Question Answer
what are microbes? a very small thing
d.n.a responsible for your eyes how tall you are or how your face looks
deoxyribonucleic is a part of the d.n.a
prokayotes 1.coccus 2.bacillus 3.spirillums
inside the cytoplasm are ribosomes
bacterial cells coccus, spirillium, bacillus
RNA Helps with protein synthesis
prokayotes bacteria
eukaryotes has a nucleus and membrane enclosed organelles
bacteria kingdoms archaebacteria, eubacteria
Term Definition
N-B-C nuclear- biology- chemical
Bio Terrorism Potential for large # of victims Potential for panic Potential to mimic endemic infectious disease
-endemic -Always present -We can’t get rid of it -Examples: Flu, Polio
Indicators of Bio Terrorism -unusual / not a naturally occurring dis. -larger # of cases -Point of source outbreak (can be traced to a specific area) -Aerosol route of infection (unless extremely virulent) -Limited geographical area -Low attack rate in person in filtered air
Routes of Infection -Aerosol -Percutaneous -Oral (contaminated food / water) -Inhalation (biggest potential for mass casualty)
What is Inhalation Anthrax -No annual occurrence, no known human to human transmission -incubation period 1-6 days or up to 45 days -Present: Fever, Malaise, Cough, Chest discomfort, Dyspnea and will continue to get worse -Tx: antibiotics
What is the Pulmonic Plaque -Incubation period 2-3 days -Droplet precautions -Present: High Fever, Chills, Hemoptysis, Toxemia, Shock, Strider, etc -Tx: antibiotic (streptomyocin)
What is Small Pox -incubation period 7-17 days -no natural occurrence -Droplet & airborne
What is Botulism -neuromuscular problem
Hyperbaric Medicine -the use of 100% oxygen under pressure -Hyper = Increased Baric= Pressure -Hyperbaric= Increased Pressure
UHMS -undersea hyperbaric medical society -international scientific organization
Monoplace Chamber -a single person chamber, compressed with 100% oxygen -There is a decompression process: has to be released gradually -If not done correctly, you could kill them
-Henry’s Law (Solubility) -As you increase pressure, you increase the amount of molecular particles that can dissolve in the blood as a molecule.
-Effects of Hyperbaric medicine -increase neuro vascularization formation -reduces edema -enhanced fibroblast proliferation -enhanced collagen formation -increase endothelial nitric oxide synthase and production -enhanced polymorphonuclear cell fxn (destruct bacteria)
-Complications of HBO -confinement anxiety -Oxygen toxicity -Hypoglycemia- metabolism changes. Some patients may need to be given snacks -barotrauma (difference in inner ear pressure) -decompression illness -fire
Indications for HBOT -air gas embolism -decompression illness -Cmonoxide poisoning -severe blood loss -diabetic wounds -gas gangrene -compromised skin graft -severe crush injuries -burns
Question Answer
What is microbiology? Keyword is INFECTION. It is about microscopic organisms that can infect us.
What are the 5 different types of Organisms? 1. Gram positive. 2. Gram negative. 3. Acid-fast bacilli. 4. Viruses and 5. Fungi.
What are the 4 Gram Positive Organisms? Any word w/ coccus. 1. Pneumococcus. 2. Streptococcus. 3. Diplococcus. 4. Staphylococcus.
Gram Positive Organisms Treat with (Penicillin-Type) Antibiotics- What are the three types? 1. Amoxicillin. 2. Carbenicillin. 3. Ampicillin.
In gram positive organisms if the patient is resistant to penicillin then what treatment do you give? 1. Nafcillin. 2. Oxacillin. 3.Methacillin.
In Gram Positive organisms if the patient is allergic to penicillin antibiotics & penicillin resistant medication then what treatment do you give? 1. Erythromycin. 2. Cephaloridine (loridine) 3. Cephalexin (Keflex). 4. Cephalothin (Keflin).
What are the 6 Gram Negative Organisms? 1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa 2. Haemophilus influenza 3. Klebsiella 4. Proteus 5. E.Coli 6.Serratia marcescens
How is Gram Negative Organisms caused, where do you find it & How do you prevent it? 1. Spread by poor hand washing & unsanitary environmental conditions. 2. Found in normal Flora for the GI tract 3. Best prevented by Hand washing.
What are the treatments for Gram Negative Organisms? 1. Streptomycin 2. Gentamycin 3. Tobramycin
What is acid-fast Bacilli? 1. Related to TB 2. Mycobacterium TB (tubercle bacilli)
What are the treatments for Acid-fast Bacilli? 1. Isoniazid (INH) 2. Rifampin 3. Ethambutol 4. Streptomycin. Treatment course can last up to 2 yrs. Pt. compliance is difficult, education is very important.
Name some Anti-viral agents for viruses? 1. Influenza 2. Adenovirus 3. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) 4. Cytomegalovirus
How do you treat Virus? There are not many antiviral drugs. Only one is worth reviewing. 1. Ribavirin (Virazole)- Used to treat RSV. Only administered with SPAG unit. Must be kept away from preg. Women. Drug crystallizes and causes an obstruction- use appropriate filters.
Name 3 fungus(Fungi)? 1. Candidiasis (Candida)- Thrust mouth 2. Histoplasma Capsulatum (Histoplasmosis)3. Coccidimycosis (coccidioides)immitis
How do treat the fungus Candidiasis? 1. Nystatin & Amphotericin B
What causes Tetracycline? 1. Mycoplasma Pneumonia 2. Chronic Bronchitis 3. Rocky Mountain spotted fever.
What causes Nosocomial Infections? Poor hand washing. Transmitted thru direct contact, indirect contact(equipment) & Airborne mechanisms (coughing & sneezing)
How do you treat equipment that cause Nosocomial infections? 1. Always sterilize equipment 2. Use one-way valves 3. Utilize Singe-pt.-use equipment. 4. Dedicate equipment to infectious pts. (stethoscope, IPPB).
How do you treat Aerosols-Small Volume Nebulizers(SVN) Use disposable, replace frequently/deliver same medication via an MDI.
In Aerosols, water reservoirs should have sterile water only. Why? Tap Water can promote an infection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. If possible, use disposable, self-contained water reservoirs.
What are the General Prevention Guidelines? 1. Use unit dose medication 2. Write date &time on all disposable equipment 3. Discard disposable equipment in room 4. Wipe down all equipment with 70% alcohol solution. 5. Double bag infectious disposable equipment before discarding.
what are the 6 isolation methods? 1. Universal precaution 2. Respiratory Isolation 3. Strict Isolation 4. Reverse Isolation 5. Enteric Isolation 6. Contact Isolation.
What is Universal precautions? 1. Gloves, Mask & Gown
What is Respiratory Isoaltion? 1. Airborne Particles, use the N95 particular respirator, in addition to universal precaution. Pt. use mask when visitors are present or when transported outside the room for a procedure.
What is Strict Isolation? Gloves, gowns, masks to be used by all that enter the room.
What is Reverse Isolation(protective)? For immunosuppressed pts. Such as AIDS, burn trauma, etc. Also for an organ transplant to provide extra protection & lower risk for infection.
What is Enteric Isolation? use gloves- cover any part of the body that comes in contact with blood , fecal matter, etc.
What is Contact Isolation(wound&sking? use gloves & gown if very close body contact.
Where can you find Pathogenic Organisms? In Blood, Sputum, Urine & on any number of places on the body.
Two ways of getting a sputum? 1. Expectorated. 2. trans-tracheal aspirate sample.
In sputum culture what do you mean by Expectorated? 1. Must do prior to eating. best done in the morning. Commonly contaminated with oral flora
In Sputum Culture, What is trans-tracheal Aspirate Sample? 1. Catheter placed through an incision in the cricothyroid membrane. 2. Untrained sputum sample can be obtained with this method. 3. Sample used to diagnose Legionnaire’s Disease ONLY.
what is the Method of lung tissue via Percutaneous Lung Biopsy? Method of obtaining lung tissue to analyze for malignancies, lesions, etc. it is done thru a small hole in the chest wall & is done in lieu of tissue sampling w/ a bronchoscope or a larger surgical opening.