Term Definition
bronchogram x-ray image of the bronchi
bronchography process of x-ray imaging the bronchi
bronchoscope instrument used for visual examination of the bronchi
bronchoscope visual examination of the bronchi
endoscope instrument used for visual examination within a hollow organ or body cavity
endoscopic pertaining to visual examination of a hollow organ or body cavity
endoscopy visual examination of a hollow organ or body cavity
laryngoscope instrument used for visual examination of the larynx
laryngoscopy visual examination of the larynx
thoracoscope instrument used for visual examination of the thorax
thoracoscopy visual examination of the thorax
oximeter instrument used to measure oxygen percentage in the blood stream
spirometer instrument used to measure breathing or lung volume
polysomnography(PSG) process of recording many (tests) during sleep to diagnose obstructive sleep apnea
chest CT (computed tomography) scan computerized images of the chest reproduced in sections sliced from front to back horizontally. Used to diagnose tumors, abscesses, and pleural effusion
chest x-ray (CXR) an x-ray image of the chest used to evaluate the lungs and the heart
ventilation-perfusion scanning (VPS) a nuclear medicine procedure used to diagnose pulmonary embolism and other condition (lung scan)
acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear a test done on sputum to determine the presence of acid-fast bacilli, which causes tuberculosis
arterial blood gases (ABGs) a test done on arterial blood to determine levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other gases present
pulmonary function test (PFTs) a group of tests performed on breathing to determine respiratory function or abnormalities
pulse oximetry a noninvasive method of measuring oxygen in the blood by using a device that attaches to the fingertip
PPD skin test a test done on individuals who have recently been exposed to tuberculosis.
spirometry a measurment of breathing (or lung volumes)
ANOXIA Absence of oxygen.
3.ANTIHISTAMINE A drug that opposes the action of of histamine.
ANTROTOMY Cutting through an antral wall.
ATELECTASIS Acollapse or airless condition of the lungs.
BRONCHODILATOR A drug that expands the bronchi by relaxing bronchial muscle.
CHEYNE-STOKES A breathing pattern marked by a period of apnea lasting 10 to 60 sec. followed by gradually increasing depht and frequency of respirations (hyperventilation)
DIFFUSION The tendency of molecules of a substance (gaseous, liquid, or solid) to move from high to lower concentration
EPISTAXIS Hemorrhage from the nose; nosebleed.
EXPECTORANT An agent such as guaifenesin, that promotes the clearance of mucus from the respiratory tract.
HYPOSTATIC PNEUMONIA Occurs in elderly or bed-ridden patients who remain constantly in the same position.
ANOXIA Absence of oxygen.
ANTIHISTAMINE A drug that opposes the action of of histamine.
ANTROTOMY Cutting through an antral wall.
ATELECTASIS Acollapse or airless condition of the lungs.
BRONCHODILATOR A drug that expands the bronchi by relaxing bronchial muscle.
CHEYNE-STOKES A breathing pattern marked by a period of apnea lasting 10 to 60 sec. followed by gradually increasing depht and frequency of respirations (hyperventilation)
DIFFUSION The tendency of molecules of a substance (gaseous, liquid, or solid) to move from high to lower concentration
EPISTAXIS Hemorrhage from the nose; nosebleed.
EXPECTORANT An agent such as guaifenesin, that promotes the clearance of mucus from the respiratory tract, by upsetting the stomach, which triggers the lungs to become wet.
HYPOSTATIC PNEUMONIA Occurs in elderly or bed-ridden patients who remain constantly in the same position.
MEDIASTINUM A septum or cavity between the two principal portions of an organ. Mass of organs and tissues separating the lungs.
ORTHOPNEA Labored breathing that occurs when lying flat and is relieved by sitting up. This is one of the classic symptoms for left ventricular heart failure.
RALES Crackle. An adventitious lung sound heard on oscultation of the chest , produced by air passing over retained airway secretions.
SUFFOCATION Deprivation of air exchange that produces an intense sensation of air hunger.
SURFACTANT A surface-active agent that lowers surface tension (e.g., oils and various forms of detergents).
TRACHEOSTOMY The surgical opening the trachea to provide and secure an open airway. (Performed in emergency situations when there is an upper respiratory obstruction).
Question Answer
Name 3 factors which the efficiency of external respiration is dependent on. 1- VA – is it adequate? 2- V/Q – is it well-matched? 3- Membrane diffusion across alveolar capillary membrane – are there issues? Destruction of alveolar surface?
List the 3 factors involved in oxygen delivery. 1- Oxygen Loading 2- Oxygen Transport 3- Oxygen Unloading
Describe Oxygen Loading The gas exchange between the alveoli, atmosphere, and pulmonary capillaries.
Describe Oxygen Transport You must factor in 1: Cardiac Output, a function of HR and 2: Stroke volume, the volume of blood that is ejected from ventricles per contraction.
Describe Oxygen Unloading Internal Respiration: The exchange of gases between systemic capillary level, blood and cells. The oxygen unloaded is the oxygen available for metabolism.
Why does V/Q mismatching occur even in the normal lung? Even in normal people, V/Q mismatching occurs because in a normal upright position there is still mismatching at the bases of the lungs ( due to gravity), and perfusion is greatly dependent.
The normal amount of anatomic deadspace found in the airways of a 150 pound adult would be – 150 ml
The normal VD/VT ratio in a spontaneously breathing individual is approximately ____, with a somewhat (higher/lower) ratio being acceptable for patient on mechanical ventilatory support. (which is ? ) < 0.4 higher < 0.6
The distribution of ventilation in the lung depends on regional differences in ____ and ___. Lung compliance and Airway resistance.
A VD/VT ratio of 0.7 means that.. 70% of the VT is lost to VD.
Calculate the cardiac output. Stroke Volume – 80 cc Heart Rate – 85 BPM Is this within normal range? SV X HR = CO 80 X 85 = 6800 cc = 6.8 L Yes, normal range is 4-8
At residual volume, most gas entering the lung would go to the ____ apices.
Most gas inhaled during normal breathing from normal FRC enters the ____ bases
Will a change in FRC affect distribution of ventilation? Yes.
A pt’s minute ventilation is 101 l/m, RR is 22, PaCO2 is 55 torr. Which of the following is she NOT experiencing : 1- increased shunting 2- Increased deadspace ventilation 3- Increased WOB 4- Decreased compliance 5- Decreased Alveolar ventilation 1- Increased shunting ( with the data given, there is no way to tell )
A pulmonary embolus would increase (shunt/deadspace) in the affected area. deadspace
The ( lower/higher) the V/Q, the lower is the PO2 that leaves the unit. lower.
Increased VD will (increase/decrease) the WOB and 02 demand. increase.
Normal anatomic shunt is approximately ___% of cardiac output. 3%
List any 2 possible clinical causes of increased anatomic shunting. 1- any cardiovascular congenital anomalies 2- ventricular septal defect
____ diffuses 20 times faster than oxygen across the a-c membrane. Carbon Dioxide
Name the 2 major requirements for successful pulmonary diffusion. 1- Surface area 2- Sufficient time
List the 2 major factors which determine oxygen’s ability to dissolve in plasma. Which of these factors determine the volume of oxygen that dissolves in plasma? _________________
At a Pa02 of 100 torr, the volume of 02 dissolved in plasma is ___ How did you arrive at your answer? 0.3 vol% _______
What does volume percent really meant? Volume of solute/ volume of solution X 100
Diffusion of oxygen throughout the body as well as in the cells and on the hgb is controlled by the ( oxygen’s solubility coefficient/ the Pa02/ neither of these) the PaO2
HBG tends to combine with 4 oxygen molecules or with none. ( T/F) True
Oxygen combines with the ___ sites of the HBG molecule. heme
Name the normal HGB value/range for males and females. Males – 15 g / 100 ml of blood Females – 13-14 g/ 100 ml of blood
___ is the term used to describe either a decrease in total HGB/RBC count Anemia
Name 2 types of abnormal HGB. HGB F, HGB S, met HGB, carboxyhemoglobin, etc.
_____ occurs when a quantity of blood is perfused but not ventilated. Shunting
___ results from the additive effects of anatomic and capillary shunts. Physiologic Shunting
______ is the quantity of gas remaining in the airway after each breath. anatomic deadspace
This form of deadspace is represented by a VQ >1. Relative alveolar deadspace.
This represents the sum of all alveolar and anatomic deadspace. Physiologic deadspace.
A ventilated but not perfused alveolus would represent this form of deadspace. True alveolar deadspace.
Represented by the volume of exhaled gas remaining within a ventilator circuit or an oxygen mask which is then inspired on the next breath. Mechanical deadspace.
This form of shunting would be represented by an alveolus at which the volume of perfusion exceeds the volume of ventilation to the alveolus. Relative capillary shunting.
The pleural, bronchial, and thesbian largely veins contribute to this form of normal shunting. Anatomic shunting.
‘wasted’ ventilation deadspace
This type of shunting would be represented by a totally atelectatic alveolus. true capillary shunting
Question Answer
cyanosis A bluish discoloration of the tisue
phlegm Mucus from the tracheobronchial tree that has not been contaminated by oral secretion
crackles airflow causes movement of excessive secretions or fluid in the airways
tachy Abnormally elevated
subcutaneous Beneath the skin
Tachycardia a condition in which the pulse rate exceeds 100 beats/minute
sputum Mucus from the respiratory tract that has passed through the mouth
brady Abnormally decreased
adventitious lung sounds abnormal lung sounds susperimposed on the basic underlying breath sounds
Bradycardia a condition in which the pulse rate is less than 50 beats/minute
pedal edema swelling of the lower extremities
cough one of the most common symptoms seen in patients with pulmonary disease
orthodeoxia oxygen desaturation on assuming an upright position
orthopnea dyspnea is present only when the patient assumes the reclining position
platypnea shortness of breath in the upright position
hypothermia a body temperature bbelow normal
hematemesis vomiting blood from the gastrointestinal tract
diastolic pressure force in the major arteries remaining after relaxation of the ventricles
systolic pressure peak force exerted in the major arteries during contraction of the left ventricle
hypotension blood pressure less than 95/60 mm Hg
kussmaul’s sign under abnormal conditions the JVP may rise during inhalation
brochophony an increase in the intensity and clarity of vocal resonance produced by enhanced transmission of vocal vibrations
bradypnea slow respiratory rate
postural hypotension individuals sit or stand up have an abrupt fall in the blood pressure in hypovolemic patients
pulsus paradoxus a significant decrease in pulse strength during spontaneous inhalation
stridor loud high-pitched sound which sometimes can be heard without a stethoscope
jugular venous distention jugular vein is enlarged and it can be seen more than 3 ot 4 cm above the sternal angle, most common cause is right sided heart failure
fetid sputum that is foul smelling
syncope fainting
hypertension blood pressure is persistently higher than 140/90 mm Hg
purulent sputum that contains pus cells
Pulsus alternans an alternating succession of strong and weak pulses (suggests left sided heart failure)
Diaphoresis sweating
tachypnea abnormally high respiratory rate
hemoptysis coughing up blood or blood-streaked sputum from the lungs
dyspnea shortness of breath as perceived by the patient
febrile Temperature elevation caused by disease is called fever and is said to be febrile
Fever an elevated body temperature due to disease
tripodding a patient sits upright while bracing his or her elbows on a table
sensorium patients orientation to time, place, and person
hyperthermia a body temperature above normal
pulse pressure pulse strength or amplitude
lymphadenopathy enlarged lymph nodes
barrel chest abnormal increase in AP(Anterior posterior) diameter
retractions intermittent sinking inward of the skin overlying the chest wall during inspiration
kussmaul breathing patients with diabetic ketoacidosis often breathe with a deep and rapid pattern
hoovers sign contraction of a flat diaphragm tend to draw in the lateral costal margins instead of expanding them
abdominal paradox recognized by inward movement of the anterior abdominal wall during inspiratory efforts and is seen best with the patient in the supine position
respiratory alternans pattern of breathing in which the patient alternates between having the accessory muscles dominate for a brief period (a few minutes) followed by a period in which the accessory muscles rest and the diaphragm takes over
vocal fremitus refers to the vibrations created by the vocal cords during speech
tactile fremitus vocal vibrations are felt on the chest wall
subcutaneous emphysema air leaks from the lung into subcutaneous tissues, fine air bubbles produce a crackling sound and sensation when palpated
adventitious lung sounds added sounds or vibrations produced by the movement of air through abnormal airways
wheeze continouse type of ALS
heave systolic thrust that is felt and possibly visualized near the lower left sternal border
thrills palpable vibrations
gallop rhythm the patient with heart disease who has an S3 and S4
murmurs when the heart valves are incompetent or stenotic
pulse deficit the apical rate is higher than the peripheral pulse
hepatomegaly enlarged liver
clubbing painless enlargement of the terminal phalanges of the fingers and toes which develop over time
adrenergic drug that stimulates a receptor responding to epinephrine or norepinephrine “Sympathetic”
antiadrenergic drug that blocks a receptor for epinephrine or norepinephrine “parasympathetic”
cholinergic drug that stimulates a receptor for acetylcholine “parasympathetic”
anticholinergic drug that blocks a receptor for acetylcholine receptors specifically at parasympathetic nerve ending sites
muscarinic drug that stimulates acetylcholine receptors specifically at parasympathetic nerve ending sites
Question Answer
define tonsillitis (sa) inflammation of tonsils
the term hypo- means.. (sa) under, below average
-o/stomy means.. (sa) opening
what does DNR stand for? (sa) do not resuscitate
what is PO? (sa) by mouth
If the doctor prescribes a medicine BID, how often should it be taken? (sa) twice a day
what does HS stand for? (sa) at bedtime
Where does the patient’s chief complaint go when charting? (sa) under history and physical
True or False…. if you make an error when charting, you must make a single line through it (sa) true
What is the most common method for measuring temperature? (sa) oral
Kussmaul’s breathing, often seen in diabetic ketoacidosis, has what type of breathing pattern? (sa) increase rate and depth
What are normal lung sounds? (sa) vesicular
define -o/tomy (am) incision
define -ectomy (am) excision, removal
define hyper- (am) excessive, above average
What is a specialist who studies cells? (am) cyto/logist
pertaining to the middle of the back (am) poster/o/meadial
fartherst from the point of attachment (am) distal
semi-sitting position with the head of bed elevated (am) fowler’s
enlargement of the internal organs (am) visecer/o/megaly
pertaining to the groin (am) inguin/al
instrument used to view or examine (am) -o/scope
instrument used for measuring (am) -o/meter
surgical repair (am) -o/plasty

Question Answer
Inhalation Breathing in
Exhalation Breathing out
Normal flow of air Nares, nasopharnyx, pharnynx, larynx, treachea, bronchus, bronchioles, terminal bronchi, aveolar sac
At the Carini, what temperature is the air? 98.6
What cells carry oxygen to the body cells? Hemoglobin
Question Answer
Oxygen toxicity FiO2
Oxygen induced hypoventilation PaO2
Retinopathy of Prematurity PaO2
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia FiO2
Absorption atelectasis FiO2
Question Answer
American society For Testing Materials nongovernment agency that establishes performance standards for various equipment and materials
Baffling process of removing large water particles from suspension and a jet nebulizer so that the particles entering the patient’s airway are of a uniform therapeutic size
Body humidity absolute humidity in a volume of gas saturated at the body temperature of 37°C; equivalent to 43.8 mg/L
Heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) devices that capture exhaled heat and moisture to warm and humidify the next inspiration
Hydrophobic fear of water, or not letting water pass through a membrane
Hygrometer instrument that directly measures relative humidity of the atmosphere or the portion of water in a specific gas or gas mixture, without extracting moisture
Hygroscopic attracting or absorbing moisture from the air
Hypothermia abnormal endangers condition in which the temperature of the body is below 32°C, usually caused by prolonged exposure to cold
Inspissated (of a fluid) thickened or hardened through the absorption or evaporation of the liquid portion, as can occur with respiratory secretions when the upper airway is bypassed
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) nongovernment agency that sets standards for various technical equipment and procedures
Isothermic Saturation Boundary (ISB) The point in the lungs where the inspired gas achieves BTPS (body temperature pressure saturated)
Nebulizer device that produces an aerosol suspension of liquid particles in a gaseous medium using baffling to control particle size
Piezoelectric Crystal transducer capable of converting electrical energy into the physical energy of high frequency vibrations
Servo controlled heating system in a humidifier, a heating unit that monitors the temperature of gas delivered to the patient, adjusting the power to the heater on the difference between temperature setting and the temperature monitored by the thermistor probe placed downstream from th
Ultrasonic nebulizer humidifier in which an electric signal is used to produce high frequency vibrations in a container of fluid; the vibrations break up the fluid into aerosol particles