Pulmonary Fibrosis Overview Vector

Pulmonary Fibrosis: Overview and Practice Questions (2024)

by | Updated: Jun 4, 2024

Pulmonary fibrosis is a debilitating lung disease characterized by the scarring and stiffening of lung tissue, leading to difficulty in breathing and impaired lung function.

This condition affects millions worldwide, with a variety of underlying causes ranging from environmental factors to genetic predispositions.

This article breaks down the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options available for pulmonary fibrosis.

What is Pulmonary Fibrosis?

Pulmonary fibrosis is a lung disease characterized by the thickening and scarring of lung tissue, which leads to a decline in lung function. This scarring impedes oxygen transfer from the lungs to the bloodstream, causing symptoms like shortness of breath, chronic cough, and fatigue. The condition can be progressive and is often irreversible.

Pulmonary fibrosis lungs vector illustration

Signs and Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of pulmonary fibrosis include:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Dry, persistent cough
  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Discomfort or pain in the chest
  • Loss of appetite and weight loss
  • Clubbing of the fingers and toes

Note: These symptoms can worsen over time, leading to a significant impact on quality of life and physical activity levels.


Pulmonary fibrosis can be caused by a wide range of factors, including:

  • Environmental and occupational exposures: Long-term exposure to certain toxins and pollutants, such as asbestos, silica dust, coal dust, and metal dusts, can lead to pulmonary fibrosis.
  • Radiation therapy: Treatment for cancer that involves radiation to the chest area can damage lung tissue and increase the risk of pulmonary fibrosis.
  • Medications: Certain medications used to treat other conditions, including some chemotherapy drugs, heart medications, and antibiotics, can cause pulmonary fibrosis as a side effect.
  • Medical conditions: Diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, and sarcoidosis are associated with an increased risk of developing pulmonary fibrosis.
  • Genetic factors: A family history of pulmonary fibrosis indicates a genetic predisposition to the disease.
  • Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF): In many cases, the cause of pulmonary fibrosis is unknown, which is referred to as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. IPF is a specific form of pulmonary fibrosis with no identifiable cause.

Note: Understanding the exact cause of pulmonary fibrosis can be challenging. In many cases, the disease is classified as idiopathic, highlighting the complexity of its origins and the need for further research.

Risk Factors

Risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing pulmonary fibrosis include:

  • Age: Pulmonary fibrosis is more commonly diagnosed in people who are middle-aged and older.
  • Smoking: Current or former smokers are at a higher risk compared to non-smokers.
  • Occupational and environmental exposures: Exposure to certain dusts (like silica, asbestos, or coal dust), gases, and pollutants can increase the risk.
  • Genetics: Having a family history of pulmonary fibrosis suggests a genetic predisposition to developing the disease.
  • Certain medical conditions: Diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, scleroderma, and sarcoidosis can predispose individuals to pulmonary fibrosis.
  • Gender: Some forms of pulmonary fibrosis, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), are more common in men than in women.
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): Chronic acid reflux may be associated with a higher risk of pulmonary fibrosis.

Note: Understanding these risk factors can help in the early detection and management of pulmonary fibrosis, although the condition can still develop in individuals without any identifiable risk factors.


Complications of pulmonary fibrosis can significantly impact health and quality of life, including:

  • Respiratory failure: As the disease progresses, it can lead to the lungs’ inability to provide enough oxygen to the body, potentially resulting in life-threatening respiratory failure.
  • Pulmonary hypertension: Pulmonary fibrosis can cause increased blood pressure in the lungs’ arteries (pulmonary hypertension), leading to shortness of breath and heart strain.
  • Heart problems: Right-sided heart failure (cor pulmonale), which occurs when the right ventricle of the heart has to pump harder than usual to move blood through narrowed or blocked pulmonary arteries, is a possible complication.
  • Lung cancer: Individuals with pulmonary fibrosis are at an increased risk of developing lung cancer.
  • Pneumonia: People with pulmonary fibrosis are more susceptible to pneumonia, which can worsen breathing difficulties.
  • Lung infections: The damaged lung tissue is more prone to infections, which can further reduce lung function.
  • Acute exacerbations: Sudden and severe worsening of symptoms, known as acute exacerbations, can occur, often leading to significant declines in lung function and can be life-threatening.

Note: Managing pulmonary fibrosis and its complications requires careful monitoring, medical treatment, and sometimes supportive therapies, such as oxygen therapy or lung transplantation in severe cases.


Diagnosing pulmonary fibrosis involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging tests, and sometimes lung function tests and biopsies.

The process typically includes:

  • Medical History and Physical Examination: The doctor will review the patient’s medical history, including symptoms, exposure to potential lung irritants, and family history of lung diseases. During the physical exam, the doctor will listen for abnormal lung sounds, such as crackles, that are characteristic of pulmonary fibrosis.
  • Chest X-ray: An initial test that can show scarring of the lungs, although it may not be definitive for pulmonary fibrosis.
  • High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) Scan: This imaging test provides detailed images of the lungs and is crucial for diagnosing pulmonary fibrosis. HRCT scans can show the pattern and extent of lung scarring.
  • Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs): These tests assess how well the lungs are working by measuring lung volume, capacity, rates of flow, and gas exchange. They can help determine the severity of the disease.
  • Blood Tests: While there are no specific blood tests to diagnose pulmonary fibrosis, they can be used to rule out other conditions or identify associated autoimmune diseases.
  • Oxygen Desaturation Study: This test measures oxygen levels during activity and rest, which can indicate the severity of the disease.
  • Lung Biopsy: In some cases, a sample of lung tissue may be removed for examination under a microscope to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other conditions. This can be done through surgical biopsy or less invasive methods like bronchoscopy.
  • Echocardiogram: To check for pulmonary hypertension and assess the heart’s function, which can be affected by advanced lung disease.

Note: Diagnosing pulmonary fibrosis often requires ruling out other possible causes of symptoms and lung abnormalities, making it a comprehensive process that involves multiple disciplines.


Treatment for pulmonary fibrosis focuses on managing symptoms, slowing disease progression, and improving quality of life.

There’s no cure for most forms of pulmonary fibrosis, but treatments can help alleviate symptoms and reduce the impact on daily life.

Common treatment options include:

  • Medication: Antifibrotic agents like pirfenidone and nintedanib can slow the progression of the disease in some patients. Corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs may be used to reduce inflammation, although their effectiveness varies. Acid reflux medications to manage gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which can exacerbate symptoms or contribute to lung damage.
  • Oxygen Therapy: Supplemental oxygen can improve breathing and activity levels in patients with low blood oxygen levels.
  • Pulmonary Rehabilitation: A program that includes exercise, education, and support to help patients maintain and improve their physical condition and quality of life.
  • Lung Transplantation: In severe cases, a lung transplant may be considered for eligible patients. This option is usually reserved for those who have not responded to other treatments and have rapidly progressing disease.
  • Management of Complications: Treatments may also focus on managing complications such as pulmonary hypertension, heart problems, and infections.
  • Lifestyle Changes: Quitting smoking, maintaining a healthy diet, and getting regular exercise can help manage symptoms and improve overall health.
  • Palliative Care: Focused on relieving symptoms and improving quality of life, palliative care can be an important part of managing advanced pulmonary fibrosis.

The choice of treatment depends on several factors, including the severity of the disease, the specific type of pulmonary fibrosis, the patient’s overall health, and the presence of other medical conditions.

Treatment plans are often personalized and may involve a team of specialists.

What is Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis?

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a specific form of chronic, progressive pulmonary fibrosis of unknown cause.

It primarily affects the interstitium, the tissue and space around the alveoli of the lungs, leading to severe scarring (fibrosis) and a decline in lung function.

This scarring makes it progressively harder for oxygen to pass into the bloodstream, causing symptoms such as shortness of breath and chronic cough.

The disease typically occurs in older adults and is diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, particularly high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans, and lung function tests.

While there is no cure for IPF, treatments like antifibrotic medications can slow its progression and improve quality of life.

Pulmonary Fibrosis Practice Questions

1. What is the most common type of pulmonary fibrosis?

2. What does pulmonary fibrosis cause?
It causes interstitial damage, fibrosis, and reduced elasticity.

3. What are the three types of pulmonary fibrosis?
Replacement fibrosis secondary to lung disease, focal fibrosis secondary to irritants, and diffuse parenchymal lung disease.

4. What are the causes of replacement fibrosis secondary to lung disease?
Infarct, tuberculosis, and pneumonia.

5. What is pulmonary fibrosis associated with?
Connective tissue diseases, occupational exposure to dust, medications, and other inhaled irritants.

6. What connective tissue diseases are associated with pulmonary fibrosis?
SLE, Sjogren’s, RA, and systemic sclerosis.

7. What medications are associated with pulmonary fibrosis?
Amiodarone, nitrofurantoin, and bleomycin.

8. What is the peak age of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis?

9. What does IPF usually co-exist alongside?

10. What risk factor is IPF associated with?

11. What are the features of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis?
Shortness of breath, persistent dry cough, bilateral inspiratory crackles, OSA, flu-like symptoms, clubbing, arthralgia, rashes, and muscle pain.

12. What tests can help diagnose pulmonary fibrosis?
Blood tests, CXR, PFTs, and high-resolution CT.

13. What can you do if you are still unsure about the diagnosis after initial investigations?
Bronchoalveolar lavage

14. What is the surgical management of pulmonary fibrosis?
Lung transplant

15. When would you consider surgical management?
When there is no response to medical therapy.

16. What is the life expectancy of pulmonary fibrosis?
The life expectancy varies but is generally around 3 to 5 years after diagnosis, depending on disease severity and individual health factors.

17. What is the main cause of pulmonary fibrosis?
The exact cause is often unknown, but factors include environmental exposures, certain medications, and medical conditions. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has no known cause.

18. Can a patient recover from pulmonary fibrosis?
There is no cure for pulmonary fibrosis, and the scarring of the lung tissue is generally irreversible.

19. What are the four stages of pulmonary fibrosis?
The stages are mild, moderate, severe, and very severe, based on lung function tests and symptoms.

20. What are the signs of end-stage pulmonary fibrosis?
Signs include severe shortness of breath, continuous oxygen need, high frequency of exacerbations, and significant functional impairment.

21. How do you know what stage of pulmonary fibrosis a patient is in?
Staging is determined by lung function tests, symptoms, and the patient’s ability to perform daily activities.

22. How quickly can pulmonary fibrosis progress?
Progression varies widely among individuals; some may experience rapid decline, while others have slow disease progression.

23. Can a patient live a long life with pulmonary fibrosis?
While pulmonary fibrosis can shorten life expectancy, early diagnosis, and treatment can help manage symptoms and potentially slow disease progression.

24. Can you reverse lung scarring?
Lung scarring from pulmonary fibrosis is permanent, but treatment can help manage symptoms and slow progression.

25. How does a person feel with pulmonary fibrosis?
Symptoms include shortness of breath, chronic cough, fatigue, and in later stages, oxygen dependency.

26. Who is most likely to get pulmonary fibrosis?
Older adults, smokers, those with a family history of the disease, and people with long-term exposure to certain environmental pollutants are at higher risk.

27. What lifestyle can cause pulmonary fibrosis?
Smoking and exposure to certain environmental pollutants or occupational hazards can increase the risk.

28. What are the first signs of pulmonary fibrosis?
Early signs include shortness of breath, especially with exertion, and a dry cough.

29. Are pulmonary fibrosis and cystic fibrosis related?
No, they are distinct conditions. Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder affecting the lungs and other organs, while pulmonary fibrosis involves lung scarring from various causes.

30. Can pulmonary fibrosis affect the heart?
Yes, it can lead to pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure due to increased pressure in the lungs.

31. Does pulmonary fibrosis cause stomach problems?
Indirectly, as GERD is more common in patients with pulmonary fibrosis and can worsen symptoms.

32. Does pulmonary fibrosis cause coughing?
Yes, a persistent, dry cough is one of the common symptoms.

33. Do pulmonary fibrosis symptoms come and go?
Symptoms generally worsen over time, but the intensity can vary day by day.

34. Are pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema the same?
No, they are different conditions. Emphysema is a form of COPD that involves the air sacs, while pulmonary fibrosis affects the lung’s interstitial tissues.

35. Why is pulmonary fibrosis progressive?
The scarring process in the lungs tends to worsen over time, leading to progressively impaired lung function.

36. Is pulmonary fibrosis a type of COPD?
No, pulmonary fibrosis is a type of interstitial lung disease, distinct from COPD, which primarily involves airway obstruction.

37. When is pulmonary fibrosis fatal?
The disease can be life-threatening when it progresses to advanced stages, leading to respiratory failure.

38. Can pulmonary fibrosis cause pneumonia?
Patients with pulmonary fibrosis are at higher risk for pneumonia due to reduced lung function.

39. Can pulmonary fibrosis be seen on a chest x-ray?
Chest x-rays can show signs of pulmonary fibrosis, but a high-resolution CT scan is more definitive.

40. Can pulmonary fibrosis go into remission?
There is no known remission for pulmonary fibrosis, but treatment can help manage symptoms and progression.

41. Is pulmonary fibrosis hereditary?
Some forms, particularly familial pulmonary fibrosis, have a genetic component.

42. Is pulmonary fibrosis contagious?
No, pulmonary fibrosis is not contagious; it is a condition affecting the lungs internally.

43. Do pulmonary fibrosis patients retain CO2?
In advanced stages, pulmonary fibrosis can lead to CO2 retention due to impaired gas exchange.

44. Can pulmonary fibrosis cause sudden death?
While sudden death is rare, acute exacerbations of pulmonary fibrosis can be life-threatening.

45. Does pulmonary fibrosis spread?
Pulmonary fibrosis does not “spread” like an infection, but scarring can progress within the lungs over time.

46. Is pulmonary fibrosis an interstitial lung disease?
Yes, pulmonary fibrosis is a type of interstitial lung disease that affects the tissue around the air sacs of the lungs.

47. Is pulmonary fibrosis terminal?
Pulmonary fibrosis can be a terminal condition, especially without treatment, due to its progressive nature.

48. Does pulmonary fibrosis cause mucus?
Pulmonary fibrosis itself does not typically cause increased mucus production; symptoms mainly involve scarring and stiffening of the lungs.

49. Can pulmonary fibrosis be genetic?
Yes, there are genetic forms of pulmonary fibrosis, where the condition runs in families.

50. Can pulmonary fibrosis be misdiagnosed?
Yes, due to its similar symptoms to other lung diseases, pulmonary fibrosis can be misdiagnosed.

51. Why does pulmonary fibrosis cause clubbing?
Clubbing, or the widening and rounding of the fingertips, results from long-term oxygen deprivation and changes in blood flow.

52. How common is pulmonary fibrosis?
Pulmonary fibrosis is relatively rare, affecting about 13-20 people per 100,000 worldwide annually.

53. Does pulmonary fibrosis cause weight loss?
Yes, severe pulmonary fibrosis can lead to weight loss, often due to increased energy expenditure from breathing difficulties and reduced appetite.

54. What does pulmonary fibrosis cough sound like?
The cough associated with pulmonary fibrosis is typically dry and persistent, without mucus.

55. How is pulmonary fibrosis diagnosed?
Diagnosis involves imaging tests like HRCT scans, lung function tests, and sometimes lung biopsies, along with a review of medical history and symptoms.

56. Does pulmonary fibrosis cause phlegm?
Pulmonary fibrosis primarily causes a dry cough; it does not typically produce phlegm.

57. Is pulmonary fibrosis an autoimmune disease?
While not inherently an autoimmune disease, pulmonary fibrosis can be associated with autoimmune diseases that affect the lungs.

58. Are pulmonary fibrosis and bronchiectasis the same?
No, they are different conditions; bronchiectasis involves the widening of airways, while pulmonary fibrosis involves scarring of the lung tissue.

59. Is pulmonary fibrosis a restrictive or obstructive lung disease?
Pulmonary fibrosis is a restrictive lung disease, as it restricts lung expansion, decreasing lung volume.

60. Who is most at risk for pulmonary fibrosis?
Older adults, smokers, people with a family history of the disease, and those exposed to certain environmental pollutants or occupational hazards are most at risk.

61. Can lung fibrosis be cured?
There is no cure for lung fibrosis, but treatments can help manage symptoms and slow disease progression.

62. How common is pulmonary fibrosis?
Pulmonary fibrosis is relatively uncommon, with estimates varying widely.

63. Do patients with pulmonary fibrosis need oxygen?
Many patients with advanced pulmonary fibrosis may require supplemental oxygen to help manage their symptoms and maintain blood oxygen levels.

64. Can pulmonary fibrosis lead to lung cancer?
Patients with pulmonary fibrosis are at an increased risk of developing lung cancer compared to the general population.

65. Does pulmonary fibrosis cause wheezing?
Wheezing is not a typical symptom of pulmonary fibrosis; the condition more commonly causes a dry cough and shortness of breath.

66. Can you have pulmonary fibrosis and COPD?
Yes, it’s possible to have both conditions simultaneously, though they are distinct diseases with different treatments.

67. Does pulmonary fibrosis cause back pain?
While not a direct symptom, the severe coughing associated with pulmonary fibrosis can lead to muscle strain and back pain.

68. Why does pulmonary fibrosis cause crackles?
Crackles are caused by the opening of small airways and air sacs that have been stiffened by scar tissue during inhalation.

69. How does pulmonary fibrosis progress?
Pulmonary fibrosis progression varies; some patients experience rapid worsening of symptoms, while others may see a slow decline over years.

70. When should someone see a doctor for pulmonary fibrosis?
If experiencing symptoms like persistent cough, shortness of breath, unexplained weight loss, or fatigue, especially if at risk for pulmonary fibrosis, seeking medical evaluation is important.

Final Thoughts

Pulmonary fibrosis is a complex lung condition characterized by the progressive scarring of lung tissue, which significantly impairs respiratory function.

While the exact causes can vary, including environmental exposures, medical treatments, and genetic factors, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis remains a condition without a known cause.

Although there is no cure for pulmonary fibrosis, current treatments aim to manage symptoms, slow disease progression, and improve quality of life.

Understanding the risk factors and early signs of the disease is crucial for timely diagnosis and treatment, highlighting the importance of ongoing research and awareness.

John Landry, BS, RRT

Written by:

John Landry, BS, RRT

John Landry is a registered respiratory therapist from Memphis, TN, and has a bachelor's degree in kinesiology. He enjoys using evidence-based research to help others breathe easier and live a healthier life.


  • Wilson MS, Wynn TA. Pulmonary fibrosis: pathogenesis, etiology and regulation. Mucosal Immunol. 2024.
  • Krishna R, Chapman K, Ullah S. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. [Updated 2023 Jul 31]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2024.

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