by malignancy of the blood-forming results in the circulation of abnormal blood cells
lymphoma malignant disorder of lymphoid tissue
malignant abnormal cell growth that is often fatal
sarcoma neoplastic growth arising from connective tissue
remission may be permanent or temporary
oncogene retrovirus that causes a mutation and may produce cancer
neoplasm an abnormal tissue growth
mutation unexpected change in the molecular structure
melanoma pigmented cells of the skin
morphology appearance of an organism, such as its size, shape, and charactertists
metastasis movement or spread of cancerous cells in distant area
mitosis creates two identical daughter cells from the parent cell
Question Answer
definition of Diffusion the process by which oxygen and CO2 transfer across the AC membrane
properties gas must have to measure diffusing capacity -capable of diffusing across AC membrane – capable of being transported by hemoglobin – only o2 and CO could possible be considered – O2 can’t be used because it varies as blood flows past alveolus
Diffintion of end tidal sampling sampling of exhaled air late in the subject’s expiration.
Contraindications mental confusion, lack of muscle coordination, large meal before test, exercise, smoking, communicable disease
Things that will influence test heavy meals, smoking, body position, hemoglobin level, exercise, bronchodilator
What do most equipment use for gas mixture .3% CO, 10% Helium, balance air
Our equipment use for gas mixture .3% CO, 3 % CH4, (methane), 21% O2, Balance N2
How is carbon monoxide diffusion test recorded as mlCO/min/mmhg STPD
Factors that influence DLCO age (lowers), height (lowers with shortness), gender (lower in woman), ethnicity (lower in African americans by about .96 ml), Hb (lower Hb=lower DLCO)
equipment needed for testing inspired gas source, 5 way breathing valve, end tidal gas sampling (analyzer), monitoriing system to record inspired and expired volume
Procedure Turn on all gas tanks, anaylyzer and computers. It takes 30 min for gas pump to warm up., calibrate with spirometer, pt breaths normally, pt exhale completely (raise finger when done), pt inhale completely and hold breath until complete (11 seconds)
How much of exhaled volume is discarded 1000 ml (at east 750 ml)
Results are reported at STPD
How many tests do you perform at least 2 but no more than 5
How many times do you calibrate daily or 2 x a day
What does silica gel do absorbs moisture
Normal predicted 80-120%
Indications for DLCO asthma vs emphysema, follow up of emphysema, disability, effects of chemo or other drugs
Hemoglobin binds 210 x faster
What is mormal diffusion 25ml/min/mmhg STPD
What can cause decrease DLCO O2 toxicity, emphysema
What can cause increase DLCO polycythemia, LEft heart failure, high altitudes, excercise
Question Answer
atelectasis abnormal collapse of distal lung parenchyma
continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) method of ventilatory support whereby the patient breathes spontaneously without mechanical assistance against threshold resistance, with pressure above atmospheric maintained at the airway throughout breathing
intermittent positive airway pressure breathing (IPPB) application of positive pressure breaths to a patient for relatively short period of time (10 to 20 minutes)
incentive spirometry (IS) the process of encouraging the bedridden patient take deep breaths to avoid atelectasis; most often done with use of an incense barometer that provides feedback to the patient when a predetermined lung volume is reached during and inspiratory breath
lobar atelectasis alveolar collapse involving a specific lobe of the lung
passive atelectasis collapse of distal in lung units due to persistent ventilation with small tidal volumes
positive expiratory pressure (PEP) airway clearance technique in which the patient exhales against a fixed orifice flow resister in order to help move secretions into the larger airways for expectoration via coughing or swallowing
resorption atelectasis collapse of distal lung units due to mucous plugging of airway

 

Question Answer
aerosol suspension of solid or liquid particles in a gas
aerosol output weight or mass of aerosol particles produced by nebulizer per unit time or volume
aging (aerosol) the process in which aerosol particles change size due to evaporation or hygroscopic properties
atomizer device that produces an aerosol suspension of liquid particles without using baffles to control particle size
baffle surface in a nebulizer designed specifically to cause infection of large aerosol particles, causing either further fragmentation or removal from the suspension via condensation back into the reservoir
breath actuated nebulizer aerosol device that is responsive to the patient’s inspiratory effort and reduces or eliminates aerosol generation during exhalation
breath enhanced nebulizer nebulizers that entrain air through the nebulizer during inspiration
chloroflurocarbons (CFCs) propellants such as freon that were once used to power MDIs
deposition refers to the amount of medication that is deposited onto the airways
emitted dose mass of drug leaving the mouthpiece of the nebulizer or inhaler as aerosol
fine particle fraction the portion of the drug mass in particles that are small enough to reach the lower respiratory tract
geometric standard deviation (GSD) the variability of particle sizes in an aerosol distribution set at one standard deviation above or below with the median
heterodisperse referring to an aerosol consisting of particles of varying diameters in sizes
hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) The new, more environmental friendly propellant for MDIs
hygroscopic attracting or absorbing moisture from the air
inertial impaction deposition of particles by collision with a surface; the primary mechanism for pulmonary deposition of particles over 5 mm in diameter
inhaled mass the amount of drug inhaled
mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) method used to describe aerosol particle size
nebulizer device that produces an aerosol suspension of what would particles in a gaseous medium using baffling to control particle size
propellant something that propels, provides thrust, as a propellant in a metered dose inhaler
residual drug volume medication that remains in a small volume nebulizer after the device is no longer producing mist
respirable mass proportion of aerosol drug of the proper particle size to reach the lower respiratory tract
scintigraphy the method used to measure the distribution of a drug utilizing radioactive tags
sedimentation primary mechanism for deposition of particles 1 to 5 mm in diameter in the Central Airways, when particles slow and settle out of suspension
therapeutic index difference between the minimum therapeutic and minimum toxic concentrations of a drug
volume median diameter expresses average particle size for laser diffraction
monodisperse referring to an aerosol in which particles are of uniform size
Question Answer
Anemia abnormal condition characterized by a reduction in the number of circulating red blood cells or the amount of normal hemoglobin available to carry oxygen
Bands immature neutrophils that have banned its shape of the nucleus
Erythrocytes red blood cell
Hyperglycemia abnormal increase in serum glucose
Hyperkalemia greater than normal amounts of potassium in the blood
Hypernatremia greater than normal concentration of sodium in the blood; caused by excessive loss of water and electrolytes owing to polyurea, diarrhea, excessive sweating, or inadequate water intake
Hypochloremia decreasing the chloride level in the blood serum below the normal range
Hypoglycemia less than normal amount of glucose in the blood, usually caused by administration of too much insulin, excessive secretion of insulin by the islet cells of the pancreas, or by dietary deficiency (normal blood glucose levels range from 70 to 105 mg/dL)
Hypokalemia condition in which an inadequate amount of potassium, the major intracellular cation, is found in the circulating bloodstream you
Hyponatremia less than normal concentration of sodium in the blood, caused by inadequate excretion of water or by excessive water in the circulating blood stream
Leukocytes white blood cell, one of the formed elements of the circulating blood system
Leukocytosis abnormal increase in the number of circulating white blood cells
Leukopenia abnormal decrease in white blood cells
Neutropenia abnormal decrease in the number of neutrophils in the blood
Neutrophilia elevation of the absolute value of neutrophils
Polycythemia abnormal increase in the number of erythrocytes in the blood; term secondary if attributable to defined causes other than direct stimulation of the bone marrow, such as occurs in chronic hypoxemia
Pseudoneutrophilia segmented neutrophils stored in some blood vessels that respond to a marginated process process
Segs mature neutrophils (named for the shape of the nucleus)
Thrombocytes platelets
Thrombocytopenia abnormal condition in which the number of blood platelets is reduced, usually associated with neoplastic diseases or an immune response to drug
Question Answer
active cycle of breathing (ACB) airway clearance strategy consisting of repeated cycles of breathing control and thoracic expansion, followed by the forced expiratory technique
acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) a respiratory disorder characterized by respiratory insufficiency and hypoxemia
autogeneic drainage (AD) modification of directed cough, beginning with a low lung volume breathing, inspiratory breath holds, and controlled exhalation, and progressing to increased inspired volumes and expiratory flows
bronchiectasis abnormal condition of the bronchial tree characterized by irreversible dilation and destruction of the bronchial walls
ciliary dyskinetic syndromes conditions in which respiratory tract cilia do not function properly
forced expiration technique (FET) modification of the normal cough sequence designed to facilitate clearance of bronchial secretions while minimizing the likelihood of bronchiolar collapse
high frequency chest wall compression (HFCWC) mechanical technique for augmenting secretion clearance; small gas volumes are alternately injected into and withdrawn from a vest by an air pulse generator at a fast rate, creating an a oscillatory motion against the patient’s thorax
hertz (Hz) a physical term meaning cycles per second
“huff” cough type of forced expiration with an open glottis to replace coughing when pain limits normal coughing
inspissation (of the fluid) thickened or hardened through a the absorption or evaporation of the liquid portion, as can occur with respiratory secretions when the upper airway is bypassed
intrapulmonary percussive ventilation (IPV) airway clearance technique that uses a pneumatic device to deliver a series pressurized gas mini bursts at higher rates to the respiratory tract, usually via a mouthpiece; usually combined with aerosol bronchodilator therapy
mucus plugging retention of secretions resulting in full or partial obstruction of the airway
oscillation back-and-forth motion; vibration or the effects of mechanical or electrical vibration
positive expiratory pressure (PEP) airway clearance technique in which the patient exhales against a fixed orifice flow resister in order to help move secretions into the larger airways for expectoration via coughing or swallowing
splinting process of immobilizing, restraining, or supporting a body part
venostasis disorder in which the normal flow of blood through a vein is slowed or halted
Question Answer
atmospheric pressure absolute (ATA) measure of pressure used in hyperbaric medicine; 1 ATA equals 760 mmHg or 101.32 kPa
bronchopneumonia acute inflammation of the lungs and bronchioles, characterized by chills, fever, high pulse and respiratory rates, bronchial breathing, cough with purulent bloody sputum, severe chest pain, and abdominal extension
bronchopulmonary dysplasia chronic respiratory disorder characterized by scarring of lung tissue, thickened pulmonary arterial walls, and mismatch between lung ventilation perfusion; it often occurs in infants who have been dependent on long
croup infectious disorder of the upper airway occurring chiefly in infants and children that normally results in subglottic swelling and obstruction
cyclic guanosine 3’,5’monophosphate (cGMP) a cellular nucleotide that causes vascular smooth muscle relaxation
exudative relating to the oozing of fluid and other materials from cells and tissues, usually as a result of inflammation or injury
fixed (O2 delivery) oxygen therapy equipment supplies inspired gases at a consistent preset oxygen concentration, also called high flow system
heliox therapy low density therapeutic mixture of helium with at least 20% oxygen; used in some centers to treat large airway obstruction
high flow system oxygen therapy equipment that supplies inspired gases at a consistent preset oxygen concentration
hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy therapeutic application of oxygen that pressures greater than 1 atmosphere, also called hyperbaric oxygenation
low flow system variable performance oxygen therapy device that delivers oxygen at a flow that provides only a portion of the patient’s inspired gas needs, also called variable performance system
neovascularization formation of new capillary beds
neutral thermal environment (NTE) ambient environment that prevents or minimizes the loss of body heat
nitric oxide used as inhaled therapy to reduce pulmonary artery pressure and improve arterial oxygenation
reservoir system oxygen delivery system that provides a reservoir oxygen volume that the patient taps into when the patient’s inspiratory flow exceeds the device flow
retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) abnormal ocular condition that occurs in some premature or low birth weight infants who receive oxygen, previously called retrolental fibroplasia
variable (O2 delivery) oxygen therapy device that delivers oxygen at a flow that provides only a portion of the patient’s inspired gas needs, also called low flow system
Question Answer
Abdominal Paradox abnormal breathing pattern seen as a sinking inward motion of the abdomen with each inspiratory effort; a sign of diaphragm fatigue.
adventitious lung sounds (ALS) abnormal lung sounds superimposed on the basic underlying breath sounds.
angina pectoris paroxysmal attack of severe chest pain associated with coronary insufficiency; commonly radiates from the heart to the shoulders and arms.
barrel chest abnormal increase in the anterior-posterior diameter of the chest due to hyperinflation of the lungs.
bradycardia abnormally decreased heart rate.
bradypnea abnormal decrease in breathing rate.
bronchophony abnormal voice sounds heard over lung consolidation.
clubbing bulbous swelling of the terminal phalanges of the fingers and toes, often associated with certain lung disease.
cough forceful expiratory effort designed to expel mucus and other foreign material from the upper airway.
crackles discontinuous type of adventitious lung sound.
cyanosis abnormal bluish discoloration of the skin or mucous membranes.
diaphoresis secretion of sweat, especially the profuse secretion associated with an elevated body temperature, physical exertion, exposure to heat, and mental or emotional stress.
diastolic pressure baseline blood pressure in the arteries during ventricular relaxation.
dyspnea difficult or labored breathing as perceived by the patient.
febrile to have a fever.
fetid foul smelling.
fever abnormal elevation of body temperature due to disease.
gallop rhythm abnormal heart sound that resembles the gallop of a horse caused by addition of an S3 and/or S4; most often indicates heart failure.
heave abnormal pulsation felt over the percordium; often due to ventricular hypertrophy.
hematemesis vomiting blood.
hemoptysis coughing up blood from the respiratory tract.
hepatomegaly Enlargement of the liver.
hypertension Persistently high arterial blood pressure.
hypotension abnormal condition in which the blood pressure is not adequate for normal perfusion and oxygenation of the tissues.
hypothermia Lower than normal body temperature.
jugular venous distention abnormal distention of the jugular veins; most often due to heart failure.
Kussmaul respiration hyperpnea associated with diabetic ketoacidosis.
Kussmaul’s sign increased jugular venous pressure during inspiration.
loud P2 abnormally loud closure of the pulmonic valve as part of the second heart sound; usually due to pulmonary hypertension.
lymphadenopathy of or pertaining to a disease of the lymph nodes; refers also to the visualization of enlarged lymph nodes on radiographs.
mucoid resembling mucus.
murmurs abnormal heart sound created by turbulent blood flow through a narrowed or incompetent heart valve.
orthodeoxia decrease in PaO2 due to changes in position.
orthopnea labored breathing in the reclining position.
pedal edema swelling of the ankles usually due to heart failure.
phlegm mucus from the tracheobronchial tree.
platypnea opposite of orthopnea; that is , an abnormal condition characterized by difficult breathing in the standing position, which is relieved in the lying or recumbent position
pneumothorax presence of air or gas in the pleural space of the thorax; if this air or gas is trapped under pressure, a tension pneumothorax exists.
pulse deficit discrepancy between the ventricular rate auscultated a the apex of the heart and the arterial rate of the radial pulse.
pulse pressure difference between systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure.
pulsus alternans alternating between strong and weak heart beats.
pulsus paradoxus abnormal decrease in pulse pressure with each inspiratory effort.
purulent consisting of or containing pus.
respiratory alternans alternating between use of eh diaphragm for short periods and use of eh accessory muscles to breathe. It is indicative of end-stage respiratory muscle fatigue.
retractions sinking inward of the skin around the chest cage with each inspiratory effort.
sputum mucus from the respiratory tract that has passed through the mouth.
stridor high-pitched, continuous type of adventitious lung sound heard from the upper airway.
subcutaneous emphysema accumulation of air in the subcutaneous tissues (under the skin) due to leakage from the lung.
syncope temporary unconsciousness; fainting.
systolic pressure peak blood pressure occurring in the arteries during ventricular contraction.
tachycardia abnormally elevated heart rate.
tachypnea abnormal elevation of breathing rate.
thrills fine palpable vibration felt accompanying a cardiac or vascular murmur.
tripodding breathing technique most often used by patients with COPD in which they lean forward and place their elbows on a table or arms of a chair to support breathing with the accessory muscles.
wheezes high pitched, continuous type of adventitious lung sound.
Question Answer
acute short period of time; mild, sudden, sharp.
adenocarcinoma cancerous gland tumor
adenoma tumor of the glands
amniocentesis surgical puncture to remove fluid from the amniotic sac
anastomosis new surgical connection between two previously unconnected bowel parts, vessels or ducts
angiography recording of an artery
angioplasty surgical repair of the blood vessels
arteriosclerosis hardening of the arteries
arthralgia pain of the joints
arthropathy disease of the joints
atherosclerosis hardening of the arteries
axillary pertaining to the armpit
bronchitis inflammation of the bronchial tubes
bronchoscopy vewing of bronchial tubes using an instrument
carcinoma cancerous tumor
cardiomegaly enlarged heart
cardiomyopathy disease of the heart muscle
chemotherapy treatment with chemical or drugs
cholecystectomy removal of the gallbladder
chronic time; pertaining to long term illness
colitis large colon inflammtion
colostomy opening on the outside of the body from the colon
colocolostomy new surgical connection between 2 priviously unconnected portions of the colon.
craniotomy incision into the skull
cystitis inflammation of the urinary bladder
dialysis removing completly; complete seperation waste
electroencephalography record of the electrical activity of the brain
encephalopathy disease of the brain
esophageal pertaining to the esophagus
esophagitis inflammation of the esopohagitis
hematoma collection of blood
hematuria blood in the urine
hemorrhage uncontrollable bleeding
hysterectomy removal of the uterus
infarction area of dead tissue; decreased blood flow to a body flow
inguinal pertaining to the groin
ischemia blockage of blood flow
laparoscopy viewing of the abdomen using an instrument
laparotomy incision of the abdomen
laryngitis inflammation of the larynx
laryngoscopy viewing of the larynx using an instrument
leukemia increase in cancerous white blood cells and the bone marrow
leukocytosis increased white blood cells
mammogram record of the breast
mammography record of the breast exam
mammoplasty surgical repair of the breast
mastectomy removal of the breast
menigitis inflammation of the meninges; highly contagious
menorrhagia increased blood flow during menstrual cycle
myalgia pain of the muscles
myelogram record of the spinal cord by injecting a contrast to the membranes for viewing irregularities or abnormalities
myeloma malignant tumor of bone marrow
myocardial pertaining to the heart muscle
myoma noncancerous tumor in the muscles
myosarcoma cancerous muscle tumor
necrosis dead tissue
nephrosis condition of the kidney
neuralgia nerve pain
oophorectomy removal of the ovary
otalgia ear pain
pelvic pertaining to the pelvis
peritoneal pertaining to the peritonial; the membrane that surrounds the bones
phlebitis inflammation of the veins
phlebotomy incision of the vein
pneumonina pertaining to the lungs
pulmonary pertaining to the lungs
radiotherapy treatment using radiation
renal pertaining to the kidney
rhinoplasty surgical repair of the nose
rhinorrhea runny nose; flow or discharge of fluid from the nose
salpingectomy removal of the fallopian tubes
septicemia blood poisoning; blood infection
thoracentesis surgical puncture to remove fluid from the chest cavity
tonsillectomy removal of the tonsils
tracheostomy an opening on the outside of the body for the throat (trachea)
uremia blood in the urine
vascular pertaining to the blood vessels
erythrocytosis incresed red blood cells
Question Answer
anesthesiology studfy of how provide loss of sensation during surgery or surgical procedures
cardiologist one who specializes in disorders of the heart
cardiovascular surgeon one who operates o the heart.
clinical involving patient care
colorectal surgeon one who operates on the rectum or colon
colostomy new surgical opeining outside the body for the colon
dermatologist one who specializes in skin disorderss
dermatology one who studies the skin
emergency medicine immediate action for care of patients
endocrinologist one who studies disorders of the endocrine glands
enteritis inflammation of the intestines
family practitioner primary care physician
gastroenterologist one who specializes in te stomach and intestine disorders
gastroscopy the process of viewing the stomach using a scope
geriatric pertaining to the treatment the older aged generation
geriatrician one who specializes in the treatment of the older aged generation
gynecologist one who studies disorders of females
gynecology study of female disorders
hematologist one who specializes in blood and blood disorders
hematoma collection of blood centralized in one area. a bruise or black and blue mark.
iatrogenic pertaining to a pts. abnormal condition that results unexpectedly from a specific treatment: a allegic reaction
infectious disease disorders that are caused by bacteria. usuall very contagious
internal medicine branch of medicine specializing int he diagnois of disorders and treatment with drugs.
laryngitis inflammation of the voice box
lymphadenopathy disease of the lymph glands
nephrologist one who specializes in the disorders of the kidneys
nephrostomy new opening on the outside of the body for the kidney
neuralgia nerve pain
Urologist one who specializes in disorders of the kidney
neurosurgeon one who operates on the brain or nerves
nosocomial hospital stay accquired infections
obstetrician one who delivers babies
obstetrics the branch of medicine that pertains to the care and well being of women during pregnancy and post partum
oncogenic pertaining to growing cancerous tumors
oncologist one who specializes in cancer treatment
opthalmologist one who specializes in the treatment of eye disorders
othalmology the study of the eye
optician one who fill prescriptions for glasses
optometrist one who examines the eyes
orthopedist one who corrects disorders of the musculoskeletal system
otitis inflammation of the ear
otolaryngologist one who specializes in the disorders of the ear, nose and throat
pathologist one who specializes in the examing dead tissues and performs autopsy
pathology the study of the dead tissues and dead bodies
pediatric pertaining to the treatment of children
pediatrician one who treats children and childhood diseases
psychiatrist one who treats people with mental disorders of the mind
psychosis conditon of the mind that has loss a sense of reality
pulmonary specialist one who specializes in the treatment of lung and breathing disorders
radiation oncologist one who performs radiology treatment for cancer patients
radiologist one who reads x-ray reports to diagnose ailments
radiotherapy radiaton treatment
rectocele hernia in the rectum into the vagina
research lab investigations of medical problems
rheumatologist one who studies disorders of the joints
rheumatology the study of the swelling of joints and connective tisues
rhinorrhea the discharge of the nose
surgery branch of medicine that treats disease by manual or operative means
thoracic surgeon one who performs surgery on the chest cavity
thoracotomy to cut into the chest cavity
urologist one who studies disorders of the urinary system
vasculitis inflammation of the blood vessels


Question Answer
abdomen space below the chest that contains the stomach, liver intestiones. gall bladder
abdominal cavity lies between the diaphrahm and pelvis
anterior pertaining to the front
bronchial tubes tube that carries air form the treache to the lungs
bronchoscopy isual exam of the bronchial tubes
cartilage fibrous connective tissues
cervical pertaing to the neck or the neck of uterus
circulatory system group of organs that carry blood through the body
coccygeal pertaining to the tail bone
coccyx tailbone
cranial cavity space surrounding the by the skull
craniotomy insicison of the skull
diaphragm muscle that seperates the chest from the abdomen
digestive system group of organs that bring food into the the body and breaks it down
disk (disc) pad of cartiledge that is between each backbone (vertebrae)
endocrine system endocrine glands, pituitary, adreanal, thyroid, pancreas
epithelial pertaining to skin surface
esophagael pertaining to the esophagus tube leadin to the throat to the stomach.
female reproductimv system group of organs that transport and produc egg cells and excrete hormones wher the fetus will grow
frontal plane pertainin to the front anterior
hepatitis inflammation of the liver, viral infection, highly contagious, various strains
hpyochondriac pertainin to the upper abdomen beneath the lower rib cage
laparoscopy view the abdomen using an instrument
laparotomy incision of the abdomen
laryngeal pertaining to the larynx voice box
laryngectomy removal of larynx voice box
larynx voice box
lateral pertaining to the side
lumbar pertaing to the waist, loins verebrae in the lower back
lymphocyte white blood cell that is found in lymphs.
mediastinal pertainin to the mediastinum
musculoskeleal system goroup of organs that suppport the body and allow it to move
nervous system group of organs that transmit electrical messages throughout the body.brain, spinal cord, nerves
ovary one of 2 organs in the female abdomen that produce egg cells and hormoanrs.
pelvic cavity space between the hipsbones and lower part of the back bone
pelvis the bone of the hips
peritoneal pertainitnig to the peritonium
peritoneum membrane that surround bone
pharyngeal pertaining to the pharynx throat
pharynx organ behind the mouth that receives swallowed food and takes to the esophogus
pituitary gland organ at the base of the brain that secrets hormones
pleura double membrane that surrouonds the lungs
nervous system group of organs that transmit electrical messages throughout the body.brain, spinal cord, nerves
ovary one of 2 organs in the female abdomen that produce egg cells and hormoanrs.
pelvic cavity space between the hipsbones and lower part of the back bone
pelvis the bone so the hips
peritoneal pertainitnig to the peritonium
peritoneum membrane that surround bone
pharyngeal pertaining to the pharynx throat
pharynx organ behind the m outh that recieves swallowed food and takes to the esophogus
pituitary gland organ at the base of the brain that secrets hormones
pleura double membrane that surrouonds the lungs
thoracotomy incision of the chest
trachea windpipe, carries air from the throat to the bronchial tubes
tracheotomy incision of the windpipe (bronchial tubes)
transverse plane across
ureter 1 of 2 tubes that lead from the kidney to the urinary bladder
urethra tube that carries urine form the bladder to the outside of the body
urinary system group of organs that produce and sends urine ort of the body, kidneys, urethra, ureter.bladder
vertebrae back bones
vertebra one back bone
vertebral pertaining to back bones
abdonmin/o abdomen
anter.o front
bronch/o bronchial tubes
cervic/o neck
chondr/o cartilage
coccyg/o tailbone coccyx
crani/o brain
epitheli.o skin tissue
hepat/o liver
lapar/o abdomen
laryng/o voice box
later/o side
lumb/o waist
lymph/o lymph
midiastin/o mediastinum
pelv/o pelvis
peritone/o peritonium
pharyng/o voice box
pleur/o pleura
poster/o back
sacr/o sacrum
spin/o backbones
throac/o chest
trache/o wind pipe
vertebr/o back bones
-ac, -al, -ar, -eal, -ic pertaining to
-cyte cell
-oma tumor
the five divisions of the spinal column cervical, thoracic,lumbar, sacral, coccygeal