Near drowning is when someone almost dies from not being able to breathe while being immersed under water. When someone is rescued from a near-drowning situation, it is crucial that first aid and medical attention be implemented immediately. Here is our Test Bank regarding Near Drowning; take a look below:

 

Question Answer
How is drowning defined? suffocation and death as a result of submersion in liquid.
What is near drowning? situtation in which a victim survives a liquid submersion, at leat temporarily.
What is dry drowning? glottis spasms and prevents water from passing into the lungs.
What is wet drowning? glottis relaxes and allows water to flood the tracheobronchial tree and alveoli.
What is the response to a parasympathetic-mediated reflex. the bronchi constric.
What is the pathophysiologic responsible for? noncardiogenic pulmanary edema
What are the pathologic and structural changes in drowning? Laryngospasm and bronchial constrictionInterstitial edema,engorged perivascular and peribronchial spaces, alveolar walls, and interstitial spacesDec surfactantInc ST of alveolar fluidalveolar shrinkage and atelectasisfrothy white secretions
What are the clinical manifestations from drowning? Atelectasis, alveolar consolidation, increased alveolar-capillary membrane thickness and bronchospasm
What are the clinical data obtained with drowning? increased RR, stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors, decreased lung compliance,increased ventilatory rate relationship, stimulation of J receptors and anxiety, increased HR BP and cardiac output
What will the chest assessment be for drowning? crackles and rhonchi
What will the blood gas be for drowning? Acute Ventilatory Failure with hypoxemia
What are the radiologic findings in drowning? Fluffy infiltrates and pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum
What is the patients prognosis if they have been submerged in cold water for less than 60 minutes? Does not indicate poor prognosis.
What is the primary goal during transport of a drowned patient? high-quality CPR with 100% oxygen.
What do most drowned patients suffer from? hypoxemia, hypercapnia, and acidosis.
Question Answer
Anatomic alterations of the lung in Near drowning laryngospasm/bronchoconstriction, interstitial edema, decreased pulmonary surfactant, increased alveolar surface tension, atelectasis, frothy white secretions
Interstitial edema in near drowning includes engorgement of the perivascular and peribronchial spaces, alveolar walls, and interstitial spaces
Decreased surfactant causes _____ venous admixture increased
When does ARDS usually show up? 24-48 huors after pulmonary insult
What is dry drowning? victim passed out before inhaling any water so fluid doesnt get into distal airways
How many people drown each year in the U.S? 6000-8000
Children under 5 account for ___% of drowning deaths/year in the US 40
__% of drowning deaths occur in persons between 5 and 20 yrs old 20
About how many victims of near drowning are hospitalized annually? 8000
Describe the drowning or near drowning sequence 1-panic/violent struggle to return to surface, 2-period of calmness and apnea, 3-Swallowing fluid and vomiting, 4- gasping inspirations and aspiration, 5-convulsing, 6-coma, 7- death
What is the mammalian dive reflex? optimizes respiration to allow staying underwater for extended periods of time, more apparent in young children
Clinical data obtained at bedside on near drowning victim increased RR, HR, CO, BP; cyanosis; cough/ frothy pink sputum, stable bubbles; crackles and rhonchi
Frothy, white= no capillary leakage
Frothy, pink= pulmonary edema/ RBC’s
Near drowning victim ABG/Acute ventilatory failure with Hypoxemia Combined acidosis: pH-decreased, PaCO2-increased, PaO2-decreased, HCO3- decreased(lactic acid)
Chest xray findings on near drowning victim Fluffy infiltrates, pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum
General Management of Near wet drowning first responder, during transport, and at the hospital