Egan’s Chapter 25 Practice Questions:

 

1. Bronchopleural Fistula: Any air communication from the lungs to pleural space

2. Empyema: Pus within the pleural space. A pleural fluid Gram stain that shows bacteria

3. Exudative Pleural Effusion: Any pleural effusion high in protein or lactate dehydrogenase, which implies inflammation or vascular injury on the pleural surface

4. Hemothorax: Presence of blood within the pleural space

5. Parietal Pleura: Membrane covering the surface of the chest wall, mediastinum, and diaphragm that is continuous with the visceral pleura around the lung hilum

6. Pleural Effusion: Abnormal collection of fluid within the pleural space

7. Pleurodesis: Procedure of fusing the parietal pleura and visceral pleura to prevent formation of pleural fluid or reoccurrence of pneumothorax

8. Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax: A pneumothorax that occurs without underlying lung disease

9. Re-expansion Pulmonary Edema: Pulmonary edema that forms after rapid re-expansion of a lung that has been compressed with pleural fluid or pneumothorax

10. Secondary Spontaneous Pneumothorax: A pneumothorax that occurs because of underlying lung disease

11. Stomata: Small holes within the parietal pleura that are the main route for pleural fluid to exit.

12. Thoracentesis: Surgical perforation of the chest wall and pleural space with a needle for diagnostic oh therapeutic purposes or for removal of a specimen for biopsy

13. Transudative Pleural Effusion: Pleural effusion low in protein or lactate dehydrogenase, usually caused by congestive heart failure (C.H.F.), nephrosis, or cirrhosis

14. Ascites: accumulation of fluid in the abdomen

15. Atelectasis: When segments of the lung collapse, intrapleural pressure becomes more negative and can produce small effusions

16. Bronchopleural Fistula: Any air communication from the lungs to pleural space

17. Chest Radiography: most common in detecting a pleural effusion obtained best in the upright position to show a pleural fluid meniscus at the costophrenic angles.

18. Chest Thorectomy Tubes: Various shapes and sizes, ranging from 7 French (F) to 40F catheters. Catheter – a physician choice preference. Large tubes are less likely to become obstructed and are capable of high airflow rates.

19. CHF: is the most common cause of clinical pleural effusion

20. CHF: Elevation of pressure in the left atrium and pulmonary veins

21. Computed Tomography: Ct scanning of the chest is the most sensitive study for identification of pleural effusion

22. Empyema: Pus or bacteria within the pleural space. Also seen on Gram stain as pus or bacteria. Necessitates drainage.

23. Exudative Pleural Effusion: Any pleural effusion high in protein or lactate dehydrogenase, which implies inflammation or vascular injury on the pleural surface

24. Hemothorax: Presence of blood within the pleural space

25. Hypoalbuminemia: caused by debilitating diseases (AIDS, Chronic Liver Disease) but rarely forms until ALBUMIN level is <1.8g/dl

26. Hypoxemia: due to alveolar-arterial gradient increase, oxygenation can worsen after a thoracentesis, V/Q matching is not instantaneous. usually, 90 min to recover to baseline PO2.

27. Lateral decubitus chest radiography: can also help define the presence or absence of pleural effusion

28. Lymphatic Obstruction: an obstruction that causes pleural fluid from the pleural space. The most common condition causing this abnormality is cancer that metastasizes to the mediastinum

29. Nephrotic Syndrome: when >3g/24 hr of protein S leaks from the kidney into urine, causing a depletion of protein, the patient can become edematous. The patients are at risk for DVT Deep Vein Thrombosis & Pulmonary Emboli.

30.Parietal Pleura: Membrane covering the surface of the chest wall, mediastinum, and diaphragm that is continuous with the visceral pleura around the lung hilum

31. Pleural Effusion: Abnormal collection of fluid within the pleural space

32. Pleurisy: small pleural effusions, and pain. this can come from a viral lung infection which can cause pleural inflammation

33. Pleurodesis: Procedure of fusing the parietal pleura and visceral pleura to prevent formation of pleural fluid or reoccurrence of pneumothorax

34. Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax: A pneumothorax that occurs without underlying lung disease

35. Re-expansion Pulmonary Edema: Pulmonary edema that forms after rapid re-expansion of a lung that has been compressed with pleural fluid or pneumothorax

36. Secondary Spontaneous Pneumothorax: A pneumothorax that occurs because of underlying lung disease

37. Stomata: Small holes within the parietal pleura that are the main route for pleural fluid to exit.

38. Thoracentesis: perforation of the chest wall superior to the rib and pleural space with a needle for diagnostic of therapeutic purposes or for removal of a specimen for biopsy. These account for about 70% of all pleural effusion.

39. Thoracentesis: Risk Factors: (1) Intercostal artery laceration, (2) Infection, (3) Pneumothorax (needle puncture is one of the most common causes)

40. Transudative Pleural Effusion: Pleural effusion low in protein or lactate dehydrogenase, usually caused by congestive heart failure (C.H.F.), nephrosis, or cirrhosis