Question Answer
What is the definition of Asthma Hyperreactivity of the airways
What does hyperreactivity of the airways lead to Bronchoconstriction & Bronchospasm Mucosal Swelling Increased production of thick tenacious mucus
What two types of asthmas are there? Extrinsic Intrinsic
What kind of asthma is extrinsic it is considered type one -allergenic
what things can onset extrinsic asthma pollen, mold, dander, foods Usually heredity Appears in children and adults younger than 30 excessive IgE antibody Early, late, biphasic dual reactions
What kind of asthma is intrinsic non allergenic Type II
What things can onset intrinsic asthma Air Pollutants exercise emotions usually no family history first seen after 30
What is the pathophysiology in asthma Increase IgE- especially on mast cell Inhaled allergen or intrinsic Allergen reacts to IgE Mast cell degranulates and realeases chemicals Histamine-Leukotrienes
What are signs, symptoms, and observations of asthma Increased RR, WOB, HR, CO, BP Prolonged (forceful) expiration Decreased PEFR
What are the breath sounds of asthma Wheezing- will always hear on expiration If heard on inspiration more serious Crackles/Rhonchi
What does it mean when you don’t hear wheezes when listening to a distress asthma pt no air movement- could be life threatening
What are the ABG results associated with asthma Increased pH decreased PaCO2- hyperventilation decreased PaO2 increased HCO3
What happens when mediators are released in asthma bronchoconstriction bronchospasm pulmonary vasodilation airway inflammation increase mucus production
If the PaCO2 rises dramically and suddenly during an asthma attack, what does that mean No air movement-very dangerous the pt is wearing out
What will an xray show with a pt with asthma no significant change may be slightly darked and increased capacity due to air trapping
What happens to the systolic BOP during an asthma attack decrease during inspiration by 10-20 mmHg
Which WBC increases during an asthma attack eosinophils and sputum -usually around 1-3% but in asthma 10%
What is the way to distinguish bronchitis/brocholitis from asthma WBC eosinophils
What will a PFT test show on an asthmatic Decreased Airflow Low peak flow Increased RV, FRC Diffusion normal PFT normal during between exacerbation
What is the the first treatment when it comes to asthma prevention
What are some medical treatments with pt that have asthma asthma action plan immunotherapy
What is immunotherapy antigen extract to desensitize pt
What is the 1st line of defense in asthma maintenance- long acting beta 2- serevent Inhaled steroids- flovent
What is the 2nd line of defense in asthma Rescue Beta 2 (albuterol, xopenex) anticholinergic-ipratropium
What is the 3rd line of defense in asthma Emergency Oral and IV steroids
What is the 4th in asthma Xanthines-aminophyline (side effects) Magnesium Sulfate (IV) Heliox
What are the special meds used in asthma luekotriene antagonist (LTRA) – Montelukast Sodium (Singulair)
What are the prophylatic names used in asthma Cromolyn (intal) and nedocromil (tilade)
When would you use xolair (omalizumab) 12 yrs of age and above have a moderate to severe persistent asthma have asthma triggered by year-round allergens in the air continue to have asthma symptoms even though they are taking inhaled steroids
What is the prognosis in asthma pts asthma action plan- control of asthma monitoring peak flow
What are other considerations in asthma treatments heliox back to back-contiuous SABA
True or False: A methocholine challenge can be used in the diagnoses of asthma True