Term Definition
infarction the development and formation of a localized area of tissue necrosis
polycythemia increase in blood cells
anaphylaxis a severe reaction or hypersensitivity to a foreign substance as a result of previous exposure to the antigen(foreign substance)
ischemia deficiency of blood flow to a specific body part due to interference of circulation
prophylactic preventative and protective
flowmeter a device operated by a needle valve that controls and measure gas flow
airway resistance a measure of the impedance to ventilation cause by the movement of gas through the airways. Abbreviated as RAW
cor pulmonale right ventricle hypertrophy caused by lung disease
compliance volume change per unit pressure change
empyema an accumulation of pus in the body cavity as a result of bacterial infection
patent wide open; unobstructed (refers to the lumen of a vessel or tube
alveolar ventilation that portion of the air movement in and out of the lungs that exchanges gas molecules with pulmonary blood
alveolar capillary membrane – tissues separating alveolar gases from pulmonary blood
shock a condition in which perfusion to vital organs is inadequate to meed metabolic needs
myocardial pertaining to the myocardium or heart muscle
artery carries blood away from the heart
vein carries blood back to the heart
constriction narrowing of a vessel, including the lumen
lumen the space or channel within a blood vessel or tube
dialation enlargement of blood vessel including its lumen
vasoconstriction the narrowing of a blood vessel, a decrease in the diameter of a blood vessel
vasodialtion increase int he size and caliber of a blood vessel
spasm a sudden involuntary muscle contraction
pulse heartbeat; a wave of increased pressure that flows along the arteries with each ventricular contraction
cardiac pertaining to the heart
capillary microscopic blood vessel that connects the arterioles with the neulies
cardiomegaly enlarge heart
trachycardia rapid heart rate of more that 100 beats per minute
bradycardia abnormally slow heartbeat, usually defined as less that 50 beats per minute
fibrillation twitching, quivering or randomized contractions of the heart, results in no blood flow, life threatening
cardiac arrest a sudden cessation or stopping of the heart
defibrillator mechanical device for applying electric shock to the heart. used to stop or reverse fibrillation
angina pectoris a syndrome characterized by short attacks of chest pain due to increased blood flow to the heart muscle
arteriosclerosis thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the arterial walls
aneurysm a localized ballooning or out pouching of a vessel wall, usually an artery, due to weakening of the wall by disease, injury or birth defect
somnolence drowsiness; sleepiness
anxiety a state of apprehension or worry over a justifiable cause
lethargy a condition of sluggish indifference or stupor (displaying a lack of response)
geriatrices medical specialty that treats diseases and problems of the aged
oxygenated saturated with oxygen
unoxygenated not oxygenated
inhalation the act of breathing in
exhalation the act of breathing out
insiration the act of breathing in
expiration the act of breathing out
respiration the exchange of gas molecule across the permeable membranes
respiratory pertaining to the respiration or breathing
epiglottis a thin leaf-shaped cartilaginous structure located posterior to the roof of the tongue that closes off the entrance to the larynx during swallowing
glottis space between the vocal cords
trachea windpipe or air passage to the lungs
bronchus (bronchi) one of the two large branches or main divisions of the trachea going to each lung
alveolus (alveoli) microscopic air sac or cell of the lung. place where gas exchange occurs in the lung.
tachypnea rapid, shallow breathing
bradypnea abnormal slowness of breathing
orthopnea difficult breathing except in an upright position (sitting or standing up)
apnea cessation of breathing
hypercapnia too much CO2 in the blood usually caused by hypoventilation or lung disease
hypocapnia a low blood level of carbon dioxide often caused by hyperventalation
hypoxemia insufficient oxygenation of the blood
hypoxia a low oxygen level or lack of oxygen in the tissues
sputum spit; expectorated matter, including saliva from the respiratory tract
tenacious adhering, viscid, holding fast
mucopurulent containing mucous and pus; full of mucous and pus
copious large in quantity; abundant
bronchoscopy internal visualization or examination of the tracheobronchial tree using a bronchoscope
pneumonitis inflammation of a lung or both lungs
hemothorax blood in the pleural cavity
pneumothorax air int he pleural cavity, resulting in collapse of the lung on the affected area
atelectasis collapse or incomplete expansion of an alveoli
aspiration the act of inhaling a foreign substance into the lungs
asphyxia suffocation; apparent cessation of life due to interruption of the breathing process
tracheotomy surgical incision into the trachea
tracheostomy formation of an opening into the trachea to create an airway
gastrointestinanl pertaining to the stomach and intestines
arrhythmia any disturbance in the rhythm of the heartbeat
blood gases primarily the measurement of dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide pressures in the blood. the blood gases are reported as pH, PCO2, PO2, HCO3
bronchoconstriction narrowing of the bronchial lumen; usually refers to smooth muscle constriction; may be due to swelling of the mucosa
bronchodilation widening of the bronchial lumen; refers to relaxation of the smooth muscle
bronchospasm a continuous and severe degree of bronchoconstriction
carbon dioxide produce of normal aerobic metabolism
cardiac output volume of blood ejected by the heart in one minute
dyspnea the subjective complaint of difficult breathing
FIO2 fraction of inspired oxygen; the percentage of oxygen in inspired air
hyperkalemia above normal potassium (normal 3.5-5.0)
hypokalemia below normal potassium (normal 3.5-5.0)
hypothermia body temperature below normal
hyperthermia body temperature above normal
minute volume the air exchange in one minute (tidal volumes times respirator rate)
oxygen content total oxygen in blood
pathophysiology abnormal changes of physiology induced by disease
perfusion blood flow through the body
plasm liquid part of the blood
respiratory failure the inability of the lungs to meet the metabolic demands of the body; inadequate gas exchange
tidal volume the volume of air moved into or out of the lungs in a single breath
venous return the return of the blood to the right ventricle; affected by intrathoracic pressure
ventilation movement of the air into and out of the lungs
vital capacity a maximum expiration following a maximum inspiration
aerosol a suspension of solid or liquid particles in a gas
nosocomial pertaining to or originating in a hospital as a nosocomial infection
asystole absence of a heartbeat
cardiogenic originated in or caused by the heart
CVA abbreviation for cerebrovascular accident(stoke)
dead space inspired gas volume that does not participate in gas exchange
endotriacheal within the trachea
extuabate withdrawing a tube from the orifice or cavity of the body
hyperventialtion ventilation in excess of that necessary to meet metabolic needs
hypoventilation ventilation less than that necessary to meet metabolic needs
hypovolemia an abnormally low blood volume
I/O abbreviation for intake and output, recording a patients fluid intake and output
laryngospasm an involuntary contraction of the laryngeal muscles resulting in complete or partial closure of the glottis
subcutaneous beneath the skin
sinusitis an inflammation of one or more paranasal sinuses
side affect any effect produced by a drug other than its desired effect
rhinitis inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose
angiogram an x-ray film of a blood vessel taken after injection of a contrast medium that outlines the vessels
arteriogram an x-ray film of a an artery after it has been injected with a contrast medium
electrocardiogram a graphic record of the electrical activity of the heart (ECG or EKG)
bronchogram an x-ray film of the lungs and bronchi after introduction of radiopaque oil into the respiratory passages
capnography the process of obtaining a tracing of the proportion of carbon dioxide in expired air
pathogenic disease producing
pathogen a microorganism or agent capable of producing disease
aseptic free of pathogens
disinfectant an agent that destroys pathogens. pertaining to an agent that destroys bacteria
sterilization the complete elimination or destruction of all microbial life; barren, without life
symptom any subjective change from the normal experienced by the patient that is indicative of a disease or disorder
sign any observable evidence or manifestation of a disease or disordered function of the body
peripheral pertaining to or situated at or near the surface or the outside of the body of a stucture
periphery the outer portion or surface; the external surface
antibiotic an agent or drug produced synthetically or by an organism that destroys or inhibits the growth of certain other microorganisms
jaundice a yellowish staining of the skin due to the presence of excess bilirubin in the blood
metabolism the sum of all chemical activities occuring within a cell
metabolic pertaining to metabolism
bactericidal destructive to bacteria
hyperthrophy an enlargement of an organ or tissue resulting from an increase in size of its individual cells
phagocyte a cell having the ability to engulf and digest foreign particles or cells such as bacteria, that are harmful to the body
phagocytosis ability of the cell to engulf large particles of material including bacteria
semipermeable a semipermeable membrane allows some molecules in a solution to pass through but not others. It permits passage of molecules only up to a certain size
biopsy removal of a small piece of tissue for microscopic cellular examination
purulent consisting of pus; full of pus.
diffusion the movement of molecules of gases, solids, or liquids through a semipermablemembrane from an area of high concentration to one of lower concentration
posteranterior From back to front (abbreviated PA)
anteroposterior From front to back (abbreviated AP)
bilateral pertaining to or affecting both sides
cancer a malignant tumor or neoplasm; an abnormal cell growth that is uncontrollable and tends to spread to new sites
unilateral pertaining to or affecting one side only
external situated on the outside
lateral pertaining to or situated at the side; away from the midline
internal within the body or structure: inner interior
cavity space with the body containing various organs
mortality death rate; the frequency or the numbers of deaths in proportion to a population
medial pertaining to or situated toward the midline
inferior situated below or lower down
system a group of organs working together to perform complex body functions
lipid any fat or fat-like substance that is insoluble in water
sepsis infection; the presence of invading pathogenic microorganisms in the blood or tissues
organ a structure made up of several groups of tissues and performing a specific function
anaerobic having the ability to live without air or oxygen
aerobic living only in the presence of air or oxygen
embolus a blood clot or air bubble that is circulating through the blood stream
hemoglobin protein found in red blood cells. Its function is the transport oxygen from the lungs to the tissue
thrombus a fixed or stationary blood clot in a vessel that is attached to the vessel wall
cyanosis an abnormal bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes, noted in the lips and nail beds due to oxygen deficiency
erythocyte red blood cell (RBC)
prognosis prediction of the course and probable outcome of disease
anesthesia the total or partial loss of sensation which can be due to drugs (anastectics) or to a nerve dysfunction
diagnosis the process of identifying the nature or presence of a disease through knowledge and examination
extracellular outside a cell or cells
thorax the chest
hypotension low blood pressure
hematocrit cellular part of the blood
mucous a sticky fluid secreted by glands of the mucous membrane. It is a protective lubricant coating.
postoperative after surgery
benign mild, harmless; not malignant
hemorrhage profuse internal or external bleeding from blood vessels
hypertension high blood pressure
preoperative before surgery
maglignant tending to become progressively worse; to spread
inoperable unsuitable for surgery for one or more medical reasons
superior situated above
tumor a neoplasm; a new abnormal growth of tissue in which cell multiplication is progressive and uncontrolled
chronic long and drawn out; a long duration
necrosis the pathological death of cells or tissues
diaphragm muscle separating the abdomen from the thoracic cavity; the chief muscle of respiration
tonsillectomy excision (removal of) of the tonsils in the throat
intracellular within a cell or cells
cervical pertaining to the neck
acute sharp and severe; having a rapid onset and a short course
distal farthest from the point of attachment
proximal nearest or closest the point of attachment
infection a state in which the body or some part of it is invaded by pathogenic microorganisms
leukocyte white blood cell
inflammation a localized tissue or cellular reaction resulting from injury, irritation or infection
posterior situated behind or toward the back
pulmonary pertaining to the lungs
cell smallest structure unit of life
anterior before or in front of
abdomen the belly or front portion of the torso between the chest and the hips
anemia deficiency of red blood cells
edema a swelling of tissue due to an abnormal accumulation of tissue fluid
febrile pertaining to or characterized by fever
epigastric pertaining to the epigastrium or the area overlying the pit of the stomach
etiology the study of the cause of disease; the cause of disease
vertebra any one of the bones of the spinal column
operable suitable for being operating upon or treated surgically
membrane a thin, soft, pliable layer of tissue that lines cavities and envelops and seperates organs
vital signs signs of life – respiration, pulse, temperature, and blood pressure
tissue a mass of like cells having a similar combined function
laparotomy surgical opening of the abdomen
excision surgical removal of, the act of cutting out
sensitivity test a laboratory method of determining the sensitivity or resistance of the culture organisms to drugs
autopsy examination of a dead body to determine the cause of death
afebrile without fever; free from fever
thoracocethesis surgical puncture of the chest wall to remove fluids and air from the pleural cavity
abdominal cavity the space inferior to the diaphragm; houses the stomach, small intestine, most of the large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters
thoracic cavity the internal space above the diaphragm within the walls of the thorax; houses the lungs, heart and large blood vessels
epistaxis nosebleed

Question Answer
Accessory muscles of breathing Assist the diaphragm and intercostals when ventilation demand increases, more active during forceful breathing
Acinus Functional structure which is basic gas exchanging unit of lung, formed in last weeks of fetal development
Alae Teo external flared openings
Alveolar-capillary membrane Tissue that separates from blood in the lung, consists of alveolar epithelium and capillary endothelium
Alveoli Ducts that end in the lungs in clusters of these
Angle of Louis Slight oblique angle where manubrium articulates with body of sternum
Anterior nares Opening to the nose
Apices Uppermost portions of the lungs
Carina Bifurcation of trachea into right and left mainstream bronchi
Cilia Extenstion of mucosal lining of respiratory tract
Costal cartilage Fibrous tissues that connect ribs to the sternum and to each other anteriorly
Costophrenic angle Acute angle where costal pleura meets the diaphragm
Cricoid cartilage Ring of cartilage that forms the lower border of the larynx
Diaphragm Large dome shaped muscle that separates the thorax from the abdomen, primary muscle of ventilation
Ductus arteriosus Vascular channel in the fetus that joint the pulmonary artery directly to the descending aorta, normally closes at birth
Ductus venosus 2/3 of fetus blood flows through this to bypass the liver’s circulation and flows into the inferior vena cava
Epiglottis Flat cartilage that extends from the base of tongue backward and upward
Eusiachian tubes Bilateral tubes that connect the nasopharynx to the middle ear and mastoid sinus
External nares The two flared openings of the nose
External oblique Abdominal muscle group that functions as an accessory muscle of ventilation
External respiration Exchange between gas of the atmosphere and blood
Fissures Narrow clefts or slits, the lines that divide or separate the lobes of the lung glottis
Foramen ovale Openong in the septum between the right and the left atria in the frtal heart, provides a bypass for blood that would otherwise flow to the fetal lungs
Gladiolus Body of sternum
Glottis Variable opening between the vocal cords
Hilum Vertical opening on either wide of the mediastinum through which all the airways and pulmonary vessels pass
Hypopharynx Lower portion of the upper airway between the oropharynx and larynx
Intercostal nerves Formed before birth and are the primary components of the somatic nervous system that carry nervous signals from the brain stem to the respiratory muscles
Internal oblique Abdominal muscle group that functions as an accessory muscle of ventilation
Internal respiration Exchange of gases between blood and tissues
Laryngopharynx 3 parts of the pharynx
Larynx Lies below the hypopharynx and is forme by a complex arrangement of nine cartilages and numerous muscles
Lobes Major divisions of the lungs, right lung has three and left has two
Manubrium Upper triangular portion of sternum
Mediastinum Portion if thoracic cavity lying in the middle of the thorax, extends from vertebral column to sternum
Mucocilliary escalator Stroking action of millions of cilia propels the surround mucus at a speed of about 2 cm per minute
Nasopharynx Upper portion of airway behind nasal and oral cavities
Palate Boney plate that separate the nasal cavity from the oral cavities
Parietal pleura Thin membrane covering surface of the chest wall, mediastinum, and diaphragm
Pharynx Region where the nasal and oral cavities open into
Phrenic nerves Paired nerves that originate as branches of spinal nerves C3-5, lass down along th mediastinum
Pores of Kohn Openings between th adjacent alveoli
Primary lobule Single terminal bronchioles that supplies a cluster of respiratory bronchioles, also referred to as the acinus
Psuedostratified epithelia Pertwining to epithelial cell type that appears to be organized in layers, cell actually contacts basement membrane
Pulmonary surfactant Detergent like substance secreted into alveoli that reduces surface tension and stabilizes alveoli
Rectus abdominis muscles A group of abdominal muscles that contributing to inspiration by contracting at end exhalation
Scalene muscles Three muscles arising from the cervical vertebrae, inserting into first and second ribs, accessory muscles of ventilation
Segments Minor divisions of lung, segment is associated with major branch of airway
Soft palate Posterior portion of anterior roof of oral cavity
Sternal angle Fused connection between manubrium and body
Sternocleidomastoid muscles Originate from manubrium and clavicle and insert on mastoid process of temporal bone
Sternum Elongated flattened bone forming the middle portion of the anterior thorax
Suprasternal notch Located above the sternum, superior due of the manubrium which forms a shallow depression called a notch
Trachea Large main intrathorqcic airway
True ribs Pairs that are 1-7 and are attached directly to the sternum
False ribs Pairs that are 8-12 and are either indirectly attached to the sternum or not attached to the sternum
Floating ribs Pairs that are 11 and 12 and are not attached to the sternum
Turbinates Boney structures that extend from the lateral walls of the interior nasal passages
Type 1 pneumocyte Cuboidal epithelia that line the blind tubules of acinum continue to differentiate into flatter squamous epithelial cells
Type 2 pneumocyte Cuboidal epithelia that line the blind tubules of acinum continue to differentiate into rounded secretory cells
Uvula portion of soft palate that hangs down into the posterior portion of the oral cavity
Vallecula folds that from a space between the tongue and the epiglottis which is a key landmark in intubation
Visceral pleura thin membrane covered by mesothelial cells that cover entire surface of lung
Xiphoid Process lower part of sternum
Question Answer
Signs & Examples Subjective. Patient description. Measured by patient perception. Examples: pain, cough, SOB
Symptoms & Examples Objective. Measurable. Assessed values. Examples: heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate.
What are the primary symptoms of cardiopulmonary disorders? 1. Cough 2. Sputum Production 3. Hemoptysis 4. Shortness of breath (dyspnea) 5. Chest pain
Cough Is a protective reflex. You have a stimulation of receptors: pharynx, larynx, large bronchi, lung and visceral pleura
Cough is caused by: inflammatory, mechanical, chemical, or thermal stimulation of cough receptors
Possible causes of inflammatory stimulation: Infection, lung abscess, drug reaction, allergy.
Possible causes of mechanical stimulation: Inhaled dust, suction catheter, food
Possible causes of obstructive stimulation: Foreign bodies, aspirations of nasal secretions, tumor
Possible causes of chemical stimulation: Inhaled irritant gases, fumes, smoke
Possible causes of temperature stimulation: Inhaled hot or cold air
Two pathways of cough: 1. Afferent Pathway – vagus, phrenic, glossopharyngeal, trigeminal nerves. 2. Efferent Pathway – smooth muscles of larynx and tracheobronchial tree via phrenic, spinal nerves
Phases of Cough: 1. Inspiratory 2. Compression 3. Expiratory
Reduced effectiveness of cough: Weakness of inspiratory/expiratory muscles. Inability of glottis to open/close correctly. Obstruction/alteration of shape of the airways. Decrease in lung recoil (emphysema). Abnormal quality of mucus.
Acute Clinical Presentation: Sudden onset. Severe. Self-limiting (viral infection)
Chronic Clinical Presentation and Causes: Persistent. Lasts > 3 weeks. Causes = asthma, COPD, GERD, chronic bronchitis, allergic rhinitis
Paroxysmal Clinical Presentation: Periodic. Prolonged, forceful episodes.
Associated Symptoms of Cough 1. Wheezing 2. Stridor 3. Chest Pain 4. Dyspnea
Complications of Cough: 1. Torn Chest Muscle 2. Rib Fracture 3. Disruption of Surgical Wounds 4. Syncope 5. Arrhythmia 6. Esophageal Rupture 7. Incontinence (Urinary) 8. Pneumothorax
Sputum Production: 1. Sputum: secretions from tracheobronchial tree, pharynx, mouth, sinuses, nose 2. Phlegm: secretions from lungs and tracheobronchial tree
Components of Sputum Mucus, cell debris, microorganisms, blood, pus, foreign particles
Normal Sputum Production: 100 mL/day
Abnormal Sputum Production excessive production by inflamed glands. Caused by: infection, smoking, allergies
Hemoptysis Sputum containing blood. (streaking to frank bleeding)
What causes hemoptysis? (5) 1. Bronchopulmonary 2. Cardiovascular 3. Hematologic 4. Systemic disorders 5. Tuberculosis/fungal infection
Description of Hemoptysis 1. Amount: MASSIVE – 400 ml/3h or 600 ml/24h (emergency condition – cancer, TB, trauma). STREAKY – pulmonary infection, lung cancer, thromboemboli. 2. Odor 3. Color 4. Acuteness
Hematemesis Vomited blood. 1. Oropharynx – swallowed from respiratory tract 2. Esophagus/Stomach – alcoholism or cirrhosis of liver
Shortness of Breath Cardinal symptom of cardiac distress, most distressing symptom
Dyspnea Subjective breathing discomfort. Sensory input to cerebral cortex.
Dyspnea Scoring Systems Scale of 0 (no SOB) to 10 (max SOB). Visual Analog Scale. Modified Borg Scale. ATS SOB Scale. UCSD SOB Questionnaire.
Clinical Presentations of Dyspnea 1. WOB abnormally high. 2. Ventilatory capacity reduced 3.Drive to breathe is elevated
Clinical Types of Dyspnea (1) 1. Cardiac/Circulatory – inadequate supply of O2 to tissues (during exercise)
Clinical Types of Dyspnea (2) 2. Psychogenic – panic disorder, not related to exertion.
Clinical Types of Dyspnea (3) 3. Hyperventilation – rate/depth exceeds body’s metabolic need (results in hypocapnia/decreased cerebral blood flow)
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Dyspnea (PND) Sudden dyspnea when sleeping (recumbent position), associated with coughing, sign of left heart failure
Orthopnea Dyspnea when lying down, associated with left heart failure
Trepopnea Dyspnea when lying on ONE side, unilateral lung disease/pleural effusion
Platypnea Dyspnea when in upright position – seen in patients with right-to-left intracardiac shunts or venoarterial shunts.
Orthodeoxia Hypoxemia in upright position, relieved in recumbent position – seen in patients with right-to-left intracardiac shunts or venoarterial shunts.
Causes of Chest Pain Cardiac ischemia, inflammation of thorax/abdomen, musculoskeletal disorders/trauma/anxiety, referred pain from indigestion
Cardinal Symptom of Heart Disease Angina
Pleuritic Pain Inspiratory, sharp, and abrupt onset. Worsens with cough, sneeze, hiccup, laughter. Increases with pressure/movement.
Chest Wall Pain Intercostal/pectoral muscles, well localized.
Dizziness/Fainting (Syncope) Temporary loss of consciousness because of reduced cerebral blood flow and O2.
Causes of Dizziness/Fainting Thrombosis, embolism, atherosclerotic obstruction. Pulmonary embolism, coughing, hypoxia, hypocapnia.
Most common type of Syncope Vasovagal – loss of peripheral venous tone
Orthostatic Hypotension (Dizziness/Fainting) Sudden drop in BP when standing, dizziness, blurred vision, weakness, dehydration.
Carotid Sinus Syncope Hypersensitive carotid sinus – slows pulse rate, decreases BP
Tussive Syncope Caused by strong coughing – seen mostly in men with COPD, obesity, smoking history, frequent use of alcohol
Edema Soft tissue swelling from fluid accumulation.
Bilaterial Peripheral Edema Ankles/lower legs, caused by right/left heart failure – right heart failure often caused by cor pulmonale
Euthermia 97F to 99.5F; 36C to 37.5C
Causes for Fever Hot environment, dehydration, drugs, rxn to chemicals, infection, malignancy, etc
Intermittent Fever Daily elevation with a return to normal or subnormal between spikes
Remittent Fever Continuously elevated with wide, usually diurnal variations – In patients with Legionnaire’s Disease, Acute viral Infections, and Mycoplasma Pneumonia.
Relapsing Fever Reoccurring in bouts of several days with periods of normal temps.
Fever and Pulmonary Infections Lung abscesses, empyema, TB, pneumonia.
Infections with NO Fever High-dose corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, Immunocompromised.
Headache as a manifestation of? Cerebral hypoxia and hypercapnia – lung disease, high altitude
Altered Mental State in? Hypercapnia – from affected alertness to coma.
Personality Changes in? Pulmonary Disorders – forgetfulness, inability to concentrate, anxiety, irritability
Snoring Serious concern with apnea. Children – 10% to 12%; Adults – 10% to 30%.
Excessive Daytime Sleepiness Occupational Accidents, Motor Vehicle Accidents, Loss of employment, Social dysfunction.
GERD Heartburn/regurgitation. Gastroesophageal Reflux more then TWO times per week = GERD.
Assess symptoms to determine: Seriousness of problem, potential underlying cause, effectiveness of treatment
Key to determine etiology: careful history, CXR, physical exam
Sputum, describe? color, odor, quantity, quality, time of day, blood, consistency
Frequent causes of hemoptysis: TB, acute/chronic bronchitis, bronchogenic carcinoma, bronchiectasis
Hemoptysis from? cardiopulmonary, coughed up from lungs/chest
Hematemesis from? gastrointestinal, vomited from stomach
Apnea not breathing for more than 20 sec
Eupnea Normal rate of breathing
+1 edema rapid
+2 edema 10-15 sec
+3 edema 1-2 min
+4 edema >2 min
High grade fever > 101 (38.2C)
Low grade fever 99.5-101 (37.5-38.2C)


  1. What are the 4 functions of the respiratory system?
    • 1. gas exchange
    • 2. Helps drive venous return
    • 3. Vocalizationi
    • 4. Regulates pH
  2. What is the pressure formula?
    Pressure = Flow x Resistance
  3. What is the function of the uvula?
    Helps revents liquids going up the nasal cavity
  4. What cells cover most of the respiratory passages? Their functions?
    • Ciliated Pseudostratified Epithelium with goblet cells
    •  – Cilia are constantly sweeping mucus
    •  – Goblet cells make mucus
  5. What is another term for nose hair?
  6. What do the lysozomes do in the secretion of the respiratory lining?
    breaks down cell walls and bacteria
  7. What is the name of an open airway?
    Patent airway
  8. Which part of the throat does food go down?
  9. Which part of the lungs are the respiratory zone?
  10. What cells make the walls of the alveoli?
    simple squam epith
  11. What is the function of surfactant cells?
    pBreaks surface tension of the water molecules on the alveoli, preventing them from collapsing so they can expand.
  12. T or F: Alveoli and endothelium in blood vessels share the same basement membrane
  13. What seperates the thoacic and abdominal cavity?
  14. What are the 2 layers of pleura that surround the lungs and what is between the 2 layers?
    • – Visceral pleura surround the lungs
    •  – Parietal Pleura along the body wall
    •  – In between is the serous fluid
  15. What is the main function of the visceral and parietal pleura on the lungs?
    • Have an intense sunction between them.
    • By expanding the thoracic cavity, this sunction will expand the lungs
  16. This law states that at constant temperature for a fixed mass, the absolute pressure and the volume of a gas are inversely proportionial. What is the law and what does it mean?
    • Boyle’s Law: If voluume changes, the pressure changes.
    •  – Increased volume = Decreased pressure
  17. What is quiet breathing?
    Tidal breathing: when the diaphragm moves only a few cms.
  18. How does the body exhale?
    • When the diaphragm relaxes, the thoracic volume goes down, which means the lung volume goes down and pressure increases
    • This increased pressure makes the air flow out
  19. What is a Pneumothorax? What is an Atelectasis?


    • When there is air between the pleura, from a hole in the thoracic cavity (from a stab wound for example)
    • Atelectasis is the term for a collapsed lung from a pneumothorax.
  20. What major components make up the air?
    • 79% Nitrogen
    • 21% Oxygen
  21. What is Dalton’s Law of partial pressure? What is the partial pressure inside the alveolus? In the capillary?
    • At sea level, partial pressure in the room is 15mmHg
    • Alveolus: is 104mmHg of pressure
    • Capillariess: 40mmHg
  22. What does having a higher partial pressure in the alveoli compared to the capillaries mean?
    A higher pressure in the alveoli will cause the O2 to go into the capillary
  23. What are the partial pressure of CO2 in the alveoli and capillary? What does this mean?
    • Alveoli: 40mmHg
    • Capillary: 45mmHg
    • This will cause the CO2 to go into the alveoli
  24. What happens to oxygen exchange at higher elevation?
    • Higher elevation has less partial pressure which means there is less pressure in the alveoli
    • This causes less O2 to go into the blood
  25. What will be saturation if there is no oxygen in the tissues?
    0% saturation in the blood
  26. What is saturation if there is 40mmHg of PO2?
    • 75%
  27. What metabolic activities will cause hemoglobin affinity for O2 to go down? Which direction does oxygen go in this case?
    • Metabolic Activities:
    •  – Temp. Increase
    •  – Increased CO2 production
    • This lets more oxygen into tissues
  28. What is BPG? How does it effect O2 affinity?
    • BPG is when there is a presence of increased glycolysis.
    • This causes hemoglobin to have a lower affinity with O2
  29. How is CO2 moved around in the blood? (3 parts)
    • 1. 20-30% of CO2 are bound to hemoglobin
    • 2. 7-10% are dissolved in plasma/water
    • 3. Around 60% are transported as HCO3-
  30. Why is carbon monoxide deadly?
    It will bind to hemoglobin faster than oxygen by 200x. Causing you to suffocate
  31. Which parts of the brain are the control centers of respiration? How?
    Pons and Medulla: Monitors CO2
  32. T or F: When scuba diving, swimming 30ft below has twice the partial pressure than normal air
  33. Why do we need O2? Where does CO2 come from?
    • – O2 is required by cellular respiration
    •  – CO2 is a product of it: Glucose -> 6CO2 + 6H2O
  34. What are the 4 processes of respiration?
    • 1. Pulmonary ventilation: movement of air into and out of lungs
    • 2. External respiration: exchange of O2 and CO2 between blood and alveolar sacs
    • 3. Transport of respiratory gases between lungs and tissues
    • 4. Internal respiration: Gas exchange between blood and tissue cells
  35. What are the differences between respiratory and conducting zones?
    • Conducting zone: transports the air into and out of the lungs
    • Respiratory zone: allows gas exchange between the lungs and the blood
    •  – Alveoli are the respiratory zone
  36. What are the functions of the nose?
    • 1. airway for respiration
    • 2. moistens and warms the air
    • 3. filters and cleans inspired air
    • 4. resonating chamber for speech
    • 5. resonating chamber for speech
    • 6. houses olfactory receptors
  37. What is the major function of the pharynx
    Act as a common passage for both food and air
  38. Major function of the larynx
    • – Prevent choking
    •  – Voice production, contains voice box
  39. What are the properties of the trachea?
    • 1. Maintain and protect the airway
    • 2. Lines with mucus glands to humidify air and catches small particles
    • 3. Has nerves for cough reflex
    • 4. has hyaline cartilage to form the larynx
  40. What is the function of the surfacant?
    Reduces surface tension, so lungs would not stick together and can expand
  41. Where are the visceral and parietal pleura?
    • Parietal: on the thoracic wall and superior side of the diaphragm
    • Visceral: on the external lung surface