How to Perform a Patient Assessment Illustration

How to Perform a Patient Assessment: An Overview (2024)

by | Updated: May 23, 2024

Respiratory therapists play an indispensable role in ensuring that patients with cardiopulmonary issues receive optimal care.

One of the foundational skills for these professionals is the ability to perform a comprehensive patient assessment.

This assessment not only determines the state of the patient’s respiratory system but also aids in tailoring treatment plans, monitoring progress, and identifying potential complications.

This article will outline the key steps and considerations for respiratory therapists when performing a patient assessment.

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What is a Patient Assessment?

A patient assessment is a systematic process by which healthcare professionals gather information to evaluate a patient’s health status. It involves collecting both subjective and objective data, including medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests, to diagnose, plan treatment, and monitor progress. Proper assessment is foundational for effective care.

Doctor performing patient assessment vector

Goals of Performing a Patient Assessment

Performing a patient assessment is a foundational skill for healthcare professionals, including respiratory therapists.

The goals of conducting such an assessment include:

  • Establishing a Baseline: To understand the patient’s initial respiratory status and overall health, enabling the comparison of future assessments and tracking of progress or deterioration.
  • Identifying Abnormalities: To detect any discrepancies in the respiratory system that may indicate underlying diseases or conditions.
  • Determining the Cause: To help pinpoint the root cause or etiology of respiratory symptoms or problems.
  • Guiding Treatment Decisions: To develop an evidence-based and individualized care plan, optimizing the interventions and treatments needed.
  • Monitoring Progress: To evaluate the effectiveness of implemented treatments and interventions, and adjust the care plan if necessary.
  • Ensuring Patient Safety: To identify and prevent potential complications, ensuring that the patient is safe during therapeutic procedures.
  • Establishing Rapport and Trust: Engaging in effective communication during the assessment helps foster a trusting relationship between the therapist and the patient, which can enhance the overall quality of care.
  • Facilitating Interdisciplinary Communication: To provide clear and concise information about the patient’s respiratory status to other healthcare professionals, ensuring cohesive and comprehensive care.
  • Educating the Patient: To provide patients (and, when appropriate, their families) with information about their respiratory condition, its implications, the importance of compliance, and self-management strategies.
  • Prioritizing Care: By assessing the severity and urgency of respiratory issues, respiratory therapists can triage and prioritize interventions, ensuring that the most critical needs are addressed promptly.

Note: Performing a patient assessment is a multifaceted process that not only seeks to understand the current state of a patient’s respiratory health but also aims to guide future care, ensuring optimal outcomes.

How to Perform a Patient Assessment

Performing a patient assessment, especially for respiratory therapists, involves a systematic approach.

The general steps for performing a patient assessment include:

  1. Check the doctor’s order
  2. Enter the patient’s room
  3. Gather subjective patient information
  4. Gather objective patient information
  5. Develop an analysis of the obtained information
  6. Develop a care plan for the patient

Each step is designed to gather comprehensive information to determine the patient’s respiratory status and overall health.

1. Check the Doctor’s Order

Before beginning any patient assessment, it’s imperative to review the doctor’s orders.

This provides clarity on any specific examinations, tests, or queries that the doctor wants to be addressed.

It ensures that the assessment is aligned with the patient’s current medical needs and that any interventions or examinations are performed with proper authorization.

By adhering to this step, healthcare professionals maintain the integrity of the care process and ensure they are working within their scope of practice.

2. Enter the Patient’s Room

This step is more than just a physical action; it sets the tone for the entire assessment process.

Upon entering, the healthcare professional should ensure the room is conducive to a thorough assessment—well-lit and free from unnecessary disturbances.

It’s also essential to approach the patient with respect and courtesy, acknowledging their autonomy and comfort.

Starting with a greeting, introducing oneself, and explaining the purpose of the visit can help in building rapport and trust, facilitating a more effective assessment.

3. Gather Subjective Patient Information

This is the phase where the healthcare professional obtains information directly from the patient about how they feel and perceive their health status.

It typically includes the patient’s chief complaints, symptoms, pain levels, and any changes they have noticed in their health.

Moreover, a detailed history, including past illnesses, surgeries, medications, and lifestyle habits, is taken.

This information is invaluable as it provides context and aids in understanding the patient’s perspective, which is crucial for accurate diagnosis and treatment planning.

4. Gather Objective Patient Information

This phase involves collecting measurable and observable data about the patient’s health status. Objective information is gathered through clinical examinations and diagnostic tests.

Vital signs like temperature, pulse, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation are measured.

A physical examination may include inspecting the patient’s overall appearance, palpation of specific areas for tenderness or abnormalities, listening to heart and lung sounds (i.e., auscultation), and assessing neurological responses.

Additional tests, such as blood work or imaging studies, might also be considered based on the patient’s presenting symptoms.

Note: Objective data offers a tangible insight into the patient’s current health and provides a baseline for monitoring and treatment.

5. Develop an Analysis of the Obtained Information

Once both subjective and objective data are gathered, it’s time to analyze the information to get a clear picture of the patient’s health status.

This involves comparing the patient’s information with standard health benchmarks, identifying any discrepancies, and considering potential causes.

Patterns and relationships between different pieces of information are observed to discern potential health issues.

This step is crucial because it directly impacts the accuracy of diagnosis and subsequent care decisions.

6. Develop a Care Plan for the Patient

Based on the analyzed data, a comprehensive care plan is formulated tailored to the patient’s unique needs.

This plan outlines the recommended interventions, treatments, and strategies to address the identified health issues. It also sets clear goals for the patient’s care, expected outcomes, and any potential risks or complications.

Regularly revisiting and updating this plan ensures that the patient receives dynamic care that adapts to their changing health status and needs.

Communication with the patient and their family about this plan is essential to ensure understanding and collaboration in the care process.

Respiratory therapist performing patient assessment vector

How to Prepare for a Patient Encounter

Preparing for a patient encounter involves multiple steps. Before entering the patient’s room, review their medical records for background information.

Ensure you have the necessary equipment, such as a stethoscope, pulse oximeter, or blood pressure cuff, on hand.

It’s also crucial to practice proper hand hygiene and wear appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) when necessary.

Upon entering, greet the patient, introduce yourself, and explain the purpose of the visit to establish rapport and trust.

What is Medical History?

Medical history is a record of information about a patient’s health over time. It includes past illnesses, surgeries, hospitalizations, medications, allergies, and other pertinent health events or conditions.

Family medical history, which provides insights into health risks based on familial patterns of illness, is also typically included.

Additionally, lifestyle habits such as smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, and occupational exposure are covered.

The medical history serves as a foundational tool in the patient assessment process, offering context to the current health status and aiding in the diagnosis and treatment planning.

Nurse performing patient assessment image

What are Vital Signs?

Vital signs are fundamental measurements that provide a snapshot of an individual’s basic bodily functions. They include:

  • Temperature: Indicates body heat and can reveal fever or hypothermia.
  • Pulse (Heart Rate): The number of heartbeats per minute, revealing the heart’s rate and rhythm.
  • Blood Pressure: Measures the force of blood against the walls of the arteries during the different phases of the heart cycle.
  • Respiratory Rate: The number of breaths taken per minute, indicating respiratory function and potential distress.
  • Oxygen Saturation (SpO2): Represents the percentage of hemoglobin in the blood that is saturated with oxygen, providing insights into oxygenation levels.

Note: Regular monitoring of vital signs can detect abnormalities, gauge a patient’s overall health status, and guide clinical decisions.

What is a Physical Examination?

A physical examination is a methodical evaluation of the patient’s body to identify any signs of disease or abnormalities. It typically follows a head-to-toe approach.

The process involves various techniques, such as:

  • Inspection: Observing the patient’s body for any unusual marks, color, shape, or movements.
  • Palpation: Using hands to feel body parts for tenderness, warmth, texture, and other characteristics.
  • Percussion: Tapping on the body’s surface to determine the size, border, and consistency of underlying organs.
  • Auscultation: Listening to internal sounds, especially from the heart, lungs, and abdomen, using a stethoscope.

Note: A physical assessment provides valuable insights into a patient’s health and assists in diagnosis and treatment planning.

How to Document a Patient Assessment

Documenting a patient assessment is essential for ensuring continuity of care, legal protection, and proper communication among healthcare providers.

When documenting, some important considerations include:

  • Be Accurate: Record findings precisely as observed or reported.
  • Be Thorough: Detail all aspects of the assessment, including both subjective and objective data.
  • Use Standard Terminology: Use universally accepted medical terminologies and abbreviations.
  • Be Timely: Document as soon as possible after the assessment to ensure accuracy and completeness.
  • Use Objective Language: Avoid personal opinions or biases by reporting facts.
  • Ensure Legibility: If writing by hand, ensure the documentation is readable. Electronic health records (EHRs) are preferred in many settings due to their clarity and accessibility.
  • Include Date and Time: Always timestamp your entries.
  • Maintain Confidentiality: Ensure patient information remains private, adhering to regulations like the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA).

Note: Proper documentation not only facilitates optimal patient care but also stands as a legal record of clinical actions and decisions.

FAQs About How to Perform a Patient Assessment

What is the First Step in a Patient Assessment?

The first step in a patient assessment is to check the doctor’s order.

This ensures that the healthcare professional is informed about any specific examinations, tests, or queries the doctor wants to be addressed.

It provides clarity on the patient’s current medical needs and ensures that any interventions or examinations are performed with proper authorization.

What Should a Patient Assessment Include?

A comprehensive patient assessment should encompass both subjective and objective information.

Subjective information includes details provided by the patient, such as their symptoms, feelings, and medical history.

Objective information is collected through clinical examinations, vital sign measurements, and potential diagnostic tests.

The assessment aims to gather a holistic view of the patient’s health status, leading to an informed diagnosis and tailored care plan.

What Cardiopulmonary Symptoms May Be Discovered During a Patient Assessment?

During a patient assessment, various cardiopulmonary symptoms can be identified, including the following:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Persistent cough
  • Chest pain or discomfort
  • Palpitations
  • Fatigue
  • Cyanosis
  • Wheezing
  • Edema (swelling)
  • Dizziness
  • Syncope (fainting)
  • Hemoptysis

Note: Recognizing these symptoms is vital as they can indicate underlying conditions like heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other cardiovascular and respiratory disorders.

What is a Nutrition Assessment?

A nutrition assessment is a comprehensive evaluation of a patient’s dietary habits, nutritional intake, and overall nutritional status. It aims to identify potential malnutrition, deficiencies, or imbalances.

This type of assessment includes:

  • Gathering information about the patient’s dietary intake (such as foods consumed, frequency, and portion sizes)
  • Reviewing medical history for conditions that might impact nutrition
  • Measuring body weight and height to calculate body mass index (BMI)
  • Performing laboratory tests to determine nutrient levels in the body.

Note: Based on the findings, appropriate dietary recommendations, interventions, or referrals to nutrition specialists can be made.

What is a Sleep Assessment?

A sleep assessment evaluates the quality, duration, and patterns of a patient’s sleep. It helps identify sleep disorders and disturbances, such as insomnia, sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome, or narcolepsy.

The assessment includes gathering information on the patient’s sleep habits, such as bedtime routines, sleep environment, frequency and nature of awakenings, daytime sleepiness, and any factors that might be impacting sleep, like stress or medication.

In some cases, a polysomnogram (sleep study) may be conducted in a sleep lab to monitor brain waves, muscle activity, heart rate, and other physiological functions during sleep.

Understanding a patient’s sleep patterns and potential issues can guide interventions to improve sleep quality and overall well-being.

How to Perform a Neurological Assessment of a Respiratory Patient?

Performing a neurological assessment on a respiratory patient aims to evaluate the function of the nervous system and identify any related abnormalities that might impact respiratory function.

The process includes:

  • Mental Status Examination: Assessing the patient’s level of consciousness, orientation, and ability to comprehend and respond.
  • Cranial Nerve Examination: Testing the function of the 12 cranial nerves to check for sensory and motor impairments.
  • Motor Function Assessment: Evaluating muscle tone, strength, coordination, and involuntary movements.
  • Sensory Assessment: Testing the patient’s ability to perceive different sensations (touch, pain, temperature).
  • Reflex Testing: Checking deep tendon reflexes to gauge the integrity of the reflex pathways.
  • Evaluation of Respiratory Patterns: Observing breathing patterns for irregularities like Cheyne-Stokes respiration or Biot’s breathing, which can indicate neurological issues.

Note: Given the interconnectedness of the respiratory and neurological systems, this assessment is crucial in patients with respiratory complaints to ensure a holistic approach to care.

What are Clinical Laboratory Studies?

Clinical laboratory studies refer to a range of tests conducted on samples such as blood, urine, tissues, or other body fluids to diagnose, monitor, or treat medical conditions.

These tests provide valuable information about the body’s functioning at a cellular or biochemical level. Common examples include:

  • Blood chemistry panels (like measuring glucose or electrolyte levels)
  • Complete blood count (CBC) to evaluate components like red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
  • Coagulation tests
  • Urine analysis
  • Cultures to detect infections, and more.

Note: The results from these studies offer insights into a patient’s health status and guide clinical decisions.

What is Auscultation?

Auscultation is a clinical technique used by healthcare professionals to listen to internal sounds of the body, primarily from the heart, lungs, and abdomen, using a stethoscope.

It helps in detecting and diagnosing various conditions based on the nature and quality of sounds, such as heart murmurs, wheezing, or bowel sounds.

Accurate interpretation of these sounds is essential for effective patient assessment and care.

Related: Best Stethoscopes for Medical Professionals

Why is ABG Interpretation Important During a Patient Assessment?

Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis measures the levels of oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), and the pH of blood taken from an artery.

The interpretation of ABG values offers crucial insights into a patient’s respiratory and metabolic status. It helps determine:

  • Oxygenation Status: Indicating how well the lungs are transferring oxygen into the blood.
  • Acid-Base Balance: Reflecting whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline, which can be affected by respiratory or metabolic factors.
  • Ventilation Status: Indicating how effectively CO2 is being removed from the body.

Note: Understanding ABG values is vital, especially for respiratory therapists, as it aids in diagnosing respiratory issues, monitoring disease progression, and guiding therapeutic interventions.

Why is Pulmonary Function Testing Important During a Patient Assessment?

Pulmonary function testing (PFT) involves a series of tests to evaluate how well the lungs are working. They measure lung volume, capacity, rates of flow, and gas exchange.

The significance of these tests during a patient assessment lies in their ability to:

  • Diagnose Respiratory Conditions: Such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and restrictive lung diseases.
  • Evaluate Disease Severity: Determining how far a disease has progressed and its current impact on lung function.
  • Monitor Treatment Effectiveness: Observing how well a patient is responding to therapies or medications.
  • Assess Preoperative Risk: Especially in surgeries that may affect lung function.

Note: By understanding the detailed workings of the lungs through PFT, clinicians can make informed decisions about care and interventions.

Why is Chest Imaging Important During a Patient Assessment?

Chest imaging, which includes X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans, and other imaging modalities, offers a visual examination of the structures within the chest, particularly the lungs, heart, and major vessels.

Its importance during a patient assessment stems from its ability to:

  • Detect Abnormalities: Such as lung infections (like pneumonia), tumors, fluid accumulation, or structural changes.
  • Confirm Diagnoses: Based on visible pathologies or conditions like tuberculosis, lung cancer, or pulmonary embolism.
  • Guide Therapeutic Procedures: Assisting clinicians in interventions like biopsies or the placement of chest tubes.
  • Monitor Disease Progression: Observing the course of a respiratory disease or the effect of treatments over time.
Performing Physical Examination Chest X-ray Vector

Why is EKG Interpretation Important During a Patient Assessment?

An electrocardiogram (EKG) records the electrical activity of the heart. Its interpretation is paramount during a patient assessment because it can:

  • Identify Heart Rhythm Abnormalities: Such as atrial fibrillation, tachycardia, or bradycardia.
  • Detect Ischemia or Infarction: Highlighting areas of the heart muscle with reduced oxygen supply or damage.
  • Evaluate Structural Changes: Such as left or right ventricular hypertrophy.
  • Monitor the Effects of Medications: Observing how certain drugs influence heart function.
  • Guide Treatment Decisions: Especially in conditions requiring electrical interventions like pacemakers or defibrillators.

Note: Accurate EKG interpretation provides valuable information about cardiac health, guiding immediate interventions and long-term management strategies.

How is a Neonatal or Pediatric Patient Assessment Different Than Adults?

Neonatal and pediatric patient assessments consider the developmental and physiological differences in younger populations compared to adults. Some key differences include:

  • Growth and Development Monitoring: Assessing milestones, growth patterns, and overall development is crucial in younger patients.
  • Different Vital Sign Norms: Heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate can vary widely based on age, making it essential to reference age-specific charts.
  • Communication Techniques: Younger patients may not communicate or express symptoms in the same way adults do, requiring specialized approaches to gather information.
  • Differential Diagnoses: Some conditions are more prevalent in pediatric populations or present differently than in adults.
  • Physiological Considerations: Organ systems, especially the respiratory and immune systems, are still developing in neonates and children, which can influence disease presentation and response to treatments.

Given these differences, specialized training and knowledge are essential for healthcare professionals conducting assessments in neonatal or pediatric populations.

Performing auscultation on child vector

What is Different About a Patient Assessment in the ICU?

A patient assessment in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is distinct due to the critical nature of illnesses and the advanced interventions employed.

Factors that differentiate ICU assessments include:

  • Frequency: Assessments are often conducted more frequently due to the dynamic nature of critical illnesses.
  • Depth: Given the severity of conditions, assessments are more detailed, evaluating multi-organ system functions.
  • Monitoring: Continuous monitoring devices, like hemodynamic monitors or intracranial pressure monitors, provide real-time data that needs interpretation and integration into the assessment.
  • Specialized Equipment: Interactions with mechanical ventilators, dialysis machines, or other ICU-specific devices become a crucial part of the evaluation.
  • Collaborative Approach: Due to the complex nature of ICU patients, assessments often require a multidisciplinary approach involving physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, pharmacists, and other specialists.

Note: Given the complexities and vulnerabilities of ICU patients, assessments are more comprehensive, frequent, and involve a higher degree of clinical expertise.

Final Thoughts

In the field of respiratory care, a thorough and accurate patient assessment is essential for effective intervention and management of various conditions.

Respiratory therapists, equipped with the knowledge and skills to perform these evaluations, play a pivotal role in ensuring patients receive the most appropriate and effective care.

It’s essential that these professionals remain up-to-date with patient assessment techniques and best practices to ensure the highest standard of patient care.

John Landry, BS, RRT

Written by:

John Landry, BS, RRT

John Landry is a registered respiratory therapist from Memphis, TN, and has a bachelor's degree in kinesiology. He enjoys using evidence-based research to help others breathe easier and live a healthier life.

References

  • Faarc, Heuer Al PhD Mba Rrt Rpft. Wilkins’ Clinical Assessment in Respiratory Care. 8th ed., Mosby, 2017.
  • Faarc, Kacmarek Robert PhD Rrt, et al. Egan’s Fundamentals of Respiratory Care. 12th ed., Mosby, 2020.
  • Christalle E, Zill JM, Frerichs W, Härter M, Nestoriuc Y, Dirmaier J, Scholl I. Assessment of patient information needs: A systematic review of measures. PLoS One. 2019.
  • Sapra A, Malik A, Bhandari P. Vital Sign Assessment. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023.

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