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QuestionAnswer
GastrectomyGastric resection
OsteitisInflammation of the bone
HepatomaTumor of the Liver
Iatrogenic: Hint,…doctors cause thisPertaing to produced by treatment
Diagnosis:A treatment of the patient
Microscopic examination of living tissueBiopsy
Removalof the glandAdenectomy
Pathologist is one who:Performs autopsies and reads biopsies
Pain in the joint:Arthralgia
Abnormal condition of the mind:Psychosis
Study of cells:Cytology
Pertaining to through the liver: (hep makes reference to the liver)Transhepatic
High level of suger in the blood:Hyperglycemia
Pertaining to the brain:(study spelling)cerebral
Cancerous tumor:(study spelling)carcinoma
High blood sugar: (study spelling)hyperglycemia
Internal organs: (study spelling)viscera
Pertaining to the chest; (study spelling)thoracic
Lying on the back;(study spelling)supine
Pertaining to the abdomen;(study spelling)abdominal
Picture of the chromosomes in the nucleus;(study spelling)Karyotype
Membrane surrounding the lungs; (study spelling)pleura
Space between the lungs; (study spelling)mediastinum
Endocrine gland at the base of the brain;(study spelling)pituitary
Pertaining to the (surface)skin;(study spelling)epithelial
The process by which food is burned to release energy;Catabolism
Part of the cell where formation of proteins occurs;Endoplasmic reticulum rough
Sum of the chemical processes in a cell;Metabolism
Picture of neclear structures arranged in numerical order;Karyotype
Part of a cell where catabolism primarily occurs;Mitochondria
Allows materials to pass into and out of the cell;Cell membrane
Genes are composed of;Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Muscular wall separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities;Diaphragm
The space in the chest between the lungs is the:Mediastinum
Adipose means pertaining to;Fat
An epithelial cell is a(an);Skin cell
The pleural cavity is the;Space between the membranes around the lungs
Viscera;Internal organs
The pituitary gland is in which body cavity? It is under the brain[hint]Cranial
Supine means;Lying on the back
The upper lateral regions of the abdomen, beneath the ribs, are the;Hypochondriac regions
The RUQ contains the;Liver
Pertaining to a plane that divides the body into right and left portions;Sagittal
The proper plural form of necleus is;nuclei
Tightly coiled DNA is known asChromatid
Pertaining to the groin;Inguinal
Pertaining to internal organs;Visceral
Study of tissues;Histology
Cytoplasmic structures where catabolism takes place;Mitochondria
Divides the body laterally into right and left planes;Sagittal plane
AmniocentesisSurgical puncture to remove fluid from the abdomen
Death;necr/o
Small artery;Arteriole
Hernia of the urinary bladder;Cystocele
Neutrophil;Polymorphonuclear leukocyte
Instrument to record;-graph
Removal of the voice box;Laryngectomy
The opposite of -malacia is;-sclerosis
Excessive development;Hypertrophy
Treatment;-therapy
Condition (disease) of the lung; (study spelling)pneumonia
Hernia of the urinary bladder;(study spelling)cystocele
Deficiency in white blood cells;(study spelling)leukopenia
Pertaining to the groin;(study spelling)inguinal
Incision of the vein; (study spelling)phlebotomy
Without oxygen;(study spelling)anoxia
Not breathing;(study spelling)apnea
Through the skin; (study spelling)percutaneous
Pertaining to between the ribs;Intercostal
Pertaining to the opposite side;contralateral
A congential anomaly;Syndactyly
Symptoms precede an illness;Prodrome
Symphysis;Bones grow together, as in the pelvis
Ultrasonography;Sound waves and echoes are used to create an image
Hypertrophy;Increase in cell size; increased development
Dia-:Complete, through
Dyspnea;Difficult breathing
Brady;slow
Recombinant DNA;Gene from one organism is inserted into another organism
Epithelial;Surface cells that line internal organs and are found in the skin
Pertaining to below the rib;infracostal
New growth(tumor);neoplasm
Membrane surrounding a bone:periosteum
Condition of slow heartbeatbradycardia
Pertaining to under the skinhypodermic
Condition of deficiency of all (blood cells)pancyopenia
Carrying away from (the body)Abduction
Two endocrine glands, each above a kidneyadrenal
Condition of “no” oxygen (deficiency)anoxia
Pertaining to through the tube leading from the bladder to the outside of the bodytransurethral
A substance that acts against a poisonantitoxin
Pertaining to within the windpipeendotracheal
Rapid breathing;tachypnea
Pertaining to the opposite sidecontralateral
Four endocrine glands in the neck regionparathyroid
Feeling of well-beingeuphoria
Removal of half of the tonguehemiglossectomy
Pertaining to the ribsintercostal
Harmless, non-cancerousbenign
Pertaining to behind the membrane surrounding the abdominal organsretroperitoneal
Muscular wave like movement to transport food through the digestive system;Peristalsis
Part of the tooth that contains a rich supply of nerves and blood vessels;Pulp
Gingiv/o means;Gums
Buccal means;Pertaining to the cheek
Enzyme to digest starch;Amylase
Ring of muscles;Sphincter
Fats are improperly digested and appear in the feces;Steatorrhea
Lack of appetite;Anorexia
Esophageal varices are;Swollen twisted veins
Difficulting in swallowing;Dysphagia
White plaques on the mucosa of the mouth;Oral leukoplakia
Twisting of the intestine;(spelling)volvulus
Yellow coloration of the skin; (spelling)jaundice
Salivary gland near the ear; (spelling)parotid gland
Nutrition is given other than through the intestine; (Spelling)parenteral
Destruction of blood;hemolysis
Swelling, fluid in tissues;edema
Visual examination of the bladder;cystoscopy
Stone;calculus
Collecting area in the kidney;calyx
Inability to hold urine in bladder;incontinence
Surgical punture to remove fluid from the abdomen;Paracentesis
Periodontal procedure;Gingivectomy
Portion of the urinary bladder;trigone
Glomerular;Pertaining to small balls of capillaries in the kidney
A term that means no urine production is;Anuria
Artificial kidney machine;Hemodialysis
Protein in the urine;Albuminuria
Alkaline;Basic
Central collecting region in the kidney;renal pelvis
Chemical element carrying an electrical charge when dissolved in water, sodium, and potassium are examples;Electrolyte
Tube foe injecting or removing fluids;Catheter
Hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate production of red blood cells by bone marrow;Erythopoietin
Inner region of an organ;Medulla
Outer region of an organ;Cortex
Tiny ball of the capillaries in outer area of kidney;Glomerulus
Urination, micturition;voiding
Nitrogenous waste product of muscle metabolism excreted in urine;creatinine
Hollow, muscular sac that holds and stores urine;urinary bladder
High blood levels of a pigment released by the liver with bile;Hyperbilirubinemia
Specialist in gums;Periodontist
Abnormal side pockets in a hollow organ, such as the intestine;Diverticula
Chronic intestinal inflammation;Crohn disease
Excessive thrist;polydipsia
Nephrolithotomy;Incision to remove a renal calculus
Renal abscess may lead to;Pyuria
Pregnancy;Gestation
Area between the uterus and the rectum;Cul-de-sac
Part of the vulva;Labia majora
Adnexa uteri;Ovaries and fallopian tubes
Respiratory disorder in the neonate;Hyaline membrane disease
Incision of the perineum during childbirth;Episiotomy
Fingerlike ends of the fallopian tubes are called;Fimbriae
The study and treatment of newborns is called;Neonatology
Sac containing the egg is the;Ovarian follicle
Hormone produced by an endocrine gland located below the brain;Follicle-stimulating hormone
Removal of the fallopian tubes and ovaries;Bilateral salpingo-oophrectomy
Premature separation of placenta;Abruptio placentae
A woman who has had three miscarriages and 2 live births;Grav 5 para 2
Endometrial carcinoma may be detected by;D & C
Removal of internal and reproductive organs in the region of the hip;Pelvic exenteration
Physician’s effort to turn the fetus during delivery;Cephalic version
Gynecomastia;Abnormal development of breast tissue in males
Excessive flow of blood from the uterus between menstrual periods;Metrorrhagia
Painful labor and delivery;Dystocia
Menarche;First menstrual period
ms. Sally Ping has vaginal discharge, pain in the LLQ and RLQ, dysmenorrhea, and a gonococcal infection. A likely diagnosis;Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
Pieces of the inner lining of the uterus are ectopic;Endometriosis
Leukorrhea is associated with which of the following conditions?Cervicitis

 

QuestionAnswer
Potassiumnormal concentration 3.5-5 meq/L, must be maintained within its normal range or else serious complications
hypokalemiaK <3.5 meq/L, caused by diuretics, vomiting, NG suctioning,diarrhea,liver failure, alkalosis, decreased intake and increased output, steroids, and B-agonist drugs
signs and symptoms of hypokalemiamuscle weakness and cramps, fatigue, confusion, cardia arrhythmias, and metabolic alkalosis
hyperkalemiacauses: too rapid IV administration of K+, anything that inhibits K+ excretion (renal failure)
signs and symptoms of hyperkalemiametabolic acidosis, muscle weakness, cardiac arrhythmias,nausea/vomit
treatment of hyperkalemiadiuretics, IV glucose and insulin (increased K+ uptake by cells, CaCl or Ca+
Calcium50% of Ca in blood is bound to protein and is affected by blood pH( increased PH=more Ca binds to protein)
hypocalcemia causes:renal failure, vitamin D deficiency, hyperthyroidism, dificiency in magnesium
signs and symptoms of hypocalcemiamuscle craps and weakness, tetany, arrhythmias
function of Ca+initiates muscular contraction, maintains neuromuscular irritability, normal blood coagulation, and maintains integrity of bones, Ca present in equal amounts ionized and nonionized
Treatment of hypocalcemiatreat underlying cause, vitamin D
Hypercalcemia causes:renal failure, some malignancies, hyperthyroidism
signs and symptoms of hypercalcemiaarrhytmias, neuromuscular weakness/fatigue, nausea/ vomiting
treatment of hypercalcemiatreat underlying problem, diuretics, administer phosphate
magnesiumpredominately found intracellulary
hypomagnesium causes:renal failure, decrease in dietary intake, GI disturbances, alcoholism
signs and symptoms of hypomagnesiummuscle craps, weakness, tetany, nausea/vomiting, arrhythmias
hypermagnosemia causescauses: renal failure, diabetes mellitis, adrenal insufficiency, and high magnesium diet+
hypermagnosemia signs and symptomsmuscle weakness, cramps, arrhythmias
treatment of hypermagnosemiadiuretics, dialysis if caused by renal failure
sodium regulation via NaCL mechanismsodium to maintain neutrality is accompanied by active transport with CL from the glomerular filtrate and into the renal tubular cell, both Na+ and Cl- are transported to the ECF and ultimately to the plasma (blood)
Sodium regulation via NaHCO3 mechanism1) recaptures Na+2)HCO3 are reabsorbed(100% of HCO3 in tubules reabsorbed)
3 things that will increase the HCO3 production/reabsorption1. increase in PCO2 (stimulates renal compensation)2.decrease in blood volume (renin-angiotensin system)3. decrease in K+ concentration in blood
Angiotensin II causes:systemic vasoconstriction which increases BP
Angiotensin II stimulates the production of:Aldosterone
Aldosteronestimulates NaHCO3 reabsorption because water reabsorption follows Na+ reabsorption, blood volume increases and improves perfusion to the kidneys
hyperaldosteronecan result in metabolic acidosis and hypokalemia
Diaretics can interfere with either___________or___________reabsorptionNaCl, or NaHCO3
Urinary buffers 2 main functions1. excrete daily acid load( esp. fixed acids)2. regenerate bicarb that’s lost during extracellular buffering
3 main urinary buffers1.amonia2.phosphate3.HCO3
amonia works by:combining with H+ ions to form NH3 which minimizes the fall in pH
phosphateenhances excretion of H+
anion gapused with metabolic acidosishelps diagnosing causes of met.acidosis
high anion gap=increased amount of fixed acids
MUDPILERSmethanol,uremia,diabetes/diabetic ketoacidosis,propylene glycol, Inhaled drugs used to treat TB, lactic acidosis, etholyene glycol, Renal failure, salicylates
QuestionAnswer
What parameter is used to evaluate the respiratory component of acid-base balencePaco2
What is a base?A base excepts H+ ions
What is an acidAn acid donates H+ ions
The metabolic component of acid base balence is primarily controlled by the :Renal system
The respiratory component of acid base balence is controlled bythe pulmonary system
normal value for pH7.40
normal value for PvCO248
normal value for PvO240
normal value for SvO270-75
What is meant by the term mixed venous blood?An average of all venous values in the body coming back to the heart.
Mixed venous blood is obtained by what anatomical area?Blood from the right atrium where blood is being dumped from the SVC and IVC.
pH2O at BTPS is47 torr
the water vapor content at BTPS is44 torr
what are the major components of an A-line?Saline bag, pressure tubing, spike, clamp, transducer,flush device, stop cock, and end accomadates catheter
What is the formula for MAPsystolic pressure+diastolic+diastolic/3
normal range for MAP70-105 torr
The relationship between HCO3 and pH isdirect
What is a fixed acid?A fixed acid is an acid that cannot change state
Example of a fixed acidlactic acid
What is a volatile acid?An acid that can change from a liquid state to a gas, an example is H2CO3
The numerical difference between the normal total base in a blood sample and the actual amount of base in the sample is calledbase excess
Word/Suffix/PrefixDefinition
noseline with mucous membrane and fine hears. acts as a filter to moisten and warm the entering air
nasal septumpartition separating the right and left nasal cavity
paranasal sinusesair cavities within the cranial bones
pharynxpassageway for food and air. aka throat
tonsilstissue located behind the nasal cavity
larynxlocation of the vocal cords. aka voice box
epiglottisflap that covers the larynx so food will not enter
tracheapassageway for air to bronchi. aka windpipe
bronchus (pl bronchi)tubes that bring air into the lungs from trachea. sometime referred to as brachial tree
bronchiolessmallest subdivision of the brachial tree
alveolus (pl alveoli)air sacs at the end of the bronchioles
lungsspongelike organs in the thorasic cavity. right 3 lobes/left 2 lobes
pleuraserous membrane that covers the lungs and lines the thoracic cavity
diaphragmpartition that separates the thoracic cavity and the abdominal cavity
adenoid/oadenoids
alveol/oalveolus
bronch/ibronchus
bronch/obronchus
diaphragmat/odiaphragm
epiglott/oepiglottis
laryng/olarynx
lob/olobe
nas/onose
rhin/onose
pharyng/opharynx
pluer/opluera
pneum/oair/lungs
pneumat/oair/lungs
pneumon/oair/lungs
pulmon/olungs
sept/oseptum
sinus/osinus
thorac/othorax/chest
tonsill/otonsil
trache/otrachea
atel/oimperfect/incomplete
capn/ocarbin dioxide
hem/oblood
hemat/oblood
muc/omucus
orth/ostraight
ox/ooxygen
ox/ioxygen
py/opus
somn/osleep
spir/obreathing/breathe
endo-within
eu-normal/good
pan-all/total
poly-many/much
-algiapain
-arpertaining to
-arypertaining to
-ealpertaining to
-celehernia
-centesissurgical puncture
-ectasisstretching out/dilation/expansion
-emiablood condition
-gramx-ray
-graphyprocess of xray
-meterinstrument use to measure
-metrymeasurement
-oxiaoxygen
-pexysurgical fixation
-phoniavoice/sound
-pneabreathing
-rrhagiarapid flow of blood
-scopeinstrument for visual exam
-scopicpertaining to visual exam
-scopyvisual exam
-spasmsudden movement
-stenosisnarrowing/constriction
-stomyartificial opening
-thoraxchest
-tomyincision for artificial opening
atelactasisincomplete expansion
bronchiectasisdilation of the bronchi
bronchitisinflammation of bronchi
bronchogenic carcinomatumor of the bronchi
bronchopneumoniadisease state of lungs and bronchi
diaphrogmatocelehernia of the diaphragm
epiglottitisinflammation of the epiglottis
hemothoraxblood in the chest
laryngitisinflammation of the larynx
laryngotracheobronchitisinflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi
lobar pneumoniadisease state of the lobes in the lungs
nasopharyngitisinflammation of the nose and the pharynx
pansinusitisinflammation of all sinuses
pharyngitisinflammation of the pharynx
pleuritisinflammation of the pleura
pneumatocelehernia of the lungs
pneumoconiosisabnormal condition of dust in the lungs
pneumoniadisease state of the lungs
pneumonitisinflammation of the lungs
pneumothoraxair in the chest
pulmonary neoplasmnew tumor in the lungs
pyothoraxpus in the chest
rhinitisinflammation of the nose
rhinomycosisfungus in the nose
rhinorrhagiarapid flow of blood from the nose
thoracalgiapain in the chest
tonsillitisinflammation of the tonsils
tracheitisinflammation of the trachea
tracheostonosisnarrowing of the trachea
rhinorrheadischarge from the nose
orthopneaonly able to breathe in the upright position
intrapleuralpertaining to within the pleura
hypoxialow oxygen
hypoxemialow oxygen in the blood
hypopneadeficient breathing
hypocapniadeficient carbon dioxide
hyperpneaexcessive breathing
hypercapniaexcessive carbon dioxide
eupneanormal/good breathing
dyspneadifficult breathing
dysphoniadifficult speaking
apneaabsent breathing
aphoniaabsent voice
spirometrymeasurement of breathing
spirometerinstrument for measuring breathing
oximeterinstrument for measuring oxygen
capnometerinstrument for measuring carbon dioxide
endoscopyvisual exam within
endoscopeinstrument used for internal visual exam
tracheotomyincision into the trachea
tracheostomyartificial opening in the trachea
thoracocentesissurgical puncture to remove fluid from the chest cavity
rhinoplastyrepair of nose
pneumonectomyremove of a lung
QuestionAnswer
cerebr-ocerebrum
crani-oskull
encephal-obrain
gli-oglue
kinesi-omovement
mening-omeninges
myel-ospinal cord;bone marrow
narc-ostupor; numbing
neur-onerve;nervous system
thalam-othalamus;chamber
ton-otone;tension;pressure
ventricul-oventricle(of heart or brain)
algesiapain
algiapain
esthesiafeeling; sensation
lepsyseizure
phasiaspeech
ANSautonomic nervous system
CNScentral nervous system
CSFcerbrospinal fluid
CVAcerebrovascular accident
EEGelectroencephalogram
HNPherniated nucleus pulposus(herniated disk)
LPlumbar puncture
MRImagnetic resonance imaging
MSmultiple sclerosis
R/Orule out
TIATransient ischemic attack
ambly-odull;dim
aque-owater
audi-ohearing
blephar-oeyelid
core-opupils
choroid-ochoroid
corne-ocornea
cycl-ociliary body
dacry-otear; lacrimal sac
irid-oiris
kerat-ocornea;horny tissue
labyrinth-oinner ear; labyrunth
myring-otympanic membrane
ocul-oeye
opthalma-oeye
opt-ovision;eye
phac-olens
presby-oold age
pupillpupils
retin-oretina
salping-oeustacian tube; oviduct
scler-osclera;hardening
staped-ostapes
tympan-otympanic membrane
opiavision
tropiaturning
esoinward
exooutward
ENTear, nose, throat
ODright eye
OSleft eye
OUboth eyes
REMrapid EYE Movement
TermDefinition
Cresco(L) Grow
Erro(L) Wander/Stray
Cum(L) Mass/Heap
Jacio(L) Throw
Finis(L) End
Morphe(G) Form
Curro(L) Run
Judex(L) Law
Fragilis(L) Break
Demos(G) People
Fero(L) Bring/ Carry/ Bear
Malus(L) Bad/Ill/Wrong
Manus(L) Hand
Facio(L) Make/Do
Extra(L) Outside/Beyond
Homos(G) Alike/Same
Ex(L) From/Out of
Neos(G) New/Recent
Juro(L) Swear
Pan(G) All/Any
Hyper(G) Excessive/Beyond
Makros(G) Large/Great
QuestionAnswer
adenitisgland inflammation
adenomagland tumor
anemiaunusable blood cells or a lack of red blood cells, lack of hemaglobin and or iron.
arthralgiajoint pain
arthritisjoint inflammation
arthrogramjoint x–ray, record
arthroscopeinstrument to actively view joints
arthroscopyprocess of viewing a joint
autopsyexam of a dead body
biologystudy of life
carcinomacancerous tumor
cardiacpertaining to the heart
cardiologystudy of the heart
cephalicpertaining to the head
cerebralpertaining to the cerebrum
cerebrovascular accidentstroke, accident of the blood vessels in the brain
gastrotomystomach incision
gynecologistone who studies disorder of the female reproductive system
gynecologystudy of the female
hematomablood mass
hyperglycemiahigh blood sugar condition
hyperthyroidismincreased thryoid gland production
hypodermicpertainging to below the skin
hypoglycemialow blood sugar conditon
hypothyroidismdecreased thyroid gland production
laparoscopyabdominal exam visually
laparotomyabdomen incision
leukemiaexcessive amount of white blood cells
leukocyteblood white cells
nephrectomykidney removal
nephrologystudy of the kidney
nephrosiskidney abnormality
neuralpertaining to the nerves
neuralgianerve pain
neuritisnerve inflammation
neurologystudy of the nerves
neurotomynerve incision
oncologistone who studies tumors (cancerous)
osteitisbone inflammation
osteroarthritisbone and joint inflammation
pathologistdisease specialist
plateletclotting blood cell thrombocyte
prognosisprediction of the outcome
renalpertainig to the kidney
resectionto cut an organ back or away
retrogastricpertaining to behind the stomach
rhinitisinflammation of the nose
rhinotomyincision of the nose
sarcomaflesh tumor
subgastricpertaining to under stomach
subhepaticpertaining to under the liver
thromboscyteclotting blood cell
thrombosisabnormal condition of clotting
transgastricpertaining to across the stomach
transurethralpertaining to through the urethra
cystoscopeinstrument used tow view the urinary bladder
cystoscopyprocess of viewing the urinary bladder
cytologystudy of cells
dermatitisinflammation of the skin
dermalpertaining to the skin
dermatosisstate of skin abnormalities
diagnosiscomplete knowledge
dysenterypainful intestines small
electrocardiaogramrecord of electricity of the heart
eletroencephalogramrecord of electricity in the brain
endocrine glandsglands that secret within the body
enocrinologystudy of the endocrine glands
enteritisintestine inflammation
erythrocytered blood cell
exocrine glandsglands that secrete outsid the body
gastrectomystomach removal
gastricpertaining to the stomach
gastritisinflammation of the stomach
gastroenteritisinflammation of the small instestines
gastroenterologystudy of (small) intestines stomach
gastroscopeinstument used to view the stomach
gastroscopyprocess of viewing the stomach
aden/ogland
arthr/ojoint
biolife
carcinocancer
cardioheart
cephalohead
cerebrocerbrum
cystouinary bladder
cytocell
dermatoskin
electroelectricity
encephalobrain
enterointestines
erythrored
gastrostomach
glycosugar
gnosoknowledge
gynecowomen
cytocell
dermatoskin
electroelectricity
encephalobrain
enterointestines
erythrored
gastrostomach
glycosugar
gnosoknowledge
gynecowomen
hemato, hemoblood
hepatoliver
laparoabdomen
leukowhite
nephrokidney
neuronerve
oncotumor
ophthalmoeye
osteobone
pathodisease
psychomind
rhinonose
sarcoflesh
thromboclot
-al, -icpertaining to
-algiapain
-cytecell
-ectomyremoval
-emiablood condition
-globinprotein
-ismpertaining to
-itisinflammation of
-logiststudy of
-omatumor,mass
-opsyto view
-osisabnormal condition
-scopeinstrument used to view
-scopeprocess of viewing looking at
-sisstate of
-tomyinsision, cut into
QuestionAnswer
-ectomyexcision, removalIncisions
o/stomyforming an opening (mouth)Incisions
o/tomyincisionIncisions
o/clasisto breakrefracturing, loosening, crushing
o/lysisseperation, destruction, looseningrefracturing, loosening, crushing
o/tripsycrushingrefracturing, loosening, crushing
o/desisbinding, fixation (of a bone or joint)plastic operations
o/pexysuspension, fixation (of an organ)plastic operations
o/plastysurgical repairplatic operations
o/rrhapysutureplastic operations
o/centesissurgical puncturediagnostic suffixes
o/gramrecord, writingdiagnostic suffixes
o/graphinstrument for recordingdiagnostic suffixes
o/graphyprocess of recordingdiagnostic suffixes
o/meterinstrument for measuringdiagnostic suffixes
o/metryact of measuringdiagnostic suffixes
o/scopeinstrument to view or examinediagnostic suffixes
o/scopyvisual examinationdiagnostic suffixes
algia / o/dyniapainpathological
o/celehernia, swellingpathological
-ectasisdilation, expansionpathological
-edemaswellingpathological
-emesisvomitingpathological
-emiablood conditionpathological
-iasisabnormal conditionpathological
-itisinflammationpathological
o/lithstone, calcususpathological
o/malaciasofteningpathological
o/megalyenlargementpathological
-omatumorpathological
o/pathydiseasepathological
o/peniadecrease, deficencypathological
o/plasia / o/plasmformation, growthpathological
o/rrhage / o/rrhagiabursting forth (of)pathological
o/rrheadischarge, flowpathological
o/rrhexisrupturepathological
-osisabnormal condition, increase (used only with blood cells)pathological
o/spasmtwitchingpathological
o/stenosisnarrowing, stricturepathological
o/toxicpoisionpathological
o/trophydevelopment, nourishmentpathological
0/centesissurgical punctureIncisions
TermDefinition
Cutane/o, derm/o, dermat/oskin
Hidr/osweat
Kerat/ohorny tissue, hard
Onych/o, ungu/onail
Seb/osebum, oil
Trich/ohair
Aut/oself
Bi/oLife
coni/odust
crypt/ohidden
heter/oother
myc/ofungus
necr/odeath
pachy/othick
rhytid/owrinkles
staphyl/ograpelike cluster
strept/otwisted chains
xer/odry
epi-on, upon, over
intra-within
para-beside, beyond, around, abnormal
per-through
sub-under, below
trans-through, across, beyond
-ano meaning, noun suffix
-coccusberry shaped
-ectomyexcision
-iadiseased or abnormal state, condition of
-itisinflammation
-malaciasoftening
-opsyview of, viewing
-phagiaeating or swallowing
-plastysurgical repair
-rrheaflow, discharge
-tomeinstrument used to cut
abrasionscraping away of the skin
abscesslocalized collection of pus
acneinflammatory disease involving sebaceous glands and hair follicle
actinic keratosispre-cancerous skin condition of horny tissue
albinismgenetic condition = lack of pigment in skin, hair and eyes
basal cell carcinomaepithelial tumor
candidiasisyeast infection of skin, mouth or vagina
carbuncleinfection characterized by cluster of boils caused by staphylcoccus
cellulitisinflammation of the skin and SQ layer by infection
contusioninjury with no break in skin
eczemanon-infectious, inflammatory disease of skin characterized by redness, itching
fissureslit or cracklike sore in the skin
furunclepainful skin node caused by staph in the hair follicle
gangrenedeath of tissue caused by loss of blood supply followed by bacterial invasion
herpesinflammatory skin disease caused by herpes virus; characterized by small blisters in clusters
impetigosuperficial skin infection characterized by pusutles
infectioninvasion of pathogens in the body tissue
Kaposi sarcomacancerous condition starting as purple or brown papules on the lower extremities
lacerationtorn, ragged edged wound
lesionany visible change in tissue resulting from injury or disease
MRSA infectionmethicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureaus infection
pediculosisinvasion into the skin and hair by lice
psoriasischronic condition of skin producing red lesions covered with silvery scales
rosaceachronic disorder of skin that produces erythema, papules, pustules, and broken blood vessels
scabiessarcoptic mite = itching mite
sclerodermadisease characterized by chronic hardening of the connective tissue of the skin and other organs
squamous cell carcinomamalignant growth from epithelial tissue
Systemic lupus erythematosuschronic inflammatory disease of skin, joints, kidneys, and nervous system
tineafungal infection of the skin
urticariahives
vitiligowhite patches on the skin caused by the destruction of melanocytes
cauterizationdestruction of tissue with a hot or cold instrument
debridementremoval of contaminated or dead tissue and foreign matter
dermabrasionprocedure to remove skin scars with abrasive material
excisionremoval by cutting
incisionsurgical cut
Mohs surgerytechnique of microscopically controlled serial excisions of a skin cancer
suturingto stitch edges of a wound surgically
alopeciahair loss
cicatrixscar
cystclosed sac containing fluid or semisolid material
cytomegalovirusherpes type virus that usually causes disease when the immune system is compromised
diaphoresissweating
ecchymosisescape of blood into the skin
edemaswelling
erythemaredness
indurationabnormal hard spots
jaundiceyellow tinged to the skin
keloidovergrowth of scar tissue
leukoplakiacondition characterized by white spots of patches on mucous membrane
maculeflat, colored spot on the skin
nevuscircumscribed malformation of the skin – birthmark
nodulesmall, knot like mass that can be felt by touch
pallorpaleness
papulesmall, solid skin elevation
petechiapinpoint skin hemorrhage
pressure ulcererosion of the skin caused by prolonged pressure
pruritusitching
purpurasmall hemorrhages in the skin
pustuleelevation of skin containing pus
ulcererosion of the skin or mucous membrane
verrucacircumscribed cutaneous elevations caused by virus
vesiclesmall elevation of the epidermis containing liquid
whealtransitory, itchy elevation of the skin with a white center and red surrounding; hive
virusmicroorganism lacking independent metabolism and only replicates within living host
fungusorganism that feeds by absorbing organic molecules; reproduce by budding of spore formation
bacteriasingle-celled microorganism that reproduce by cell division
dermatitisinflammation of the skin
dermatoconiosisabnormal condition of skin caused by dust
dermatofibromafibrous tumor of skin
hidradenitisinflammation of sweat gland
leiodermiacondition of smooth skin
leukodermawhite skin
onychocryptosisabnormal condition of hidden nail
onychomalaciasoftening of the nails
onychophagiaeating the nails
onychomycosisabnormal condition of fungus in the nails
pachydermathickening of the skin
paronychiadiseased state around the nails
seborrheadischarge of sebum
trichomycosisabnormal conditions of fungus in the hair
xerodermadry skin
biopsyview of life
dermatoautoplastysurgical repair using one’s own skin
dermatoheteroplastysurgical repair using another’s skin
dermatomeinstrument used to cut skin
dermatoplastysurgical repair of the skin
onychectomyexcision of a nail
rhytidectomyexcision of wrinkles
rhytidoplastysurgical repair of wrinkles
dermatologistphysician who studies and treats skin
dermatologystudy of skin
epidermalpertaining to upon the skin
erythrodermared skin
hypodermicpertaining to under the skin
intradermalpertaining to within the skin
keratogenicoriginating in horny tissue
necrosisabnormal condition of death
percutaneouspertaining to through the skin
staphylococcusberry shaped in grapelike clusters – bacteria
streptococcusberry shaped in twisted chains- bacteria
subcutaneouspertaining to under the skin
transdermalpertaining to through the skin
ungualpertaining to the nails
xanthodermayellow skin – jaundice
TermDefinition
adenoid/oadenoids
alveolalveolus
bronchi/o, bronch/obronchus
diaphragmat/o, phren/odiaphragm
epiglott/oepiglottis
laryng/olarynx
lob/olobe
nas/o, rhin/onose
pharyng/opharynx
pleur/opleura
pneum/o, pneumato/o, pneumon/olung, air
pulmon/olung
sept/oseptum (wall off, face)
sinus/osinus
thorac/othorax, chest, chest cavity
tonsill/otonsil
trache/otrachea
atel/oimperfect, incomplete
capn/ocarbon dioxide
hem/o, hemat/oblood
muc/omucus
orth/ostraight
ox/ioxygen
phon/osound, voice
py/opus
radi/ox-rays, ionizing radiation
somn/osleep
son/osound
spir/obreathe, breathing
tom/oto cut, section, or slice
a-, an-absence of, without
endo-within
eu-normal, good
poly-many, much
tachy-fast, rapid
-algiapain
-ar, -ary, -ealpertaining to
-celehernia or protrusion
-centesissurgical puncture to aspirate fluid
-ectasisstretching out, dilation, expansion
-emiain the blood
-gramrecord, radiographic image
-graphinstrument used to record, record
-graphyprocess of recording, radiographic imaging
-meterinstrument used to measure
-metrymeasurement
-pexysurgical fixation, suspension
-pneabreathing
-rrhagiarapid flow of blood
-scopeinstrument used for visual examination
-scopicpertaining to visual examination
-scopyvisual examination
-spasmsudden, involuntary muscle contraction (spasmodic contraction)
-stenosisconstriction or narrowing
-stomycreation of an artificial opening
-thoraxchest, chest cavity
-tomycut into, incision
adenoiditisinflammation of the adenoids
alveolitisinflammation of the alveoli
atelectasisincomplete expansion
bronchiectasisdilation of the bronchi
bronchitisinflammation of the bronchi
bronchogenic carcinomacancerous tumor originating in a bronchus (lung cancer)
bronchopneumoniadiseased state of the bronchi and lungs (inflammation of lungs that beings in the terminal bronchioles)
diaphragmatocelehernia of the diaphragm
epiglottitisinflammation of the epiglottis
hemothoraxblood in the chest cavity
laryngitisinflammation of the larynx
laryngotracheobronchitits (LTB)inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi (croup)
lobar pneumoniapertaining to the lobes; diseased state of the lung
nasopharyngitisinflammation of the nose and pharynx
pharyngitisinflammation of the pharynx
pleuritisinflammation of the pleura (Pleurisy)
pneumatocelehernia of the lung
pneumoconiosisabnormal condidiont of dust in the lungs
pneumoniadiseased state of the lung (infection and inflammation caused by bacteria, viruses, and fungi)
pneumonitisinflammation of the lung
pneumothoraxair in the pleural cavity
pulmonary neoplasmpertaining to the lung, new growth
pyothoraxpus in the pleural cavity (empyema)
rhinitisinflammation of the nose
rhinomycosisabnormal condition of fungus in the nose
rhinorrhagiarapid flow of blood from the nose (epistaxis)
sinusitisinflammation of the sinuses
thoracalgiapain in the chest
tonsillitisinflammation of the tonsils
tacheitisinflammation of the trachea
tracheostenosisnarrowing of the trachea
acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)respiratory failure as a result of disease or injury. Symptoms include dyspnea, tachypnea, and cyanosis
asthmarespiratory disease characterized by coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath, caused by constriction and inflammation of airways that is reversible between attacks
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)progressive lung disease restricting air flow. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are two main components.
coccidiodomycosisfungal disease affecting the lungs and sometimes other organs of the body
cor pulmonaleserious cardiac disease associated with chronic lung disorders, such as emphysema
croupcondition resulting from acute obstruction of the larynx
cystic fibrosishereditary disorder of the exocrine glands characterized by excess mucuc production in the respiratory tract, pancreatic deficiency, and other symptoms
deviated septumone part of the nasal cavity is smaller because of malformation or injury of the nasal septum
emphysemastretching of lung tissue caused by the alveoli becoming distended and losing elasticity
epistaxisnosebleed (rhinorrhagia)
idiopathic pulmonary fibrosischronic progressive lung disorder characterized by increasing scarring
influenzahighly contagious and often severe viral infection of the respiratory tract
obstructive sleep apnearepetitive pharyngeal collapse during sleep, which leads to absence of breathing
pertussishighly contagious bacterial infection of the respiratory tract characterized by an acute crowing inspiration, or whoop (Whooping cough)
pleural effusionfluid in the pleural space caused by a disease process or trauma
pulmonary edemafluid accumulation in the alveoli and bronchioles, most often a manifestation of heart failure
pulmonary embolismmatter foreign to circulation, carried to the pulmonary artery and its branches, where it blocks circulation to the lungs and can be fatal if sufficient size and number.
tuberculosisinfectious bacterial disease, most commonly spread by inhalation of small particles, usually affecting the lungs
upper respiratory infectioninfection of the nasal cavity, pharynx, or larynx
adenoidectomyexicision of the adenoids
adenotomeinstrument used to cut the adenoids
bronchoplastysurgical repair of a bronchus
laryngectomyexcision of the larynx
laryngoplastysurgical repair of the larynx
laryngostomycreation of an artificial opening into the larynx
laryngotracheotomyincision of the larynx and trachea
lobectomyexcision of a lobe
pleuropexysurgical fixation of the pleura
pneumonectomyexcision of a lung
rhinoplastysurgical repair of the nose
septoplastysurgical repair of the nasal septum
sinusotomyincision into a sinus
thoracocentesissurgical puncture to aspirate fluid from the chest cavity (thoracentesis)
thoracotomyincision into the chest cavity
tonsillectomyexcision of the tonsils
tracheoplastysurgical repair of the trachea
tracheostomycreation of an artificial opening into the trachea
trachotomyincision into the trachea
Radiographyx-ray
Computed tomography (CT)computerized radiographic images using x-rays to produce a series of sectional images
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)produces images by exposing body to high strength, computer-controlled magnetic fields.
Nuclear medicine (NM)produces images by administering radioactive material to be delivered to the body part of interest. The tracer emits energy which the computer translates into two-dimensional images.
Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)an NM technique that yields three-dimensional computer constructed images
Positron emission tomography (PET)an NM procedure where positron-emitting radioactive material is injected in the body. These positrons are picked up by a ring of detectors positioned around the body.
Sonographyultrasound; process of recording sound
bronchoscopeinstrument used for visual examination of the bronchi
bronchoscopyvisual examination of the bronchi
endoscopeinstrument used for visual examination within
endoscopicpertaining to visual examination within
endoscopyvisual examination within
laryngoscopeinstrument used for visual examination of the larynx
laryngoscopyvisual examination of the larynx
radiographrecord of x-rays
radiographyprocess of recording x-rays
sonogramrecord of sound
thoracoscopeinstruments used for visual examination of the chest cavity
thoracoscopyvisual examination of the chest cavity
tomographyprocess of recording slices
capnometerinstrument used to measure carbon dioxide
oximeterinstrument used to measure oxygen
spirometerinstrument used to measure breathing
spirometrya measurement of breathing
polysomnographyprocess of recording many tests during sleep
ventilation-perfusion scanning (VPS)NM procedure performed by inhaling a radionuclide and injecting a radionuclide into an artery followed by imaging to show how well the inhaled air is distributed
acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smeartest performed on sputum to determine the presence of acid-fast bacilli, which causes TB
sputum culture and sensitivity (C&S)test performed on sputum to determine the presence of pathogenic bacteria and the antibiotics it is sensitive to
pulmonary function tests (PFTs)grou[ of tests performed to measure breathing capacity and used to determine external respiratotry function
PPD (purified protein derivative)test performed on individuals who have recently been exposed to TB.
acapniacondition of absence of carbon dioxide
alveolarpertaining to the alveolus
anoxiacondition of absence of oxygen
aphoniacondition of absence of voice
apneaabsence of breathing
bronchoalveolarpertaining to the bronchi and alveoli
bronchospasmspasmodic contraction of the bronchi
diaphragmaticpertaining to the diaphramg
dysphoniacondition of difficult speaking
dyspneadifficult breathing
endotrachealpertaining to within the trachea
eupneanormal breathing
hypercapniacondition of deficient carbon dioxide
hyperneaexcessive breathing
hypocapniacondition of deficient carbon dioxide
hypopneadeficient breathing
hypoxemiadeficient oxygen in the blood
hypoxiacondition of deficient oxygen
intrapleuralpertaining to within the pleura
laryngealpertaining to the larynx
laryngospasmspasmodic contraction of the larynx
mucoidresembling mucus
mucouspertaining to mucus
nasopharyngealpertaining to the nose and pharynx
orthopneaable to breathe easier in an upright position
phrenalgiapain in the diaphragm
pulmonarypertaining to the lungs
pulmonologistphysician who studies and treats diseases of the lung
pulmonologystudy of the lung
radiologistphysician who specializes in the use of xrays, ultrasound, and magnetic fields in the diagnosis and treatment of disease
radiologystudy of xryas
rhinorrheadischarge from the nose
tachypnearapid breathing
thoracicpertaining to the chest
asphyxiadeprivation of oxygen for tissue use; suffocation
aspirateto withdraw fluid or suction fluid; also to draw foreign material into the respiratory tract
bronchoconstrictoragent causing narrowing of the bronchi
bronchodilatoragent causing the bronchi to widen
mucopurulentcontaining both mucus and pus
nebulizerdevice that creates a mist used to deliver medication for giving respiratory treatment
nosocomial infectionan infection acquired during hospitalization
paroxysmperiodic, sudden attack
patentopen