1. In inspecting an elderly female patient, you note that her spine has an abnormal anterposterior (AP) curvature. Which of the following terms would you use in charting this observation?

A. kyphosis
B. scoliosis
C. kyphoscoliosis
D. pectus excavatum

An abnormal AP curvature of the spine is called kyphosis. Other common deformities are 1) pectus carinatum (abnormal anterior protrusion of the sternum); 2) pectus excavatum (depression of part or all of the sternum); 3) scoliosis (abnormal lateral curvature of the spinal); and 4) kyphoscoliosis (a combination of kyphosis and scoliosis which may produce a severe restrictive lung defect).
The correct answer is: kyphosis


2. During auscultation of a patient’s chest, you hear intermittent “bubbling” sounds at the lung bases. Which of the following chart entries best describe this finding?

A. “bronchial sounds heard at lung bases”
B. “wheezes heard at lung bases”
C. “rhonchi heard at lung bases”
D. “crackles (rales) heard at lung bases”

The preferred term for short, discontinuous adventitious lung sounds that are crackling or bubbling in nature is crackles. Many clinicians still use the term rales for these sounds. Crackles are caused either by movement of excessive secretions in the airways (course crackles), or by collapsed airways opening during inspiration ( fine crackles).
The correct answer is: “crackles (rales) heard at lung bases”

3. While assessing a patient’s radial pulse, you note that the pulse feels full and bounding. Which of the following conditions would be the most probable cause of this finding?

A. hypovolemia
B. hypertension
C. cardiovascular shock
D. low cardiac output

A ‘bounding’ pulse is characterized by forceful pulsations that quickly disappear, indicating a high systolic pressure without a rise in diastolic pressure (increased pulse pressure). A bounding pulse is normal during exercise or as a result of a ‘fight or flight’ release of epinephrine. A bounding pulse also can signal an abnormal condition, most commonly hypertension due to atherosclerosis or disorders causing increased stroke volume. Hypovolemia, shock, and low cardiac output usually result in decreased systolic and pulse pressures.
The correct answer is: hypertension


4. A patient is cachexic, exhibits generalized edema and dry skin, and appears listless. The most likely problem is:

A. heart failure
B. Addison’s disease
C. renal failure
D. malnutrition

A weak or emaciated appearance (cachexia); generalized edema (anasarca); cracked lips (cheilosis); dry, scaly skin; and listlessness are all physical signs associated with severe malnutrition
The correct answer is: malnutrition

5. Prior to giving an aerosol treatment, you find a note in the chart that states your patient had pink frothy secretions on admission to the ED. This is most indicative of:

A. cor pulmonale
B. left ventricular failure
C. an electrolyte imbalance
D. ARDS Incorrect

Frothy pink-tinged secretions are a hallmark sign of cardiogenic pulmonary edema, which is the result of left ventricular failure or CHF.
The correct answer is: le ventricular failure

6. During auscultation of a patient’s chest, you hear intermittent “bubbling” sounds at the lung bases. Which of the following chart entries best describe this finding?

A. “bronchial sounds heard at lung bases”
B. “wheezes heard at lung bases”
C. “rhonchi heard at lung bases”
D. “crackles (rales) heard at lung bases”

The preferred term for short, discontinuous adventitious lung sounds that are crackling or bubbling in nature is crackles. Many clinicians still use the term rales for these sounds. Crackles are caused either by movement of excessive secretions in the airways, or by collapsed airways opening during inspiration.
The correct answer is: “crackles (rales) heard at lung bases”


7. How would you characterize the degree of dyspnea of a patient who walks slower than people of the same age because of breathlessness?

A. slight
B. moderate
C. severe
D. very severe

You can assess a patient’s exercise tolerance via interview using the American Thoracic Society Breathlessness Scale. By inquiring as to when breathlessness is first noticed by the patient, you can assign a rating to the symptom, with a descriptive term for each level. In this case, a patient who walks slower than people of the same age on level ground because of breathlessness or has to stop for breath when walking at own pace on level ground would be characterized as having moderate dyspnea.
The correct answer is: moderate

8. Upon exam of an acutely dyspneic and hypotensive patient, you note the following – all on the left side of the chest: reduced chest expansion, hyperresonance to percussion, absent of breath sounds and tactile fremitus, and a tracheal shift to the right. These findings suggest:

A. left-sided pneumothorax
B. left-sided consolidation
C. left lobar obstruction/atelectasis
D. left-sided pleural effusion

An acutely ill patient with dyspnea, hypotension, unilateral findings of reduced chest expansion, a hyperresonant percussion note, absent of breath sounds and tactile fremitus, and a tracheal shift to the right has most likely suffered a large pneumothorax on the affected side. If the pneumothorax is severe enough to disrupt cardiac function, blood pressure will also fall.
The correct answer is: le -sided pneumothorax


9. A patient’s response to an interview question is initially vague or unclear. Which of the following responses on your part would be most appropriate?

A. “Please go on”
B. “You seem to be anxious”
C. “I see why you are so upset”
D. “Please explain that to me again”

When a patient’s response to a question is initially vague, one should seek clarification from the patient. Examples of clarification methods include questions such as “I don’t understand what you have just said – please explain that to me again”.
The correct answer is: “Please explain that to me again”

10. A patient is asked to inhale as deeply as possible and blow out all his air as hard as they can until empty. What test is being performed?

A. FVC
B. IC
C. TLC
D. MVV

When a patient performs a maximal exhalation after a maximal inhalation, he is performing the forced vital capacity (FVC) maneuver.
The correct answer is: FVC

This is only a sample from Module 2. To see the remainder of Questions and Answers, check out the TMC Test Bank.

TMC Test Bank

1001 Questions and Answers You Might See on the Board Exam