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Kidneys and associated external structuresKidneys, renal capsule, renal artery, renal vein, renal hilum, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
two bean shaped structures located in the back of the abdominal cavityKidneys
Tissue that covers the kidneyrenal capsule
vessel that carries blood into the kidneyrenal artery
vessel that takes blood away from the kidneyrenal vein
Indentation where the renal artery and renal vein enter the kidneyrenal hilum
structure that transports urine from the kidney to the urinary bladderureters
structure that serves as a reservoir for urineurinary bladder
structure that extends inferiorly from the urinary bladderurethra
The major internal parts of the kidneyrenal cortex, medulla, calices, renal pelvis, renal papillae
1/3 inside the kidney represents therenal cortex
the middle 2/3 inside the kidney represent themedulla
internal structure composed of the major calyx and the minor calyxrenal pelvis
components of renal pelvismajor calyx and minor calyx
aka papillary ductsrenal papillae
functional unit of the kidneynephron
two types of nephronsjuxtamedullary and cortical
components of the nephronglomerulus, proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule, collecting duct, afferent arteriole, efferent arteriole, Bowman’s capsule, renal corpuscule
network of renal capillaries, aka filtering structureglomerulus
vessel that takes unfiltered blood to the glomerulusafferent arteriole
vessel that takes filtered blood away from the glomerulusefferent arteriole
structure that contains the glomerulusBowman’s capsule
glomerular capillary blood pressure + fluid pressure in Bowman’s capsule + Osmotic force =net filtration pressure
what is the glomerular capillary blood pressure level?+55 mmHg
what is the fluid pressure in Bowman’s capsule?-15 mmHg
What is the osmotic force (caused by protein concentration difference)?-30 mmHg
what is the net filtration pressure level?+10 mmHg
three steps in urine formationglomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and tubular secretion
process by which filtrates, mainly electrolytes such as Na+, K+, and Cl- move from BLOOD to URINE as a result of pressure difference in the glomerulus is called:glomerular filtration
process by which filtrates such as water, sodium, glucose move back from URINE in the proximal tubule TO BLOOD is calledtubular reabsorption
process occurring between peritubular capillaries and renal tubules by which various substances, such as H+ and K+ are transported from BLOOD to URINE is calledtubular secretion
hormone that prevents diuresis, thus helps retain water in the body is called:ADH – Anti-diuretic hormone
if atrial blood volume or pressure increases, then what must happen to ADH?ADH must decrease to stimulate urination
in case of dehydration, what should happen to ADH?ADH should increase for body to retain fluid
electrolytes that can generate acid-base disturbancesK+, Na+, Cl-
an increase in K+, Na+, Cl-, or H+ will cause blood pH level todecrease
an decrease in K+, Na+, Cl-, or H+ will cause blood pH toincrease
the renal system is able to excrete H+ when:blood pH is low
the renal system is able to reabsorb HCO3- when:blood pH is low
a leak will occur in tissue spaces if systemic capillary pressure exceed:17 mmHg
congenital disorders, infections, obstructive disorders, inflammation and immune response, neoplasms are examples of:common causes of renal disorders
classification of renal conditions are:pre-renal, renal, and post-renal
abnormalities that impair blood flow TO the kidney describe:pre-renal conditions
abnormalities that impair blood flow WITHIN the kidney describe:renal conditions
urethral or bladder outlet obstructions, such as calculi, tumors, prostatic hypertrophy describe:post renal conditions

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Internal region of kidney (1 of 3)Renal cortex – Contains the glomeruli and the proximal and distal tubules.
Internal region of kidney (2 of 3)Renal medulla – Contains pyramids:cone shaped areas of tissue containing loops of Henle and collecting ducts. Renal columns: extension of cortical tissue separating pyramids
Internal region of kidney (3 of 3)Renal pelvis: Branched in minor & major calcyes which form cup-like structures surrounding the papillae
How is blood carried to the kidneysVia the Renal arteries: They take 1/4 of the cardiac output to kidneys, they divide into segmental, lobar,& then 5 interlobar arteries which pass between the medullary pyramids
What’s the functional unit of the kidney?The nephron
What are the 7 parts of the Nephron?Afferent arteriole, efferent arteriole, glomerulus, proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule, loops of Henle, and the collecting ducts.
If BP falls how does the hypothalamus respond?By releasing ADH in order to conserve water.
As BP rises, the adrenal glands will respond by:stopping aldosterone release to increase diuresis.
If the juxtaglomerular cells baroreceptors detect a fall in BP then juxtaglomerular cells will:Release renin which will then become Angiotensin II(vasopressin) the most potent vasoconstrictor in the body.
Angiotensin also tells the body to do what if BP drops?It tells the adrenal cortex to release aldosterone which increases reabsorption of the NA+ and water from the nephron which increase BV & BP.
What is ANP & when is it released?ANP is Atrial natriuretic peptide and is released by the atrial myocardium when its overstretched (incresed BV) which decreases the release of aldosterone & renin.
A normal ph level is what?Between 7.35 – 7.45
What pH level represents an acidosis?A pH level < 7.35
What pH level represents an alkalosis?A pH level > 7.45
What do the kidneys do when the pH drops below 7.35?The Kidneys excrete more H+ and to retain more HCO3- (bicarb) and K+
What do the kidneys do when the pH rises above 7.45The body retainx CL- in place of HCO3-(bicarb) and saves H+ excreting K+
Normal Bicarbonate level (HCO-3)?22-26 mmol/L
Normal BUN level?7-20 mg/dL
Normal Creatinine level?0.6 – 1.5 mg/dl
Hypervolemiaincreased BV
Hypovolemiadecreased BV
UrinationProcess of expelling urine; also called micturation
VoidingExpelling urine from the bladder
UrinalA basin or container for collecting urine
IncontinenceInability to control urination.
CatheterTube for injecting or removing fluids; urinary catheter is a tube placed into the urethra and bladder to collect urine.
Specific gravityComparison of density of urine with that of water, reflecting the amounts of wastes, minerals and solids in the urine. Elevated in diabetes.
HemiodialysisThe process of removing blood from an artery to remove wastes and adjust fluid and electrolyte balance, then returning it to a vein.
Peritoneal dialysisFluid is introduced into the peritoneal cavity causing wastes from the capillaries to pass out of the blood and into the fluid which is then withdrawn.
ARFAcute renal failure
ESRDEnd stage renal failure