Question Answer
Gastrectomy Gastric resection
Osteitis Inflammation of the bone
Hepatoma Tumor of the Liver
Iatrogenic: Hint,…doctors cause this Pertaing to produced by treatment
Diagnosis: A treatment of the patient
Microscopic examination of living tissue Biopsy
Removalof the gland Adenectomy
Pathologist is one who: Performs autopsies and reads biopsies
Pain in the joint: Arthralgia
Abnormal condition of the mind: Psychosis
Study of cells: Cytology
Pertaining to through the liver: (hep makes reference to the liver) Transhepatic
High level of suger in the blood: Hyperglycemia
Pertaining to the brain:(study spelling) cerebral
Cancerous tumor:(study spelling) carcinoma
High blood sugar: (study spelling) hyperglycemia
Internal organs: (study spelling) viscera
Pertaining to the chest; (study spelling) thoracic
Lying on the back;(study spelling) supine
Pertaining to the abdomen;(study spelling) abdominal
Picture of the chromosomes in the nucleus;(study spelling) Karyotype
Membrane surrounding the lungs; (study spelling) pleura
Space between the lungs; (study spelling) mediastinum
Endocrine gland at the base of the brain;(study spelling) pituitary
Pertaining to the (surface)skin;(study spelling) epithelial
The process by which food is burned to release energy; Catabolism
Part of the cell where formation of proteins occurs; Endoplasmic reticulum rough
Sum of the chemical processes in a cell; Metabolism
Picture of neclear structures arranged in numerical order; Karyotype
Part of a cell where catabolism primarily occurs; Mitochondria
Allows materials to pass into and out of the cell; Cell membrane
Genes are composed of; Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Muscular wall separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities; Diaphragm
The space in the chest between the lungs is the: Mediastinum
Adipose means pertaining to; Fat
An epithelial cell is a(an); Skin cell
The pleural cavity is the; Space between the membranes around the lungs
Viscera; Internal organs
The pituitary gland is in which body cavity? It is under the brain[hint] Cranial
Supine means; Lying on the back
The upper lateral regions of the abdomen, beneath the ribs, are the; Hypochondriac regions
The RUQ contains the; Liver
Pertaining to a plane that divides the body into right and left portions; Sagittal
The proper plural form of necleus is; nuclei
Tightly coiled DNA is known as Chromatid
Pertaining to the groin; Inguinal
Pertaining to internal organs; Visceral
Study of tissues; Histology
Cytoplasmic structures where catabolism takes place; Mitochondria
Divides the body laterally into right and left planes; Sagittal plane
Amniocentesis Surgical puncture to remove fluid from the abdomen
Death; necr/o
Small artery; Arteriole
Hernia of the urinary bladder; Cystocele
Neutrophil; Polymorphonuclear leukocyte
Instrument to record; -graph
Removal of the voice box; Laryngectomy
The opposite of -malacia is; -sclerosis
Excessive development; Hypertrophy
Treatment; -therapy
Condition (disease) of the lung; (study spelling) pneumonia
Hernia of the urinary bladder;(study spelling) cystocele
Deficiency in white blood cells;(study spelling) leukopenia
Pertaining to the groin;(study spelling) inguinal
Incision of the vein; (study spelling) phlebotomy
Without oxygen;(study spelling) anoxia
Not breathing;(study spelling) apnea
Through the skin; (study spelling) percutaneous
Pertaining to between the ribs; Intercostal
Pertaining to the opposite side; contralateral
A congential anomaly; Syndactyly
Symptoms precede an illness; Prodrome
Symphysis; Bones grow together, as in the pelvis
Ultrasonography; Sound waves and echoes are used to create an image
Hypertrophy; Increase in cell size; increased development
Dia-: Complete, through
Dyspnea; Difficult breathing
Brady; slow
Recombinant DNA; Gene from one organism is inserted into another organism
Epithelial; Surface cells that line internal organs and are found in the skin
Pertaining to below the rib; infracostal
New growth(tumor); neoplasm
Membrane surrounding a bone: periosteum
Condition of slow heartbeat bradycardia
Pertaining to under the skin hypodermic
Condition of deficiency of all (blood cells) pancyopenia
Carrying away from (the body) Abduction
Two endocrine glands, each above a kidney adrenal
Condition of “no” oxygen (deficiency) anoxia
Pertaining to through the tube leading from the bladder to the outside of the body transurethral
A substance that acts against a poison antitoxin
Pertaining to within the windpipe endotracheal
Rapid breathing; tachypnea
Pertaining to the opposite side contralateral
Four endocrine glands in the neck region parathyroid
Feeling of well-being euphoria
Removal of half of the tongue hemiglossectomy
Pertaining to the ribs intercostal
Harmless, non-cancerous benign
Pertaining to behind the membrane surrounding the abdominal organs retroperitoneal
Muscular wave like movement to transport food through the digestive system; Peristalsis
Part of the tooth that contains a rich supply of nerves and blood vessels; Pulp
Gingiv/o means; Gums
Buccal means; Pertaining to the cheek
Enzyme to digest starch; Amylase
Ring of muscles; Sphincter
Fats are improperly digested and appear in the feces; Steatorrhea
Lack of appetite; Anorexia
Esophageal varices are; Swollen twisted veins
Difficulting in swallowing; Dysphagia
White plaques on the mucosa of the mouth; Oral leukoplakia
Twisting of the intestine;(spelling) volvulus
Yellow coloration of the skin; (spelling) jaundice
Salivary gland near the ear; (spelling) parotid gland
Nutrition is given other than through the intestine; (Spelling) parenteral
Destruction of blood; hemolysis
Swelling, fluid in tissues; edema
Visual examination of the bladder; cystoscopy
Stone; calculus
Collecting area in the kidney; calyx
Inability to hold urine in bladder; incontinence
Surgical punture to remove fluid from the abdomen; Paracentesis
Periodontal procedure; Gingivectomy
Portion of the urinary bladder; trigone
Glomerular; Pertaining to small balls of capillaries in the kidney
A term that means no urine production is; Anuria
Artificial kidney machine; Hemodialysis
Protein in the urine; Albuminuria
Alkaline; Basic
Central collecting region in the kidney; renal pelvis
Chemical element carrying an electrical charge when dissolved in water, sodium, and potassium are examples; Electrolyte
Tube foe injecting or removing fluids; Catheter
Hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate production of red blood cells by bone marrow; Erythopoietin
Inner region of an organ; Medulla
Outer region of an organ; Cortex
Tiny ball of the capillaries in outer area of kidney; Glomerulus
Urination, micturition; voiding
Nitrogenous waste product of muscle metabolism excreted in urine; creatinine
Hollow, muscular sac that holds and stores urine; urinary bladder
High blood levels of a pigment released by the liver with bile; Hyperbilirubinemia
Specialist in gums; Periodontist
Abnormal side pockets in a hollow organ, such as the intestine; Diverticula
Chronic intestinal inflammation; Crohn disease
Excessive thrist; polydipsia
Nephrolithotomy; Incision to remove a renal calculus
Renal abscess may lead to; Pyuria
Pregnancy; Gestation
Area between the uterus and the rectum; Cul-de-sac
Part of the vulva; Labia majora
Adnexa uteri; Ovaries and fallopian tubes
Respiratory disorder in the neonate; Hyaline membrane disease
Incision of the perineum during childbirth; Episiotomy
Fingerlike ends of the fallopian tubes are called; Fimbriae
The study and treatment of newborns is called; Neonatology
Sac containing the egg is the; Ovarian follicle
Hormone produced by an endocrine gland located below the brain; Follicle-stimulating hormone
Removal of the fallopian tubes and ovaries; Bilateral salpingo-oophrectomy
Premature separation of placenta; Abruptio placentae
A woman who has had three miscarriages and 2 live births; Grav 5 para 2
Endometrial carcinoma may be detected by; D & C
Removal of internal and reproductive organs in the region of the hip; Pelvic exenteration
Physician’s effort to turn the fetus during delivery; Cephalic version
Gynecomastia; Abnormal development of breast tissue in males
Excessive flow of blood from the uterus between menstrual periods; Metrorrhagia
Painful labor and delivery; Dystocia
Menarche; First menstrual period
ms. Sally Ping has vaginal discharge, pain in the LLQ and RLQ, dysmenorrhea, and a gonococcal infection. A likely diagnosis; Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
Pieces of the inner lining of the uterus are ectopic; Endometriosis
Leukorrhea is associated with which of the following conditions? Cervicitis


Question Answer
Potassium normal concentration 3.5-5 meq/L, must be maintained within its normal range or else serious complications
hypokalemia K <3.5 meq/L, caused by diuretics, vomiting, NG suctioning,diarrhea,liver failure, alkalosis, decreased intake and increased output, steroids, and B-agonist drugs
signs and symptoms of hypokalemia muscle weakness and cramps, fatigue, confusion, cardia arrhythmias, and metabolic alkalosis
hyperkalemia causes: too rapid IV administration of K+, anything that inhibits K+ excretion (renal failure)
signs and symptoms of hyperkalemia metabolic acidosis, muscle weakness, cardiac arrhythmias,nausea/vomit
treatment of hyperkalemia diuretics, IV glucose and insulin (increased K+ uptake by cells, CaCl or Ca+
Calcium 50% of Ca in blood is bound to protein and is affected by blood pH( increased PH=more Ca binds to protein)
hypocalcemia causes: renal failure, vitamin D deficiency, hyperthyroidism, dificiency in magnesium
signs and symptoms of hypocalcemia muscle craps and weakness, tetany, arrhythmias
function of Ca+ initiates muscular contraction, maintains neuromuscular irritability, normal blood coagulation, and maintains integrity of bones, Ca present in equal amounts ionized and nonionized
Treatment of hypocalcemia treat underlying cause, vitamin D
Hypercalcemia causes: renal failure, some malignancies, hyperthyroidism
signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia arrhytmias, neuromuscular weakness/fatigue, nausea/ vomiting
treatment of hypercalcemia treat underlying problem, diuretics, administer phosphate
magnesium predominately found intracellulary
hypomagnesium causes: renal failure, decrease in dietary intake, GI disturbances, alcoholism
signs and symptoms of hypomagnesium muscle craps, weakness, tetany, nausea/vomiting, arrhythmias
hypermagnosemia causes causes: renal failure, diabetes mellitis, adrenal insufficiency, and high magnesium diet+
hypermagnosemia signs and symptoms muscle weakness, cramps, arrhythmias
treatment of hypermagnosemia diuretics, dialysis if caused by renal failure
sodium regulation via NaCL mechanism sodium to maintain neutrality is accompanied by active transport with CL from the glomerular filtrate and into the renal tubular cell, both Na+ and Cl- are transported to the ECF and ultimately to the plasma (blood)
Sodium regulation via NaHCO3 mechanism 1) recaptures Na+2)HCO3 are reabsorbed(100% of HCO3 in tubules reabsorbed)
3 things that will increase the HCO3 production/reabsorption 1. increase in PCO2 (stimulates renal compensation)2.decrease in blood volume (renin-angiotensin system)3. decrease in K+ concentration in blood
Angiotensin II causes: systemic vasoconstriction which increases BP
Angiotensin II stimulates the production of: Aldosterone
Aldosterone stimulates NaHCO3 reabsorption because water reabsorption follows Na+ reabsorption, blood volume increases and improves perfusion to the kidneys
hyperaldosterone can result in metabolic acidosis and hypokalemia
Diaretics can interfere with either___________or___________reabsorption NaCl, or NaHCO3
Urinary buffers 2 main functions 1. excrete daily acid load( esp. fixed acids)2. regenerate bicarb that’s lost during extracellular buffering
3 main urinary buffers 1.amonia2.phosphate3.HCO3
amonia works by: combining with H+ ions to form NH3 which minimizes the fall in pH
phosphate enhances excretion of H+
anion gap used with metabolic acidosishelps diagnosing causes of met.acidosis
high anion gap= increased amount of fixed acids
MUDPILERS methanol,uremia,diabetes/diabetic ketoacidosis,propylene glycol, Inhaled drugs used to treat TB, lactic acidosis, etholyene glycol, Renal failure, salicylates
Question Answer
What parameter is used to evaluate the respiratory component of acid-base balence Paco2
What is a base? A base excepts H+ ions
What is an acid An acid donates H+ ions
The metabolic component of acid base balence is primarily controlled by the : Renal system
The respiratory component of acid base balence is controlled by the pulmonary system
normal value for pH 7.40
normal value for PvCO2 48
normal value for PvO2 40
normal value for SvO2 70-75
What is meant by the term mixed venous blood? An average of all venous values in the body coming back to the heart.
Mixed venous blood is obtained by what anatomical area? Blood from the right atrium where blood is being dumped from the SVC and IVC.
pH2O at BTPS is 47 torr
the water vapor content at BTPS is 44 torr
what are the major components of an A-line? Saline bag, pressure tubing, spike, clamp, transducer,flush device, stop cock, and end accomadates catheter
What is the formula for MAP systolic pressure+diastolic+diastolic/3
normal range for MAP 70-105 torr
The relationship between HCO3 and pH is direct
What is a fixed acid? A fixed acid is an acid that cannot change state
Example of a fixed acid lactic acid
What is a volatile acid? An acid that can change from a liquid state to a gas, an example is H2CO3
The numerical difference between the normal total base in a blood sample and the actual amount of base in the sample is called base excess
Word/Suffix/Prefix Definition
nose line with mucous membrane and fine hears. acts as a filter to moisten and warm the entering air
nasal septum partition separating the right and left nasal cavity
paranasal sinuses air cavities within the cranial bones
pharynx passageway for food and air. aka throat
tonsils tissue located behind the nasal cavity
larynx location of the vocal cords. aka voice box
epiglottis flap that covers the larynx so food will not enter
trachea passageway for air to bronchi. aka windpipe
bronchus (pl bronchi) tubes that bring air into the lungs from trachea. sometime referred to as brachial tree
bronchioles smallest subdivision of the brachial tree
alveolus (pl alveoli) air sacs at the end of the bronchioles
lungs spongelike organs in the thorasic cavity. right 3 lobes/left 2 lobes
pleura serous membrane that covers the lungs and lines the thoracic cavity
diaphragm partition that separates the thoracic cavity and the abdominal cavity
adenoid/o adenoids
alveol/o alveolus
bronch/i bronchus
bronch/o bronchus
diaphragmat/o diaphragm
epiglott/o epiglottis
laryng/o larynx
lob/o lobe
nas/o nose
rhin/o nose
pharyng/o pharynx
pluer/o pluera
pneum/o air/lungs
pneumat/o air/lungs
pneumon/o air/lungs
pulmon/o lungs
sept/o septum
sinus/o sinus
thorac/o thorax/chest
tonsill/o tonsil
trache/o trachea
atel/o imperfect/incomplete
capn/o carbin dioxide
hem/o blood
hemat/o blood
muc/o mucus
orth/o straight
ox/o oxygen
ox/i oxygen
py/o pus
somn/o sleep
spir/o breathing/breathe
endo- within
eu- normal/good
pan- all/total
poly- many/much
-algia pain
-ar pertaining to
-ary pertaining to
-eal pertaining to
-cele hernia
-centesis surgical puncture
-ectasis stretching out/dilation/expansion
-emia blood condition
-gram x-ray
-graphy process of xray
-meter instrument use to measure
-metry measurement
-oxia oxygen
-pexy surgical fixation
-phonia voice/sound
-pnea breathing
-rrhagia rapid flow of blood
-scope instrument for visual exam
-scopic pertaining to visual exam
-scopy visual exam
-spasm sudden movement
-stenosis narrowing/constriction
-stomy artificial opening
-thorax chest
-tomy incision for artificial opening
atelactasis incomplete expansion
bronchiectasis dilation of the bronchi
bronchitis inflammation of bronchi
bronchogenic carcinoma tumor of the bronchi
bronchopneumonia disease state of lungs and bronchi
diaphrogmatocele hernia of the diaphragm
epiglottitis inflammation of the epiglottis
hemothorax blood in the chest
laryngitis inflammation of the larynx
laryngotracheobronchitis inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi
lobar pneumonia disease state of the lobes in the lungs
nasopharyngitis inflammation of the nose and the pharynx
pansinusitis inflammation of all sinuses
pharyngitis inflammation of the pharynx
pleuritis inflammation of the pleura
pneumatocele hernia of the lungs
pneumoconiosis abnormal condition of dust in the lungs
pneumonia disease state of the lungs
pneumonitis inflammation of the lungs
pneumothorax air in the chest
pulmonary neoplasm new tumor in the lungs
pyothorax pus in the chest
rhinitis inflammation of the nose
rhinomycosis fungus in the nose
rhinorrhagia rapid flow of blood from the nose
thoracalgia pain in the chest
tonsillitis inflammation of the tonsils
tracheitis inflammation of the trachea
tracheostonosis narrowing of the trachea
rhinorrhea discharge from the nose
orthopnea only able to breathe in the upright position
intrapleural pertaining to within the pleura
hypoxia low oxygen
hypoxemia low oxygen in the blood
hypopnea deficient breathing
hypocapnia deficient carbon dioxide
hyperpnea excessive breathing
hypercapnia excessive carbon dioxide
eupnea normal/good breathing
dyspnea difficult breathing
dysphonia difficult speaking
apnea absent breathing
aphonia absent voice
spirometry measurement of breathing
spirometer instrument for measuring breathing
oximeter instrument for measuring oxygen
capnometer instrument for measuring carbon dioxide
endoscopy visual exam within
endoscope instrument used for internal visual exam
tracheotomy incision into the trachea
tracheostomy artificial opening in the trachea
thoracocentesis surgical puncture to remove fluid from the chest cavity
rhinoplasty repair of nose
pneumonectomy remove of a lung
Question Answer
cerebr-o cerebrum
crani-o skull
encephal-o brain
gli-o glue
kinesi-o movement
mening-o meninges
myel-o spinal cord;bone marrow
narc-o stupor; numbing
neur-o nerve;nervous system
thalam-o thalamus;chamber
ton-o tone;tension;pressure
ventricul-o ventricle(of heart or brain)
algesia pain
algia pain
esthesia feeling; sensation
lepsy seizure
phasia speech
ANS autonomic nervous system
CNS central nervous system
CSF cerbrospinal fluid
CVA cerebrovascular accident
EEG electroencephalogram
HNP herniated nucleus pulposus(herniated disk)
LP lumbar puncture
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
MS multiple sclerosis
R/O rule out
TIA Transient ischemic attack
ambly-o dull;dim
aque-o water
audi-o hearing
blephar-o eyelid
core-o pupils
choroid-o choroid
corne-o cornea
cycl-o ciliary body
dacry-o tear; lacrimal sac
irid-o iris
kerat-o cornea;horny tissue
labyrinth-o inner ear; labyrunth
myring-o tympanic membrane
ocul-o eye
opthalma-o eye
opt-o vision;eye
phac-o lens
presby-o old age
pupill pupils
retin-o retina
salping-o eustacian tube; oviduct
scler-o sclera;hardening
staped-o stapes
tympan-o tympanic membrane
opia vision
tropia turning
eso inward
exo outward
ENT ear, nose, throat
OD right eye
OS left eye
OU both eyes
REM rapid EYE Movement
Term Definition
Cresco (L) Grow
Erro (L) Wander/Stray
Cum (L) Mass/Heap
Jacio (L) Throw
Finis (L) End
Morphe (G) Form
Curro (L) Run
Judex (L) Law
Fragilis (L) Break
Demos (G) People
Fero (L) Bring/ Carry/ Bear
Malus (L) Bad/Ill/Wrong
Manus (L) Hand
Facio (L) Make/Do
Extra (L) Outside/Beyond
Homos (G) Alike/Same
Ex (L) From/Out of
Neos (G) New/Recent
Juro (L) Swear
Pan (G) All/Any
Hyper (G) Excessive/Beyond
Makros (G) Large/Great
Question Answer
adenitis gland inflammation
adenoma gland tumor
anemia unusable blood cells or a lack of red blood cells, lack of hemaglobin and or iron.
arthralgia joint pain
arthritis joint inflammation
arthrogram joint x–ray, record
arthroscope instrument to actively view joints
arthroscopy process of viewing a joint
autopsy exam of a dead body
biology study of life
carcinoma cancerous tumor
cardiac pertaining to the heart
cardiology study of the heart
cephalic pertaining to the head
cerebral pertaining to the cerebrum
cerebrovascular accident stroke, accident of the blood vessels in the brain
gastrotomy stomach incision
gynecologist one who studies disorder of the female reproductive system
gynecology study of the female
hematoma blood mass
hyperglycemia high blood sugar condition
hyperthyroidism increased thryoid gland production
hypodermic pertainging to below the skin
hypoglycemia low blood sugar conditon
hypothyroidism decreased thyroid gland production
laparoscopy abdominal exam visually
laparotomy abdomen incision
leukemia excessive amount of white blood cells
leukocyte blood white cells
nephrectomy kidney removal
nephrology study of the kidney
nephrosis kidney abnormality
neural pertaining to the nerves
neuralgia nerve pain
neuritis nerve inflammation
neurology study of the nerves
neurotomy nerve incision
oncologist one who studies tumors (cancerous)
osteitis bone inflammation
osteroarthritis bone and joint inflammation
pathologist disease specialist
platelet clotting blood cell thrombocyte
prognosis prediction of the outcome
renal pertainig to the kidney
resection to cut an organ back or away
retrogastric pertaining to behind the stomach
rhinitis inflammation of the nose
rhinotomy incision of the nose
sarcoma flesh tumor
subgastric pertaining to under stomach
subhepatic pertaining to under the liver
thromboscyte clotting blood cell
thrombosis abnormal condition of clotting
transgastric pertaining to across the stomach
transurethral pertaining to through the urethra
cystoscope instrument used tow view the urinary bladder
cystoscopy process of viewing the urinary bladder
cytology study of cells
dermatitis inflammation of the skin
dermal pertaining to the skin
dermatosis state of skin abnormalities
diagnosis complete knowledge
dysentery painful intestines small
electrocardiaogram record of electricity of the heart
eletroencephalogram record of electricity in the brain
endocrine glands glands that secret within the body
enocrinology study of the endocrine glands
enteritis intestine inflammation
erythrocyte red blood cell
exocrine glands glands that secrete outsid the body
gastrectomy stomach removal
gastric pertaining to the stomach
gastritis inflammation of the stomach
gastroenteritis inflammation of the small instestines
gastroenterology study of (small) intestines stomach
gastroscope instument used to view the stomach
gastroscopy process of viewing the stomach
aden/o gland
arthr/o joint
bio life
carcino cancer
cardio heart
cephalo head
cerebro cerbrum
cysto uinary bladder
cyto cell
dermato skin
electro electricity
encephalo brain
entero intestines
erythro red
gastro stomach
glyco sugar
gnoso knowledge
gyneco women
cyto cell
dermato skin
electro electricity
encephalo brain
entero intestines
erythro red
gastro stomach
glyco sugar
gnoso knowledge
gyneco women
hemato, hemo blood
hepato liver
laparo abdomen
leuko white
nephro kidney
neuro nerve
onco tumor
ophthalmo eye
osteo bone
patho disease
psycho mind
rhino nose
sarco flesh
thrombo clot
-al, -ic pertaining to
-algia pain
-cyte cell
-ectomy removal
-emia blood condition
-globin protein
-ism pertaining to
-itis inflammation of
-logist study of
-oma tumor,mass
-opsy to view
-osis abnormal condition
-scope instrument used to view
-scope process of viewing looking at
-sis state of
-tomy insision, cut into
Question Answer
-ectomy excision, removal Incisions
o/stomy forming an opening (mouth) Incisions
o/tomy incision Incisions
o/clasis to break refracturing, loosening, crushing
o/lysis seperation, destruction, loosening refracturing, loosening, crushing
o/tripsy crushing refracturing, loosening, crushing
o/desis binding, fixation (of a bone or joint) plastic operations
o/pexy suspension, fixation (of an organ) plastic operations
o/plasty surgical repair platic operations
o/rrhapy suture plastic operations
o/centesis surgical puncture diagnostic suffixes
o/gram record, writing diagnostic suffixes
o/graph instrument for recording diagnostic suffixes
o/graphy process of recording diagnostic suffixes
o/meter instrument for measuring diagnostic suffixes
o/metry act of measuring diagnostic suffixes
o/scope instrument to view or examine diagnostic suffixes
o/scopy visual examination diagnostic suffixes
algia / o/dynia pain pathological
o/cele hernia, swelling pathological
-ectasis dilation, expansion pathological
-edema swelling pathological
-emesis vomiting pathological
-emia blood condition pathological
-iasis abnormal condition pathological
-itis inflammation pathological
o/lith stone, calcusus pathological
o/malacia softening pathological
o/megaly enlargement pathological
-oma tumor pathological
o/pathy disease pathological
o/penia decrease, deficency pathological
o/plasia / o/plasm formation, growth pathological
o/rrhage / o/rrhagia bursting forth (of) pathological
o/rrhea discharge, flow pathological
o/rrhexis rupture pathological
-osis abnormal condition, increase (used only with blood cells) pathological
o/spasm twitching pathological
o/stenosis narrowing, stricture pathological
o/toxic poision pathological
o/trophy development, nourishment pathological
0/centesis surgical puncture Incisions
Term Definition
Cutane/o, derm/o, dermat/o skin
Hidr/o sweat
Kerat/o horny tissue, hard
Onych/o, ungu/o nail
Seb/o sebum, oil
Trich/o hair
Aut/o self
Bi/o Life
coni/o dust
crypt/o hidden
heter/o other
myc/o fungus
necr/o death
pachy/o thick
rhytid/o wrinkles
staphyl/o grapelike cluster
strept/o twisted chains
xer/o dry
epi- on, upon, over
intra- within
para- beside, beyond, around, abnormal
per- through
sub- under, below
trans- through, across, beyond
-a no meaning, noun suffix
-coccus berry shaped
-ectomy excision
-ia diseased or abnormal state, condition of
-itis inflammation
-malacia softening
-opsy view of, viewing
-phagia eating or swallowing
-plasty surgical repair
-rrhea flow, discharge
-tome instrument used to cut
abrasion scraping away of the skin
abscess localized collection of pus
acne inflammatory disease involving sebaceous glands and hair follicle
actinic keratosis pre-cancerous skin condition of horny tissue
albinism genetic condition = lack of pigment in skin, hair and eyes
basal cell carcinoma epithelial tumor
candidiasis yeast infection of skin, mouth or vagina
carbuncle infection characterized by cluster of boils caused by staphylcoccus
cellulitis inflammation of the skin and SQ layer by infection
contusion injury with no break in skin
eczema non-infectious, inflammatory disease of skin characterized by redness, itching
fissure slit or cracklike sore in the skin
furuncle painful skin node caused by staph in the hair follicle
gangrene death of tissue caused by loss of blood supply followed by bacterial invasion
herpes inflammatory skin disease caused by herpes virus; characterized by small blisters in clusters
impetigo superficial skin infection characterized by pusutles
infection invasion of pathogens in the body tissue
Kaposi sarcoma cancerous condition starting as purple or brown papules on the lower extremities
laceration torn, ragged edged wound
lesion any visible change in tissue resulting from injury or disease
MRSA infection methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureaus infection
pediculosis invasion into the skin and hair by lice
psoriasis chronic condition of skin producing red lesions covered with silvery scales
rosacea chronic disorder of skin that produces erythema, papules, pustules, and broken blood vessels
scabies sarcoptic mite = itching mite
scleroderma disease characterized by chronic hardening of the connective tissue of the skin and other organs
squamous cell carcinoma malignant growth from epithelial tissue
Systemic lupus erythematosus chronic inflammatory disease of skin, joints, kidneys, and nervous system
tinea fungal infection of the skin
urticaria hives
vitiligo white patches on the skin caused by the destruction of melanocytes
cauterization destruction of tissue with a hot or cold instrument
debridement removal of contaminated or dead tissue and foreign matter
dermabrasion procedure to remove skin scars with abrasive material
excision removal by cutting
incision surgical cut
Mohs surgery technique of microscopically controlled serial excisions of a skin cancer
suturing to stitch edges of a wound surgically
alopecia hair loss
cicatrix scar
cyst closed sac containing fluid or semisolid material
cytomegalovirus herpes type virus that usually causes disease when the immune system is compromised
diaphoresis sweating
ecchymosis escape of blood into the skin
edema swelling
erythema redness
induration abnormal hard spots
jaundice yellow tinged to the skin
keloid overgrowth of scar tissue
leukoplakia condition characterized by white spots of patches on mucous membrane
macule flat, colored spot on the skin
nevus circumscribed malformation of the skin – birthmark
nodule small, knot like mass that can be felt by touch
pallor paleness
papule small, solid skin elevation
petechia pinpoint skin hemorrhage
pressure ulcer erosion of the skin caused by prolonged pressure
pruritus itching
purpura small hemorrhages in the skin
pustule elevation of skin containing pus
ulcer erosion of the skin or mucous membrane
verruca circumscribed cutaneous elevations caused by virus
vesicle small elevation of the epidermis containing liquid
wheal transitory, itchy elevation of the skin with a white center and red surrounding; hive
virus microorganism lacking independent metabolism and only replicates within living host
fungus organism that feeds by absorbing organic molecules; reproduce by budding of spore formation
bacteria single-celled microorganism that reproduce by cell division
dermatitis inflammation of the skin
dermatoconiosis abnormal condition of skin caused by dust
dermatofibroma fibrous tumor of skin
hidradenitis inflammation of sweat gland
leiodermia condition of smooth skin
leukoderma white skin
onychocryptosis abnormal condition of hidden nail
onychomalacia softening of the nails
onychophagia eating the nails
onychomycosis abnormal condition of fungus in the nails
pachyderma thickening of the skin
paronychia diseased state around the nails
seborrhea discharge of sebum
trichomycosis abnormal conditions of fungus in the hair
xeroderma dry skin
biopsy view of life
dermatoautoplasty surgical repair using one’s own skin
dermatoheteroplasty surgical repair using another’s skin
dermatome instrument used to cut skin
dermatoplasty surgical repair of the skin
onychectomy excision of a nail
rhytidectomy excision of wrinkles
rhytidoplasty surgical repair of wrinkles
dermatologist physician who studies and treats skin
dermatology study of skin
epidermal pertaining to upon the skin
erythroderma red skin
hypodermic pertaining to under the skin
intradermal pertaining to within the skin
keratogenic originating in horny tissue
necrosis abnormal condition of death
percutaneous pertaining to through the skin
staphylococcus berry shaped in grapelike clusters – bacteria
streptococcus berry shaped in twisted chains- bacteria
subcutaneous pertaining to under the skin
transdermal pertaining to through the skin
ungual pertaining to the nails
xanthoderma yellow skin – jaundice
Term Definition
adenoid/o adenoids
alveol alveolus
bronchi/o, bronch/o bronchus
diaphragmat/o, phren/o diaphragm
epiglott/o epiglottis
laryng/o larynx
lob/o lobe
nas/o, rhin/o nose
pharyng/o pharynx
pleur/o pleura
pneum/o, pneumato/o, pneumon/o lung, air
pulmon/o lung
sept/o septum (wall off, face)
sinus/o sinus
thorac/o thorax, chest, chest cavity
tonsill/o tonsil
trache/o trachea
atel/o imperfect, incomplete
capn/o carbon dioxide
hem/o, hemat/o blood
muc/o mucus
orth/o straight
ox/i oxygen
phon/o sound, voice
py/o pus
radi/o x-rays, ionizing radiation
somn/o sleep
son/o sound
spir/o breathe, breathing
tom/o to cut, section, or slice
a-, an- absence of, without
endo- within
eu- normal, good
poly- many, much
tachy- fast, rapid
-algia pain
-ar, -ary, -eal pertaining to
-cele hernia or protrusion
-centesis surgical puncture to aspirate fluid
-ectasis stretching out, dilation, expansion
-emia in the blood
-gram record, radiographic image
-graph instrument used to record, record
-graphy process of recording, radiographic imaging
-meter instrument used to measure
-metry measurement
-pexy surgical fixation, suspension
-pnea breathing
-rrhagia rapid flow of blood
-scope instrument used for visual examination
-scopic pertaining to visual examination
-scopy visual examination
-spasm sudden, involuntary muscle contraction (spasmodic contraction)
-stenosis constriction or narrowing
-stomy creation of an artificial opening
-thorax chest, chest cavity
-tomy cut into, incision
adenoiditis inflammation of the adenoids
alveolitis inflammation of the alveoli
atelectasis incomplete expansion
bronchiectasis dilation of the bronchi
bronchitis inflammation of the bronchi
bronchogenic carcinoma cancerous tumor originating in a bronchus (lung cancer)
bronchopneumonia diseased state of the bronchi and lungs (inflammation of lungs that beings in the terminal bronchioles)
diaphragmatocele hernia of the diaphragm
epiglottitis inflammation of the epiglottis
hemothorax blood in the chest cavity
laryngitis inflammation of the larynx
laryngotracheobronchitits (LTB) inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi (croup)
lobar pneumonia pertaining to the lobes; diseased state of the lung
nasopharyngitis inflammation of the nose and pharynx
pharyngitis inflammation of the pharynx
pleuritis inflammation of the pleura (Pleurisy)
pneumatocele hernia of the lung
pneumoconiosis abnormal condidiont of dust in the lungs
pneumonia diseased state of the lung (infection and inflammation caused by bacteria, viruses, and fungi)
pneumonitis inflammation of the lung
pneumothorax air in the pleural cavity
pulmonary neoplasm pertaining to the lung, new growth
pyothorax pus in the pleural cavity (empyema)
rhinitis inflammation of the nose
rhinomycosis abnormal condition of fungus in the nose
rhinorrhagia rapid flow of blood from the nose (epistaxis)
sinusitis inflammation of the sinuses
thoracalgia pain in the chest
tonsillitis inflammation of the tonsils
tacheitis inflammation of the trachea
tracheostenosis narrowing of the trachea
acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) respiratory failure as a result of disease or injury. Symptoms include dyspnea, tachypnea, and cyanosis
asthma respiratory disease characterized by coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath, caused by constriction and inflammation of airways that is reversible between attacks
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) progressive lung disease restricting air flow. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are two main components.
coccidiodomycosis fungal disease affecting the lungs and sometimes other organs of the body
cor pulmonale serious cardiac disease associated with chronic lung disorders, such as emphysema
croup condition resulting from acute obstruction of the larynx
cystic fibrosis hereditary disorder of the exocrine glands characterized by excess mucuc production in the respiratory tract, pancreatic deficiency, and other symptoms
deviated septum one part of the nasal cavity is smaller because of malformation or injury of the nasal septum
emphysema stretching of lung tissue caused by the alveoli becoming distended and losing elasticity
epistaxis nosebleed (rhinorrhagia)
idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis chronic progressive lung disorder characterized by increasing scarring
influenza highly contagious and often severe viral infection of the respiratory tract
obstructive sleep apnea repetitive pharyngeal collapse during sleep, which leads to absence of breathing
pertussis highly contagious bacterial infection of the respiratory tract characterized by an acute crowing inspiration, or whoop (Whooping cough)
pleural effusion fluid in the pleural space caused by a disease process or trauma
pulmonary edema fluid accumulation in the alveoli and bronchioles, most often a manifestation of heart failure
pulmonary embolism matter foreign to circulation, carried to the pulmonary artery and its branches, where it blocks circulation to the lungs and can be fatal if sufficient size and number.
tuberculosis infectious bacterial disease, most commonly spread by inhalation of small particles, usually affecting the lungs
upper respiratory infection infection of the nasal cavity, pharynx, or larynx
adenoidectomy exicision of the adenoids
adenotome instrument used to cut the adenoids
bronchoplasty surgical repair of a bronchus
laryngectomy excision of the larynx
laryngoplasty surgical repair of the larynx
laryngostomy creation of an artificial opening into the larynx
laryngotracheotomy incision of the larynx and trachea
lobectomy excision of a lobe
pleuropexy surgical fixation of the pleura
pneumonectomy excision of a lung
rhinoplasty surgical repair of the nose
septoplasty surgical repair of the nasal septum
sinusotomy incision into a sinus
thoracocentesis surgical puncture to aspirate fluid from the chest cavity (thoracentesis)
thoracotomy incision into the chest cavity
tonsillectomy excision of the tonsils
tracheoplasty surgical repair of the trachea
tracheostomy creation of an artificial opening into the trachea
trachotomy incision into the trachea
Radiography x-ray
Computed tomography (CT) computerized radiographic images using x-rays to produce a series of sectional images
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) produces images by exposing body to high strength, computer-controlled magnetic fields.
Nuclear medicine (NM) produces images by administering radioactive material to be delivered to the body part of interest. The tracer emits energy which the computer translates into two-dimensional images.
Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) an NM technique that yields three-dimensional computer constructed images
Positron emission tomography (PET) an NM procedure where positron-emitting radioactive material is injected in the body. These positrons are picked up by a ring of detectors positioned around the body.
Sonography ultrasound; process of recording sound
bronchoscope instrument used for visual examination of the bronchi
bronchoscopy visual examination of the bronchi
endoscope instrument used for visual examination within
endoscopic pertaining to visual examination within
endoscopy visual examination within
laryngoscope instrument used for visual examination of the larynx
laryngoscopy visual examination of the larynx
radiograph record of x-rays
radiography process of recording x-rays
sonogram record of sound
thoracoscope instruments used for visual examination of the chest cavity
thoracoscopy visual examination of the chest cavity
tomography process of recording slices
capnometer instrument used to measure carbon dioxide
oximeter instrument used to measure oxygen
spirometer instrument used to measure breathing
spirometry a measurement of breathing
polysomnography process of recording many tests during sleep
ventilation-perfusion scanning (VPS) NM procedure performed by inhaling a radionuclide and injecting a radionuclide into an artery followed by imaging to show how well the inhaled air is distributed
acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear test performed on sputum to determine the presence of acid-fast bacilli, which causes TB
sputum culture and sensitivity (C&S) test performed on sputum to determine the presence of pathogenic bacteria and the antibiotics it is sensitive to
pulmonary function tests (PFTs) grou[ of tests performed to measure breathing capacity and used to determine external respiratotry function
PPD (purified protein derivative) test performed on individuals who have recently been exposed to TB.
acapnia condition of absence of carbon dioxide
alveolar pertaining to the alveolus
anoxia condition of absence of oxygen
aphonia condition of absence of voice
apnea absence of breathing
bronchoalveolar pertaining to the bronchi and alveoli
bronchospasm spasmodic contraction of the bronchi
diaphragmatic pertaining to the diaphramg
dysphonia condition of difficult speaking
dyspnea difficult breathing
endotracheal pertaining to within the trachea
eupnea normal breathing
hypercapnia condition of deficient carbon dioxide
hypernea excessive breathing
hypocapnia condition of deficient carbon dioxide
hypopnea deficient breathing
hypoxemia deficient oxygen in the blood
hypoxia condition of deficient oxygen
intrapleural pertaining to within the pleura
laryngeal pertaining to the larynx
laryngospasm spasmodic contraction of the larynx
mucoid resembling mucus
mucous pertaining to mucus
nasopharyngeal pertaining to the nose and pharynx
orthopnea able to breathe easier in an upright position
phrenalgia pain in the diaphragm
pulmonary pertaining to the lungs
pulmonologist physician who studies and treats diseases of the lung
pulmonology study of the lung
radiologist physician who specializes in the use of xrays, ultrasound, and magnetic fields in the diagnosis and treatment of disease
radiology study of xryas
rhinorrhea discharge from the nose
tachypnea rapid breathing
thoracic pertaining to the chest
asphyxia deprivation of oxygen for tissue use; suffocation
aspirate to withdraw fluid or suction fluid; also to draw foreign material into the respiratory tract
bronchoconstrictor agent causing narrowing of the bronchi
bronchodilator agent causing the bronchi to widen
mucopurulent containing both mucus and pus
nebulizer device that creates a mist used to deliver medication for giving respiratory treatment
nosocomial infection an infection acquired during hospitalization
paroxysm periodic, sudden attack
patent open