Question Answer
What kind of precautions do you take with AIDS? Standard Precautions
What Causes the AIDS Virus? HIV. You can have HIV but not have AIDS
What part of the immune system does the AIDS virus attack? The T4 lymphocytes which are critical in the immune process because they trigger other immune cells to Act?
What are 4 ways that the AIDS virus can be transmitted? 1) Sexual Contact 2) Exchange of body fluids 3) IV drug use 4) May be passed in breast milk
Name the 6 opportunistic infections that can occur as an result of AIDS? – Pneumocystis Carinii – Tuberculosis – Viral Pneumonia – Bacterial infections – Fungal Infections – Neoplastic Diseases (Tumors)
This type of infection which is typical in AIDS is a protozoan infection and it treated with Pentamidine? Pneumocystis Carinii
This type of infection is caused by Mycobacterium, can be tested by using Acid fast bacilli and is treated with Isoniazid (INH) and Rifampin Tuberculosis
This type of infection is caused by Cytomegalovirus and Often coexists with pneumocystis carinii Viral Pneumonia
In AIDS patients, this type of infection is caused by Streptococcus or Haemophilus influenzae and is treated with with penicillins (unless they become resistant or allergic) Bacterial infections
This type of infection is caused by either Histoplasmosis, Coccidiodomycosis, Candida albicans,Aspergillus and is treated by using either Amphotericn B, or Nystatin? Fungal Infections
This type of disease is typical in AIDS patients and is caused mainly by Kaposi Sarcoma – (a type of Skin Cancer) Neoplastic Diseases (Tumors)
What are the common diagnostic Tests to determine AIDS? – ELISA stands for: Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay – Western blot test – A CBC test to determine leukopenia (aka: decreased WBC) with an infection
Treatment will consist of these two parts? 1) Supportive therapy (counseling, education, oxygen therapy,) 2) Medications
Name the 4 drugs that can be administered for HIV drug therapy? 1) AZT (azidothymidine) 2) Retrovir 3) Zidovudine 4) Dedeoxyinosine (DDI) or Videx
This type of Pneumonia is frequently undiagnosed? Nonbacterial Pneumonia
What are the 3 Key signs of bacterial pneumonia? 1. Expectoration of yellow sputum 2. Increased White Blood Cell count 3. Presence of Fever
Aspiration pneumonia results in what type of anatomic alterations? – alveolar consolidation – atelectasis – inflammation of the alveoli
What term applies to the filling of alveolar spaces as a result of pneumonia? Effusion
The expression “walking pneumonia” is generally applied to patient with what typed of pneumonia? Mycoplasma pneumoniae
The most commonly found bacterial cause for pneumonia is: Streptococcus pneumoniae
Your patient has been hospitalized for 2 weeks and has a tracheostomy tube. Her secretions have a sweet smell and are green in color. What is the most likely organism causing her infection? Pseudomonas aeruginosa
A 75-year-old patient has had a stroke leaving him with dysphagia. What type of pneumonia is he at risk of developing? aspiration
A patient with the common cold and associated chest infection would be treated with all of the following EXCEPT: A. antibiotic B. bed rest C. ample fluids D. over-the-counter cold and cough medicine A. antibiotic
As the respiratory therapist, you have given supplemental oxygen to a patient with pneumonia. What would cause the patient to be hypoxemic? 1. Diffusion defect 2. Capillary shunting 3. Alveolar consolidation 4. Hypoventilation B. 2, 3 Pneumonia causes hypoxemia because of alveolar consolidation and related capillary shunting. A diffusion defect is found in patients with pulmonary fibrosis. Because of hypoxemia, patients with pneumonia will hyperventilate, not hypoventilate.
A patient with severe pneumonia can be expected to have the following: 1. chest pain 2. tachycardia 3. hemoptysis 4. cyanosis A. 4 B. 2, 3 C. 1, 2, 4 D. 1, 2, 3, 4 D. 1, 2, 3, 4
When auscultating over an area of pneumonia, what breath sound can be expected? A. Hyperresonance B. Wheezing C. Bronchial D. Vesicular C. Bronchial -Bronchial bs are heard in pneumonia pt with consolidation. Hyperresonance is a percussion note heard over an area of pneumothorax. Wheezing is heard when asthma pt is having bronchospasm. Vesicular bs are only heard over normal lung areas.
usually happens to pregnant women, Associated with asperiation pneumonia, can have tachycardia, cynaosis, dyspnea Mendelsohn’s Syndrome
The expression “walking pneumonia” is generally applied to a patient with what type of pneumonia? Mycoplasma
In the absence of a secondary bacterial infection, lung inflammation caused by the aspiration of gastric fluids usually becomes insignificant in approximately how many days? 3 days or 72 hours
What is the most common viral pulmonary complication of AIDS? cytomeglovirus
Because of hypoxemia associated with pneumonia, what respiratory care treatment may be needed? oxygen
Atelectasis is particularly common in this type of pneumonia? Aspiration
Almost always the cause of acute epiglottitis? Hemaphillus influenza
What term applies to the filling of alveolar spaces as a result of pneumonia? effusion
This type of infection is found in Human GI tract & likes wet environment? Pseudomonas Aeruginosa
Name the 3 kinds of Atypical infections? a. Legionella pneumophila b. Rickettsiae c. Mycoplasma