Best Foods for Healthy Lungs (Detox and Cleanse)

The 31+ Best Foods for Lung Health (2024)

by | Updated: Apr 19, 2024

As you know, the lungs are responsible for breathing, which is required for survival. That is why it’s essential to take special care of your respiratory system.

But did you know that your diet can play an essential role in keeping your lungs healthy?

That’s right!

As a registered respiratory therapist (RRT), this is something I’ve noticed in my patients throughout several years of practice.

The foods we consume can have a significant impact on our lung function and overall respiratory health. To be more specific, certain foods can help reduce inflammation, improve airflow, and protect against damage to lung tissue.

On the other hand, consuming unhealthy or processed foods can lead to increased inflammation and a higher risk of lung problems. By making smart food choices, you can support your lung health and enjoy the benefits of deep, refreshing breaths for years to come.

In this article, we’ll discuss the best foods for lung health and how incorporating them into your diet can support your respiratory system (and overall health).

Best Foods for Lung Health

  1. Salmon
  2. Beets
  3. Coconut Oil
  4. Oysters
  5. Ginger
  6. Turmeric
  7. Garlic
  8. Brazil Nuts
  9. Olive Oil
  10. Pumpkin
  11. Chili Peppers
  12. Onions
  13. Walnuts
  14. Clams
  15. Oranges
  16. Grapefruit
  17. Avocado
  18. Red Cabbage
  19. Leafy Greens
  20. Flaxseeds
  21. Carrots
  22. Lentils
  23. Blueberries
  24. Swiss Chard
  25. Apples
  26. Beans
  27. Anchovies
  28. Tomatoes
  29. Yogurt
  30. Guava
  31. Cocoa

1. Salmon

Salmon is a type of oily fish that is packed with omega-3 fatty acids, protein, vitamin B12, and vitamin D. Omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties, which can help reduce inflammation in the airways and protect against lung damage.

A study found that more frequent fish intake was inversely associated with the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Another study found that a diet with salmon may lower the incidence of asthma.

Therefore, incorporating salmon into your diet can be a delicious and nutritious way to support lung health.

2. Beets

Beets are a root vegetable known for their rich red color and sweet, earthy flavor. They are high in antioxidants, fiber, and nutrients such as potassium and folate.

Beets are also high in nitrates, which can help improve blood flow and oxygenation to the lungs. These circulatory benefits can limit symptoms of conditions such as asthma and COPD.

By including beets in your diet, you can potentially reduce inflammation, protect against lung damage, and support overall respiratory health.

3. Coconut Oil

Coconut oil is known for its high content of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs), a type of saturated fat that is metabolized differently than other types of fats.

A study found that MCTs have anti-inflammatory properties linked to improved respiratory function and increased energy production.

MCTs are rapidly absorbed and metabolized in the liver, providing a quick source of energy that can be beneficial for people with respiratory conditions.

Coconut oil is also a rich source of antioxidants, such as vitamin E, that can help protect against oxidative stress and reduce airway inflammation.

4. Oysters

Oysters are high in zinc, which is believed to ease respiratory symptoms in patients with lung disease.

A study found that zinc may reverse lung damage and improve survival rates among patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a deadly age-related lung condition.

IPF leads to fibrosis, or scarring of the lungs, making it progressively more difficult to breathe. This is one of the many benefits you can get from incorporating oysters into your diet.

5. Ginger

Commonly used to relax an upset stomach, ginger has similar effects on the airway smooth muscle (ASM).

study confirmed the beneficial effects of ginger on the airways. Adding fresh ginger root to already-heathy dishes, such as wild rice and vegetable stir-fry, is an excellent way to get the benefits of this root.

6. Turmeric

Commonly used in Indian and South Asian foods, turmeric has served medicinal purposes in Asia for thousands of years. The primary active compound in turmeric is curcumin, which has anti-inflammatory properties that may alleviate airway inflammation.

study focusing on those suffering from bronchial asthma determined that curcumin capsules can serve as a safe and effective add-on therapy.

7. Garlic

Garlic has been used for thousands of years for both culinary and medicinal purposes. Allicin is a compound found in garlic that is responsible for the strong odor and is also the source of many of its health benefits.

Some known benefits of garlic include the following:

  • Boosts immunity
  • Reduces high blood pressure
  • Reduces cholesterol

Each has indirect benefits for the respiratory system. For example, the cardiovascular benefits are important because the heart and lungs work together to pump oxygenated blood throughout the body.

Additionally, a strong immune system helps prevent infections, including those that affect the lungs. Not to mention, a study found that raw garlic consumption is a protective factor against lung cancer.

8. Brazil Nuts

Brazil nuts are known for their rich, buttery flavor and high content of healthy fats, protein, and minerals. They are an excellent source of selenium, which is a trace mineral that has been linked to improved lung function.

Selenium is an antioxidant that can help protect against oxidative stress and reduce inflammation in the airways. Studies found that it may even reduce the risk of lung cancer.

Brazil nuts are also a source of healthy unsaturated fats, such as monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which can help reduce inflammation throughout the body, including in the lungs.

9. Olive Oil

Olive oil is rich in healthy fats, vitamins, and minerals that offer a multitude of health benefits. It’s high in vitamin E, a fat-soluble vitamin that functions as an antioxidant in the body by protecting cell membranes.

A study found that vitamin E helps protect lung surfactant, which is an important substance that coats the alveoli to prevent them from collapsing.

Other research suggests that a vitamin E deficiency is associated with more frequent COPD exacerbations and worsened symptoms.

Scientists also believe that the anti-inflammatory properties of vitamin E may also help patients improve their forced expiratory volumes. So throw out the unhealthy vegetable oils and start using olive oil instead.

10. Pumpkin

Pumpkin is rich in beta-carotene, a carotenoid that gives red, orange, and yellow vegetables their color. The human body can convert beta-carotene into vitamin A, which can help improve lung function.

study found that eating fruits and vegetables rich in beta-carotene and other carotenoids may have protective effects against lung cancer.

Other research found that beta-carotene helps preserve lung function in older adults. This plant pigment has powerful antioxidant properties that prevent oxidative stress, which is serious damage caused by free radicals.

11. Chili Peppers

Chili peppers contain the compound capsaicin, which is responsible for the heat and spicy flavor. It’s also responsible for the health benefits that these pepper can provide for the human body.

It has anti-inflammatory effects, reducing inflammation in the airways and improving lung function.

Capsaicin helps stimulate the mucociliary response, making it easier to clear mucus and secretions from the airways. Additionally, a study found that chili pepper compounds may stop lung cancer metastasis.

12. Onions

Onions contain compounds that have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, which may help improve lung function and protect against respiratory infections.

A study found the properties of onions may have beneficial effects on symptoms of virus-infected flu, including cough, headache, and sputum production. Therefore, if you need help clearing mucus and phlegm from your airways, consider eating more onions in your diet.

13. Walnuts

Walnuts contain several nutrients that may benefit lung health, including antioxidants, omega-3 fatty acids, and vitamin E. These nutrients help to reduce inflammation in the body and protect against oxidative stress.

One study found that a handful of walnuts per day can reduce the risk of dying from respiratory disease by approximately 50%. So do your lungs (and overall health) a favor by adding this healthy snack to your diet.

14. Clams

Clams are a type of nutrient-dense shellfish that are low in fat and high in protein, making them a healthy addition to most diets. In addition to their nutritional benefits, clams can also provide several benefits for lung health.

They’re high in omega-3 fatty acids and rich in nutrients and minerals, such as zinc, iron, and vitamins C, B6, and B12.

Clams are one of the best sources of vitamin B12, which helps with the production of red blood cells. This is important, as they are responsible for transporting oxygenated blood from the lung to the rest of the body.

15. Oranges

Oranges are rich in vitamin C, which is an essential nutrient for the immune system and for preventing lung infections.

A diet rich in oranges and citrus fruits has also been shown to reduce the risk of asthma episodes. Furthermore, oranges are a good source of flavonoids, which are a type of antioxidant that has been linked to reduced risk of lung cancer.

16. Grapefruit

Grapefruit is also rich in vitamin C, which has been shown to increase the body’s resistance to viral and bacterial infections, including the infections that cause pneumonia. Researchers also believe that vitamin C may also protect against inflammatory lung diseases, such as COPD.

Other studies found that the antioxidant properties of vitamin C may help reduce bronchoconstriction and other respiratory symptoms caused by vigorous exercise.

Moral of the story: Eat more citrus fruits, such as oranges and grapefruit, if you want to boost the health of your lungs.

17. Avocado

Avocado is a popular and versatile fruit that is known for its creamy texture and rich flavor. In addition to being a delicious ingredient in many recipes, avocados are also a source of several important nutrients, including some that may benefit the lungs.

Avocado contains healthy fats and antioxidants that have anti-inflammatory effects. Reducing inflammation in the airways can help improve overall lung function.

They are also a good source of vitamins C and E, which play a role in supporting the immune system.

18. Red Cabbage

In addition to being a delicious and versatile ingredient in many recipes, red cabbage is also a source of several important nutrients and health benefits, including benefits for the respiratory system.

Red cabbage is a good source of anthocyanin, a flavonoid that researchers found can prevent a decline in lung function. It’s also a good source of fiber, which is known for improving lung health.

19. Leafy Greens

Leafy green vegetables are rich in vitamins and minerals, including folate. Diets with deficiencies in folate and vitamin D have been shown to increase the number of asthma attacks, according to a study.

Other thoracic studies have confirmed the value of leafy greens in reducing stress during respiration.

20. Flaxseeds

Flaxseeds are high in fiber, antioxidants, and omega-3 fatty acids. As previously mentioned, research indicates that omega-3 fatty acids play a role in lowering inflammation and asthma outbreaks.

Unfortunately, most adults eat foods rich in omega-6 fatty acids, which can make asthma symptoms worse.

However, these adverse effects are offset by foods high in omega-3 fatty acids, such as salmon and flaxseeds.

21. Carrots

Carrots are high in vitamin A, a fat-soluble micronutrient critical to the formation of alveoli. These are the tiny air sacs of the lungs where gas exchange takes place.

Research suggests that taking in higher amounts of vitamin A during childhood is associated with better lung function and a lower risk for an asthma diagnosis in adolescents.

Another study found that taking vitamin A may lower the risk of developing emphysema. Not to mention, carrots are packed with other vitamins and minerals that can benefit your overall health.

22. Lentils

Lentils are high in magnesium, a necessary mineral for many biochemical reactions in the body. Studies found that people with chronic asthma and poor FEV1 measurements often have low magnesium levels in their bloodstream.

This explains why scientists believe magnesium sulfate can help relax the airways in people with severe asthma flare-ups. Increase your magnesium levels by eating more lentils in your diet.

23. Blueberries

Blueberries are packed with beneficial nutrients, such as resveratrol, which is a polyphenol compound that functions as an antioxidant in the body.

One study found that resveratrol can help decrease inflammation in the epithelial cells of the lungs. This is useful in preventing certain respiratory inflammatory illnesses from occurring.

Researchers also believe that resveratrol may be beneficial for lung impairment associated with COPD.

Furthermore, other research shows that resveratrol may have great potential in treating respiratory conditions by controlling the death of body cells, fibrosis, and the development of tumors.

24. Swiss Chard

Swiss chard is a leafy green vegetable that’s often overlooked in favor of more popular options, such as kale and spinach. But this nutrient-dense vegetable is worth adding to your diet for its many health benefits.

Swiss chard is rich in vitamins A, C, and K, as well as antioxidants like polyphenols and flavonoids. These nutrients offer anti-inflammatory effects and help protect cells from damage.

It’s also a good source of magnesium, a mineral that helps relax the smooth muscle tissue in the airways of the lungs.

Researchers also found that a magnesium deficiency was associated with worsening symptoms in patients with COPD. Leafy green consumption is also believed to reduce the risk of lung cancer.

25. Apples

Consumption of apples and the phytochemicals within them improves pulmonary health and reduces the effects of asthma, according to a study.

Physicians have known about the benefits of the high antioxidant activity of apples for many years. A separate study that focused on adult asthma and dietary antioxidants also touted the positive benefits of a diet that includes apples.

26. Beans

Beans and legumes are rich in prebiotics that feed healthy gut bacteria. This plays a role in lowering the risk of asthma and other inflammatory disorders.

study examining characteristics of the gut microbiota in limiting autoimmune diseases emphasized the importance of a diet rich in beans and legumes as a way to control the effects of inflammation.

27. Anchovies

Anchovies are small, oily fish commonly used as a flavor enhancer in many popular dishes. But these little fish pack a big nutritional punch and offer numerous health benefits.

Anchovies are an excellent source of omega-3 fatty acids, which have anti-inflammatory effects and can benefit the entire respiratory system.

Anchovies are also high in other beneficial nutrients, such as iron, calcium, and selenium. They’re a low-calorie, nutrient-dense food that’s worth adding to your diet for the many health benefits they have to offer.

28. Tomatoes

While low in calories, tomatoes are known for being packed with beneficial antioxidants. A study on how the intake of fruits and vegetables affects the prevalence of asthma in found that a diet rich in tomatoes has beneficial effects.

For example, tomatoes contain lycopene, which is an antioxidant that is believed to help promote bronchodilation, making it easier to breathe.

29. Yogurt

Yogurt is a dairy product that is made by fermenting milk with beneficial bacteria, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. It is a rich source of protein, calcium, and probiotics.

It also contains N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a compound used to treat respiratory diseases such as:

Probiotics, the beneficial bacteria found in yogurt, have been linked to improved respiratory health by reducing inflammation and supporting the immune system. A strong immune system is important for protecting against respiratory infections and illnesses.

30. Guava

Guava is a tropical fruit known for its sweet and slightly tart flavor and is a rich source of vitamins, minerals, and beneficial nutrients. Guava pulp contains antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that researchers believe may benefit patients with COPD.

It’s also high in vitamin C, which helps keep the immune system strong, preventing potentially harmful infections from reaching the lungs.

Whether it’s eaten fresh or in a smoothie, guava is a delicious and nutritious food that can help support your respiratory system.

31. Cocoa

Cocoa is the main ingredient in chocolate and is derived from the cacao bean. It is a rich source of antioxidants, flavonoids, and other nutrients that are beneficial for overall health.

Studies found that the flavonoids of cocoa may have protective effects on lung function. Additionally, some researchers believe that its properties can even help prevent lung cancer.

Remember: Moderation is key, as cocoa is also high in caffeine and sugar.

Worst Foods for Lung Health

While there are many foods that can support respiratory health, there are also certain foods that can be harmful to lung function. This includes the following:

  1. Bread
  2. Processed meat
  3. Sugar
  4. Milk
  5. Fast food
  6. Soda
  7. Cheese
  8. Eggs
  9. Corn
  10. Sodium

Read our in-depth guide on the worst foods for the lungs to learn more about why these foods must be avoided to protect your respiratory system.

Final Thoughts

A healthy and balanced diet can play a significant role in maintaining healthy lungs. From garlic, apples, and leafy greens to chili peppers, avocado, and clams, there are many foods that are not only delicious but also beneficial for your respiratory system.

By incorporating these foods into your diet, you can help improve your lung function, reduce inflammation, boost your immune system, and protect your lungs from harmful pollutants and other toxins.

So next time you plan your meals, don’t forget to include these lung-friendly foods for a healthy and tasty addition to your diet.

Remember, maintaining good lung health is important for overall health and well-being, so be sure to make it a priority.

Reminder: As always, it’s best to speak with your doctor before changing or including new foods in your diet.

John Landry, BS, RRT

Written by:

John Landry, BS, RRT

John Landry is a registered respiratory therapist from Memphis, TN, and has a bachelor's degree in kinesiology. He enjoys using evidence-based research to help others breathe easier and live a healthier life.


  • Varraso R, Barr RG, Willett WC, Speizer FE, Camargo CA Jr. Fish intake and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 2 large US cohorts. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Feb;101(2):354-61. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.114.094516. Epub 2014 Nov 26. PMID: 25646333; PMCID: PMC4307205.
  • Saadeh D, Salameh P, Caillaud D, Charpin D, De Blay F, Kopferschmitt C, Lavaud F, Annesi-Maesano I, Baldi I, Raherison C. Prevalence and association of asthma and allergic sensitization with dietary factors in schoolchildren: data from the french six cities study. BMC Public Health. 2015 Sep 30;15:993. doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-2320-2. PMID: 26423141; PMCID: PMC4589972.
  • Chen L, Zhu Y, Hu Z, Wu S, Jin C. Beetroot as a functional food with huge health benefits: Antioxidant, antitumor, physical function, and chronic metabolomics activity. Food Sci Nutr. 2021 Sep 9;9(11):6406-6420. doi: 10.1002/fsn3.2577. PMID: 34760270; PMCID: PMC8565237.
  • Yu S, Go GW, Kim W. Medium Chain Triglyceride (MCT) Oil Affects the Immunophenotype via Reprogramming of Mitochondrial Respiration in Murine Macrophages. Foods. 2019 Nov 5;8(11):553. doi: 10.3390/foods8110553. PMID: 31694322; PMCID: PMC6915711.
  • Liang, Jiurong, et al. “JCI – the ZIP8/SIRT1 Axis Regulates Alveolar Progenitor Cell Renewal in Aging and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 1 June 2022.
  • Townsend EA, Zhang Y, Xu C, Wakita R, Emala CW. Active components of ginger potentiate β-agonist-induced relaxation of airway smooth muscle by modulating cytoskeletal regulatory proteins. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2014 Jan;50(1):115-24. doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2013-0133OC. PMID: 23962082; PMCID: PMC3930933.
  • Abidi A, Gupta S, Agarwal M, Bhalla HL, Saluja M. Evaluation of Efficacy of Curcumin as an Add-on therapy in Patients of Bronchial Asthma. J Clin Diagn Res. 2014 Aug;8(8):HC19-24. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2014/9273.4705. Epub 2014 Aug 20. PMID: 25302215; PMCID: PMC4190737.
  • White D. Healthy Uses for Garlic. Nurs Clin North Am. 2021 Mar;56(1):153-156. doi: 10.1016/j.cnur.2020.12.001. PMID: 33549282.
  • Jin ZY, Wu M, Han RQ, Zhang XF, Wang XS, Liu AM, Zhou JY, Lu QY, Zhang ZF, Zhao JK. Raw garlic consumption as a protective factor for lung cancer, a population-based case-control study in a Chinese population. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2013 Jul;6(7):711-8. doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-13-0015. Epub 2013 May 8. PMID: 23658367; PMCID: PMC3718302.
  • Cai X, Wang C, Yu W, Fan W, Wang S, Shen N, Wu P, Li X, Wang F. Selenium Exposure and Cancer Risk: an Updated Meta-analysis and Meta-regression. Sci Rep. 2016 Jan 20;6:19213. doi: 10.1038/srep19213. PMID: 26786590; PMCID: PMC4726178.
  • Kolleck, Ingrid, et al. “Vitamin E as an Antioxidant of the Lung Mechanisms of Vitamin E Delivery to Alveolar Type II Cells.” ATS Journals, 2 Oct. 2002,
  • Tsiligianni IG, van der Molen T. A systematic review of the role of vitamin insufficiencies and supplementation in COPD. Respir Res. 2010 Dec 6;11(1):171. doi: 10.1186/1465-9921-11-171. PMID: 21134250; PMCID: PMC3016352.
  • Hanson, Corrine, et al. “Vitamin E Supplement Usage and Pulmonary Outcomes in COPDGene.” European Respiratory Society, 1 Sept. 2016,
  • “Office of Dietary Supplements – Vitamin a and Carotenoids.” National Institutes of Health,
  • Shareck, Martine, et al. “Inverse Association Between Dietary Intake of Selected Carotenoids and Vitamin C and Risk of Lung Cancer.” Frontiers, 28 Feb. 2017,
  • Semba RD, Chang SS, Sun K, Talegawkar S, Ferrucci L, Fried LP. Serum carotenoids and pulmonary function in older community-dwelling women. J Nutr Health Aging. 2012 Apr;16(4):291-6. doi: 10.1007/s12603-012-0034-z. PMID: 22499445; PMCID: PMC4035113.
  • Mueller L, Boehm V. Antioxidant activity of β-carotene compounds in different in vitro assays. Molecules. 2011 Jan 25;16(2):1055-69. doi: 10.3390/molecules16021055. PMID: 21350393; PMCID: PMC6259600.
  • Lindberg S, Mercke U. Capsaicin stimulates mucociliary activity by releasing substance P and acetylcholine. Eur J Respir Dis. 1986 Feb;68(2):96-106. PMID: 2422049.
  • Sandoiu, Ana. “Chili Pepper Compound May Slow Down Lung Cancer.” Medical News Today, 9 Apr. 2019.
  • Beigoli S, Behrouz S, Memar Zia A, Ghasemi SZ, Boskabady M, Marefati N, Kianian F, Khazdair MR, El-Seedi H, Boskabady MH. Effects of Allium cepa and Its Constituents on Respiratory and Allergic Disorders: A Comprehensive Review of Experimental and Clinical Evidence. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2021 Sep 11;2021:5554259. doi: 10.1155/2021/5554259. PMID: 34552650; PMCID: PMC8452398.
  • “A Handful of Nuts a Day Cuts the Risk of a Wide Range of Diseases.” ScienceDaily,
  • PROCTOR BE, LANG DA. Vitamin B12 content of soft- and hard-shell clams. Nature. 1951 Jul 7;168(4262):36-7. doi: 10.1038/168036a0. PMID: 14852946.
  • Alwarith J, Kahleova H, Crosby L, Brooks A, Brandon L, Levin SM, Barnard ND. The role of nutrition in asthma prevention and treatment. Nutr Rev. 2020 Nov 1;78(11):928-938. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nuaa005. PMID: 32167552; PMCID: PMC7550896.
  • Berk, Şeyda, et al. “A Comprehensive and Current Review on the Role of Flavonoids in Lung cancer–Experimental and Theoretical Approaches.” Science Direct, 17 Jan. 2022,
  • Carr AC. Vitamin C in Pneumonia and Sepsis. In: Chen Q, Vissers MCM, editors. Vitamin C: New Biochemical and Functional Insights [Internet]. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; 2020 Jan. Chapter Seven
  • Park HJ, Byun MK, Kim HJ, Kim JY, Kim YI, Yoo KH, Chun EM, Jung JY, Lee SH, Ahn CM. Dietary vitamin C intake protects against COPD: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2012. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2016 Oct 31;11:2721-2728. doi: 10.2147/COPD.S119448. PMID: 27843308; PMCID: PMC5098518.
  • Hemilä, Harri. “The Effect of Vitamin C on Bronchoconstriction and Respiratory Symptoms Caused by Exercise: A Review and Statistical Analysis – Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology.” BioMed Central, 27 Nov. 2014,
  • Dreher ML, Davenport AJ. Hass avocado composition and potential health effects. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2013;53(7):738-50. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2011.556759. PMID: 23638933; PMCID: PMC3664913.
  • Mehta AJ, Cassidy A, Litonjua AA, Sparrow D, Vokonas P, Schwartz J. Dietary anthocyanin intake and age-related decline in lung function: longitudinal findings from the VA Normative Aging Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Feb;103(2):542-50. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.115.121467. Epub 2016 Jan 20. PMID: 26791184; PMCID: PMC4733262.
  • Hanson C, Lyden E, Rennard S, Mannino DM, Rutten EP, Hopkins R, Young R. The Relationship between Dietary Fiber Intake and Lung Function in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2016 May;13(5):643-50. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201509-609OC. PMID: 26783997.
  • Blatter J, Brehm JM, Sordillo J, Forno E, Boutaoui N, Acosta-Pérez E, Alvarez M, Colón-Semidey A, Weiss ST, Litonjua AA, Canino G, Celedón JC. Folate Deficiency, Atopy, and Severe Asthma Exacerbations in Puerto Rican Children. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2016 Feb;13(2):223-30. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201508-549OC. PMID: 26561879; PMCID: PMC5015712.
  • Romieu I, Varraso R, Avenel V, Leynaert B, Kauffmann F, Clavel-Chapelon F. Fruit and vegetable intakes and asthma in the E3N study. Thorax. 2006 Mar;61(3):209-15. doi: 10.1136/thx.2004.039123. Epub 2006 Jan 5. PMID: 16396945; PMCID: PMC1974844.
  • Saadeh D, Salameh P, Caillaud D, Charpin D, De Blay F, Kopferschmitt C, Lavaud F, Annesi-Maesano I, Baldi I, Raherison C. Prevalence and association of asthma and allergic sensitization with dietary factors in schoolchildren: data from the french six cities study. BMC Public Health. 2015 Sep 30;15:993. doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-2320-2. PMID: 26423141; PMCID: PMC4589972.
  • Timoneda J, Rodríguez-Fernández L, Zaragozá R, Marín MP, Cabezuelo MT, Torres L, Viña JR, Barber T. Vitamin A Deficiency and the Lung. Nutrients. 2018 Aug 21;10(9):1132. doi: 10.3390/nu10091132. PMID: 30134568; PMCID: PMC6164133.
  • Talaei, Mohammad, et al. “Dietary Intake of Vitamin a, Lung Function and Incident Asthma in Childhood.” European Respiratory Society, 1 Oct. 2021,
  • Shen, Tianjiao, et al. “Consumption of Vitamin K and Vitamin a Are Associated With Reduced Risk of Developing Emphysema: NHANES 2007–2016.” Frontiers, 21 Apr. 2020,
  • Kılıc H, Kanbay A, Karalezlı A, Babaoglu E, Hasanoglu HC, Erel O, Ates C. The Relationship between Hypomagnesemia and Pulmonary Function Tests in Patients with Chronic Asthma. Med Princ Pract. 2018;27(2):139-144. doi: 10.1159/000487760. Epub 2018 Feb 18. PMID: 29455196; PMCID: PMC5968247.
  • Koushki M, Amiri-Dashatan N, Ahmadi N, Abbaszadeh HA, Rezaei-Tavirani M. Resveratrol: A miraculous natural compound for diseases treatment. Food Sci Nutr. 2018 Oct 26;6(8):2473-2490. doi: 10.1002/fsn3.855. PMID: 30510749; PMCID: PMC6261232.
  • Zhang Y, Guo L, Law BY, Liang X, Ma N, Xu G, Wang X, Yuan X, Tang H, Chen Q, Wong VK, Wang X. Resveratrol decreases cell apoptosis through inhibiting DNA damage in bronchial epithelial cells. Int J Mol Med. 2020 Jun;45(6):1673-1684. doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2020.4539. Epub 2020 Mar 16. PMID: 32186748; PMCID: PMC7169938.
  • Beijers RJHCG, Gosker HR, Schols AMWJ. Resveratrol for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: hype or hope? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2018 Mar;21(2):138-144. doi: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000444. PMID: 29200030; PMCID: PMC5811233.
  • Zhu XD, Lei XP, Dong WB. Resveratrol as a potential therapeutic drug for respiratory system diseases. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2017 Dec 15;11:3591-3598. doi: 10.2147/DDDT.S148868. PMID: 29290681; PMCID: PMC5736354.
  • Ninfali P, Angelino D. Nutritional and functional potential of Beta vulgaris cicla and rubra. Fitoterapia. 2013 Sep;89:188-99. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2013.06.004. Epub 2013 Jun 7. PMID: 23751216.
  • Boyer, J., Liu, R.H. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits. Nutr J 3, 5 (2004)
  • Shaheen SO, Sterne JA, Thompson RL, Songhurst CE, Margetts BM, Burney PG. Dietary antioxidants and asthma in adults: population-based case-control study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Nov 15;164(10 Pt 1):1823-8. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm.164.10.2104061. PMID: 11734430.
  • Richards JL, Yap YA, McLeod KH, Mackay CR, Mariño E. Dietary metabolites and the gut microbiota: an alternative approach to control inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Clin Transl Immunology. 2016 May 13;5(5):e82. doi: 10.1038/cti.2016.29. PMID: 27350881; PMCID: PMC4910123.
  • Costabile G, Della Pepa G, Vetrani C, Vitaglione P, Griffo E, Giacco R, Vitale M, Salamone D, Rivellese AA, Annuzzi G, Bozzetto L. An Oily Fish Diet Improves Subclinical Inflammation in People at High Cardiovascular Risk: A Randomized Controlled Study. Molecules. 2021 Jun 2;26(11):3369. doi: 10.3390/molecules26113369. PMID: 34199645; PMCID: PMC8199776.
  • Romieu I, Varraso R, Avenel V, Leynaert B, Kauffmann F, Clavel-Chapelon F. Fruit and vegetable intakes and asthma in the E3N study. Thorax. 2006 Mar;61(3):209-15. doi: 10.1136/thx.2004.039123. Epub 2006 Jan 5. PMID: 16396945; PMCID: PMC1974844.
  • Story EN, Kopec RE, Schwartz SJ, Harris GK. An update on the health effects of tomato lycopene. Annu Rev Food Sci Technol. 2010;1:189-210. doi: 10.1146/ PMID: 22129335; PMCID: PMC3850026.
  • Calverley P, Rogliani P, Papi A. Safety of N-Acetylcysteine at High Doses in Chronic Respiratory Diseases: A Review. Drug Saf. 2021 Mar;44(3):273-290. doi: 10.1007/s40264-020-01026-y. Epub 2020 Dec 16. PMID: 33326056; PMCID: PMC7892733.
  • Mortaz E, Adcock IM, Folkerts G, Barnes PJ, Paul Vos A, Garssen J. Probiotics in the management of lung diseases. Mediators Inflamm. 2013;2013:751068. doi: 10.1155/2013/751068. Epub 2013 May 8. PMID: 23737654; PMCID: PMC3662166.
  • Flores G, Dastmalchi K, Wu SB, Whalen K, Dabo AJ, Reynertson KA, Foronjy RF, D Armiento JM, Kennelly EJ. Phenolic-rich extract from the Costa Rican guava (Psidium friedrichsthalianum) pulp with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Potential for COPD therapy. Food Chem. 2013 Nov 15;141(2):889-95. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.03.025. Epub 2013 Mar 16. PMID: 23790863; PMCID: PMC5003620.
  • Garcia-Larsen V, Thawer N, Charles D, Cassidy A, van Zele T, Thilsing T, Ahlström M, Haahtela T, Keil T, Matricardi PM, Brożek G, Kowalski ML, Makowska J, Niżankowska-Mogilnicka E, Rymarczyk B, Loureiro C, Todo Bom A, Bachert C, Forsberg B, Janson C, Torén K, Potts JF, Burney PG. Dietary Intake of Flavonoids and Ventilatory Function in European Adults: A GA²LEN Study. Nutrients. 2018 Jan 15;10(1):95. doi: 10.3390/nu10010095. PMID: 29342980; PMCID: PMC5793323.
  • Rodríguez-García C, Sánchez-Quesada C, J Gaforio J. Dietary Flavonoids as Cancer Chemopreventive Agents: An Updated Review of Human Studies. Antioxidants (Basel). 2019 May 18;8(5):137. doi: 10.3390/antiox8050137. PMID: 31109072; PMCID: PMC6562590.

Recommended Reading