Egan’s Chapter 6 Study Guide:

 

1. Absolute humidity: The mass of water vapor contained in a certain volume of air

2. Absolute zero: No kinetic energy

3. Adhesion: Attractive force between unlike molecules

4. ATPS: Ambient temperature, pressure, saturated

5. Avogadro’s Law: Equal volumes of gases contain the same number of molecules

6. The Bernoulli effect: Fluid passing through a tube that meets a constriction experiences a significant pressure drop. Fluid that flows through the constriction increases its velocity while the lateral wall pressure decreases.

7. Boiling: Heating a liquid to a temperature at which its vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure

8. Buoyancy in liquids: Occurs because the pressure below a submerged object always exceeds the pressure above it

9. Boyle’s Law: The volume of gas varies inversely with its pressure.

10. BTPS: Body temperature, pressure, saturated

11. Celsius to Fahrenheit: F = (C x 1.8) + 32

12. Charles’ Law: The volume of gas varies directly with its temperature

13. The Coanda effect: (Wall attachment) is observed when fluid flows through a small orifice with properly contoured downstream surfaces

14. Cohesion: Attractive force between like molecules

15. Combined Gas Law: Interaction of the other gas laws

16. Condensation: Change from gas to liquid

17. Conduction: Transfers heat in solids

18. Convection: Transfers heat in liquids and gases

19. Convert Celcius to Kelvin: K = C + 273

20. Critical temperature: The temperature above which the substance cannot exist in the liquid state

21. Dalton’s Law: The partial pressure of a gas in a mixture is proportional to its percentage in the mixture

22. Density of a gas: The ratio of its mass to its volume

23. Dew point: The temperature at which the water vapor in the air becomes saturated and condensation begins

24. Evaporation: When water enters the atmosphere at a temperature below its boiling point

25. Fahrenheit to Celsius: C = (F – 32) x 5/9

26. First law of thermodynamics: Energy can not be created or destroyed. Energy gain by a substance= energy lost by surroundings.

27. Fluid dynamics: The pressure exerted by a liquid in motion depends on the nature of the flow itself

28. Fluid entrainment: -The velocity of a fluid (gas) can increase greatly at the point of a constriction (sprayer on water hose). This can cause the lateral pressure to fall below atmospheric pressure. If an open tube is placed distal to the constriction, another fluid can be pulled in the primary flow stream.

29. Freezing: Opposite of melting

30. Freezing point: Temperature at which the substance freezes (same as melting point)

31. Gas pressure: Gas pressure in a liquid. Atmospheric pressure measured with a barometer.

32. Gaseous Diffusion: The movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to areas of lower concentration

33. Graham’s Law: The rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molar mass

34. Guy-Lussac’s Law: The pressure exerted by a gas varies directly with its absolute temperature

35. Heat transfer: Heat moves from hotter object to cooler one until temperatures are equal.

36. Henry’s Law: At a given temperature the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas above the liquid

37. Henry’s Law (Solubility of gases in liquids): The volume of gas dissolved in a liquid is a function of its solubility coefficient and its partial pressure

38. Hydrodynamics: The study of fluids in motion

39. Internal energy of matter: Potential energy, Kinetic energy.

40. Kinetic activity of gases: Gas molecules travel at high speeds in random fashion with frequent collisions. The velocity of gas molecules is directly proportional to its temperature.

41. Kinetic energy: Energy an object has due to its motion

42. Laminar flow: Fluid moving in discrete cylindrical layers or streamlines

43. Latent heat of fusion: The amount of energy required to change a unit mass of a substance from solid to liquid

44. Latent heat of vaporization: The amount of energy required to change a unit mass of a substance from liquid to gas

45. Melting: From solid to liquid state

46. Melting point: Temperature at which melting occurs

47. Molar volume of any gas: 22.4L at standard temperature and pressure

48. Partial pressure: The pressure exerted by a single gas in a gas mixture

49. Pascal’s law: Pressure depends on depth and density

50. Percent body humidity: -The ratio of the amount of water vapor in a volume of gas compared to the amount of the water in gas saturated at a normal body temperature of 37* C

51. Poiseuille’s Law: Predicts pressure required to produce given flow

52. Potential energy: Stored energy

53.Pressure in liquids: Depends on the height and weight density

54. Radiation: Occurs without direct contact between two substances

55. Relative humidity: The ratio of the amount of water in the air at a given temperature to the maximum amount it could hold at that temperature

56. Resistance: Causes a progressive decrease in fluid pressure as the fluid flows through a tube

57. STPD: Standard Temperature Pressure Dry

58. Surface tension: A force exerted by like molecules at a liquid’s surface

59. Surface tension: A measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid

60.Temperature scales: Kelvin, Celsius.

61. Thermal conductivity: The ability of an object to transfer heat



62. Three states of matter: Solid, Liquid, Gas

63. Turbulent flow: Loss of regular streamlines; fluid molecules form irregular eddy currents in a chaotic pattern

64. Vaporization: The change of state from a liquid to a gas

65. Viscosity of liquids: Force opposing a fluid’s flow (blood has 5x viscosity of water)

66. Water vapor pressure: The atmospheric pressure exerted by the water vapor in the air. It increases as the water vapor in air increases.

 

Egan’s Chapter 6 Practice Questions:

 

1. _________ have high levels of Thermal Conductivity.: Metals

2. *Combined Gas Law*: P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2 — the relationship between the pressure, volume, and temperature of a fixed amount of gas.

3. 2 Subjects of Thermodynamics: 1. Science studying the properties of matter at various temperatures. 2. Kinetics, (speed) of reactions of matter at various temperatures.

4. 2 Types of Vapor: 1. Boiling Point. 2. Evaporation.

5. 3 Physical Principles that Describe how energy is handled and transferred: 1. Conservation of Energy. 2. Thermodynamic Equilibrium. 3. Impossibility of Achieving Absolute Zero.

6. 4th State of Matter: Plasma (Fusion)

7. Absolute Humidity: a.k.a- water vapor. Actual Amount (or weight) of water vapor in a gas. It is measured in mg/L. It varies with temperature and pressure.

8. Absolute Humidity: The mass of water vapor contained in a certain volume of air.

9. Absolute Zero: (cryogenics) the lowest temperature theoretically attainable (at which the kinetic energy of atoms and molecules is minimal). The temp at which no kinetic energy exists. Molecules cease to vibrate; object has no measurable heat. It has not actually been achieved.

10. Adhesion: the property of sticking together (as of glue and wood) or the joining of surfaces of different composition. There is an attractive force between unlike molecules.

11. Air that if fully saturated w/water is fully saturated with water vapor has an absolute humidity of 43.8mg/L at 37 C, 760mm Hg, & water vapor pressure of 47mm Hg.

12. All matter has some kinetic energy.

13. Archimedes’ Principle: the buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.

14. Atoms of all matter at ordinary temperature are in constant motion.

15. Bernoulli Effect: as the velocity of airflow increases, pressure decreases with total energy remaining constant. Fluid passing through a tube that meets constriction experiences significant pressure drop. Fluid that flows through constriction increases it’s velocity while lateral wall pressure decreases.

16. Boiling (point): heating liquid to a temperature at which it’s vapor pressure exceeds atmospheric pressure. The boiling point of most liquefied gases is low.

17. Boyle’s Law: The relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas at constant temperture; when volume increase, pressure decreases.

18. Buoyancy (Archimedes’ Principle): The property of something weightless and insubstantial. Occurs because pressure below submerged objects always exceeds pressure above the object. Gases also exert buoyant forces. Helps keep solid particles suspended in gases (aerosols).

19. Celsius: Metric unit for measuring temperature. On this scale water freezes at zero and boils at 100. At -273 degrees C is where kinetic molecular activity stops which is equal to 0 K.

20. Change of State ( Water to Steam)

21. Change of State (Kinetic Activity or Pressure)

22. Charle’s Law: a principle that describes the relationship between the temperature and volume of a gas at constant pressure. Volume of a gas varies directly with its temperature. If the temperature goes up, so does volume. If it goes down, so does the volume.

23. Cohesion: the state of cohering or sticking together. It is an attractive force between like molecules.

24. Components of a Barometer is a measurement unit.

25. Conda Effect: is observed when fluid flows through small orifice w/ properly contoured downstream surfaces.

26. Condensation: A slight cooling of gas that causes its vapor to turn back into a liquid state.

27. Conduction: The main method of heat transfer in solids, via direct contact between molecules.

28. Conservation of Energy: Energy cannot be created or destroyed

29. Convection: Mixing of fluid molecules at different temperatures. Transfers heat in liquids and gases (e.g forced air heating in homes-fluid movements carry heat)

30. Conversions:

K = C + 273

F = C 9/5+32

C = 5/9(F-32)

*5/9 = 1.8

31. Dalton’s Law: partial pressure of gas in a mixture is proportional to it’s percentage in mixture

32. Density: the ratio of a gas’ mass to it’s volume.

33. Dew Point: The temperature at which condensation occurs. 100% RH still exists.

34. Energy Gain by substance =: energy lost by surroundings

35. Enthalpy: Total Measure of energy in a system- A.K.A., order of system

36. Entropy: (thermodynamics) a thermodynamic quantity representing the amount of energy in a system that is no longer available for doing mechanical work. Amount of energy in a system not available for work. Lowest amount of organization system can achieve ( Chaos)

37. Evaporation: When liquid changes into gas at a temperature below it’s boiling point. Water enters the atmosphere via evaporation when at a temperature lower than it’s boiling point (water vapor). Molecular water exerts pressure called water vapor pressure. Temperature influences evaporation most. The warmer the air, the more vapor it can hold.

38. Evaporation/Condensation: Form of vaporization. Change of state from liquid to Gas or Gas to Liquid. You will use this form of heat transfer the most in Respiratory Care

39. Farenheight: a temperature scale where 32 is freezing and 212 is boiling

40. Flow Patterns: the pattern that flow occurs, along with its shape.

41. Fluid Dynamics: Pressure exerted by a liquid in motion depends on nature of flow itself. Progressive decrease in fluid pressure occurs as fluid flows through tube due to resistance.

42. Fluid Entrainment: Velocity of fluid (gas) can increase greatly at point of constriction causing lateral pressure to fall below atmospheric pressure. If open tube is placed distal to constriction, another fluid can be pulled into primary flow stream (fluid entrainment).

43. Fluid’s Viscosity is directly proportional to:: cohesive forces between it’s molecules.

44. Fluidics: Fluidics is branch of engineering applying hydrodynamics principles in flow

circuits.

45. Freezing: the withdrawal of heat to change something from a liquid to a solid

46. Freezing Point: The temperature at which a liquid changes into a solid

47.Gas Pressure: All gases exert pressure. Gas pressure in a liquid is known as gas “tension”. Atmospheric pressure is measured with a barometer.

48. Gaseous Diffusion: movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to areas of lower concentration.

49. Gases: No fixed volume or shape; WEAK attractive forces. Gas molecules exhibit rapid, random motion with frequent collisions. When these molecules collide they tend to bounce off of each other rather than attach to one another.

50. Gay-Lussac’s Law: Pressure exerted by gas varies directly with it’s absolute temperature.

51. The heart must use more energy when: blood viscosity increases, as occurs in polycythemia (increase in red blood cell concentration).

52. Heat Transfer: When 2 objects of different temp coexist, heat will move from hotter to cooler objects until both are equal. (Example of transitioning from higher to lower state of order).

53. Heat Transfer can occur in 4 ways: 1. Conduction, 2. Convection, 3. Radiation, or 4. Evaporation/Condensation.

54. Henry’s Law (Solubility of gases in liquids): -Volume of gas dissolved in a liquid is a function of it’s solubility coefficient & it’s partial pressure.

55. Hydrodynamics: The study of fluid in motion

56. Impossibility of Achieving Absolute Zero (statistical Law): At absolute zero all processes cease; entropy is at minimum.

57. Kelvin: Based on molecular motion. Used by SI (systeme Internationale) units (zero points = to absolute zero).

58. Kinetic Activity of gases: Gas molecules travel at high speeds in random fashion w/frequent collisions. Velocity of gas molecules is directly proportional to it’s temperature.

59. Kinetic Energy: energy of motion; makes up most of gaseous internal energy.

60. Laminar Flow: Fluid moving in discrete cylindrical layers or streamlines

61. Law of Thermodynamics: (Heat; Transfer); The principle of conservation of energy. Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.

62. Liquid and Solid Phase Changes include what processes?: Melting, Freezing, or Sublimation

63. Liquid Oxygen Boils at: 183 degrees Celcius

64. Liquids: have fixed volumes, but adapt to the shape of their container. Atoms exhibit LESS degree of mutual attraction compared with solids. Shape is determined by numerous internal & external forces

65. Melting: Changeover from a solid to a liquid state

66. Melting Point: temperature at which melting occurs

67. Molar Volume & Gas Density: Ideal Molar volume of any gas = 22.4L at standard temperature and

pressure.

68. Partial Pressure: the pressure exerted by single a gas in a gas mixture

69. Patterns of Flow: Laminar Flow, Turbulent Flow.

70. Pitot Tube: (modified Venturi Tube) lessens effect of downstream pressure on fluid entrainment

71. Plasma Can React: to electromagnetic forces & flow freely like liquid or gas. These are not known to be relevant to the practice of respiratory care.

72. Plasma is a combo of: neural atoms, free electrons, and Atomic Nuclei.

73. Poiseuille’s Law: the relationship between the pressure, volume, and temperature of a fixed amount of gas; it predicts the pressure required to produce given flow.

74. Polycythemia: a disorder characterized by an abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells in the blood

75.Potential Energy: Energy of position (attractive forces between molecules). Weak in gas state. Makes up most of internal energy in solids & liquids.

76. Pressure: the force applied to a unit area of surface. Pressure depends on height and weight density.

77. Properties of Liquids: Pressure, Buoyancy, Specific Gravity, and Viscosity.

78. Radiation: Occurs without direct contact between two substances

79. Relative Humidity: the ratio of the amount of water in the air at a given temperature to the maximum amount it could hold at that temperature. Ther % RH = Content (Absolute Humidity)/Saturated Capacity X 100

80. Relative Humidity (RH): When gas is not fully saturated. Water Vapor Content can be expressed in relative terms. Ratio of the actual water vapor content to its saturated capacity at a given temperature.

81. Reynold’s Number: NR=v*d2r/h

82. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is called conservation of energy and is described as:: The energy cannot be created, nor destroyed

83. Solids: have HIGH degree of internal order, Fixed volume and shape, Strong mutual attractive force between atoms, Molecules have the shortest distance to travel before collision. This motion referred to as a “jiggle”.

84. Specific Gravity: the density of a substance relative to the density of water. Ratio of density of one fluid when compared with the density of another reference substance (typically, water)

85. States of matter: Solid, Liquid, or Gas.

86. The stronger the cohesive forces the ______ the fluid viscosity: Greater

87. Sublimation: a change directly from the solid to the gaseous state without becoming liquid (Occurs because vapor pressure is low enough (like dry ice)).

88. Surface Tension: a phenomenon at the surface of a liquid caused by intermolecular forces. Force exerted by like molecules at liquid’s surface (why bubbles retain spherical shape).

89. Temperature: Is a measurement of heat (collision of molecules). Gas temperature is directly proportional to it’s kinetic energy; closely related to kinetic energy. Most of it’s internal energy is spent keeping molecules in motion.

90. Temperature Scales: Farenheight (F), Celsius (C), Kelvin (K)

91. Thermal Conductivity: the ability of an object to transfer heat. A measure to quantify heat transfer between objects.

92. Thermodynamic Equilibrium: Given time all systems will achieve lowest possible energy state (entropy).

93. Transferring from K – C: To go from Celsius to Kelvin add 273. To go from Kelvin to Celsius subtract 273.

94. Turbulent Flow: Loss of regular streamlines; fluid molecules from irregular eddy currents in a chaotic pattern is predicted by using Reynold’s Number.

95. Two Major Types of Internal Energy: 1. Potential Energy, 2. Kinetic Energy

96. Vaporization: The conversion of a liquid to a gas or vapor

97. Venturi Tube: Venturi tube is modified entrainment device. It widens just after its jet or nozzle. Helps restore fluid pressure back toward preset levels.

98. Viscosity: resistance of a liquid to shear forces (and hence to flow). Force opposing fluid’s flow.

99. Viscosity of Blood: Blood has Viscosity five times greater than water

100. What is Radiation Heat Transfer: Heat Transfer That Occurs without Direct Physical Contact

 

Egan’s Chapter 6 Test Bank:

 

1. What is the ideal molar volume of any gas?:  22.4 L

2. Air that is fully saturated with water vapor at 37 degrees Celsius has a water vapor pressure of _____mmHg and an absolute humidity of _____mg/l.:  47, 43.8

3. Degrees Kelvin=degrees Celsius + ____.:  273

4. The lowest possible temperature that can be achieved and there is no kinetic energy.:  Absolute Zero



5. The attractive force between unlike molecules.:  Adhesion

6. A simple mechanical pressure gauge commonly used in homes.:  Aneroid barometer

7. The law that states that the 1-g atomic weight of any substance contains exactly the same number of atoms, molecules, or ions.:  Avogadro’s law

8. When a fluid flows through a tube of uniform diameter, pressure decreases progressively over the tube length.:  Bernoulli effect

9. The temperature at which vapor pressure of a liquid exceeds atmospheric pressure.:  Boiling point

10. Archimedes’ principle explains the difference in liquid pressure that creates an upward or supporting force. What is this called?:  Buoyancy

11. A phenomenon in which liquid in a small tube moves upward against gravity.:  Capillary action

12. The attractive force between like molecules.:  Cohesion

13. What is the change of state from a gas to a liquid called?:  Condensation

14. What is the transfer of heat by direct contact?:  Conduction

15. What are the four ways heat is transferred?:  Conduction, convection, radiation, evaporation & condensation.

16. The law stating that the total pressure of a mixture of gases must equal the sum of the partial pressures of all component gases.:  Dalton’s law

17. The ratio of the mass of a substance to its volume.:  Density

18. The temperature at which condensation begins.:  Dew point

19. What is the first law of thermodynamics?:  Energy can neither be created nor destroyed

20. What is the total measure of energy in a system?:  Enthalpy

21. What is the term for the amount of energy in a system that is unavailable for work?:  Entropy

22. What is the form of vaporization in which heat is taken from the air surrounding the liquid, cooling the air?:  Evaporation

23. The law that states that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its gram molecular weight.: Graham’s Law

24. The pressure exerted by a liquid depends on what 2 factors?:  Height and weight density (weight per unit volume)

25. The law that states the volume of a gas that dissolves in a liquid is equal to its solubility coefficient times its partial pressure.:  Henry’s law

26. The study of fluids in motion.:  Hydrodynamics

27. What is the energy of motion?:  Kinetic energy

28. In this type of flow, a fluid moves in cylindrical layers, or streamlines.:  Laminar flow

29. According to this law, the pressure varies directly with the surface tension of the liquid and inversely with its radius.:  Laplace’s law

30. The extra heat needed to change a solid to a liquid.:  Latent heat of fusion

31. Energy required to vaporize a liquid.:  Latent heat of vaporization

32. The curved surface formed at the top of liquid in a tube:  Meniscus

33. The pressure exerted by a single gas in a mixture:  Partial pressure

34. What principle explains that the pressure of a given liquid is the same at any specific depth regardless of the container’s shape because the pressure of a liquid acts equally in all directions?:  Pascal’s principle

35. What is the energy of position?:  Potential energy

36. The volume of a gas that will dissolve in 1 ml of a given liquid at standard pressure and specified temperature:  Solubility coefficient

37. The ratio of the density of one fluid compared with the density of another reference substance, which is typically water:  Specific gravity

38. Transition of a solid to a vapor without becoming a liquid as an intermediary form:  Sublimation

39. A force exerted by like molecules at the surface of a liquid:  Surface tension

40. A pattern of flow that is irregular and chaotic:  Turbulent flow

41. What is the change of state from liquid to gas called?:  Vaporization

42. What is the force opposing a fluid’s flow?:  Viscosity

43. The pressure exerted by molecular water:  Water vapor pressure

 

More Study Questions:

 

1. The factors that influence the vaporization of water are: the boiling point and evaporation. The boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which its vapor pressure exceeds its atmospheric pressure. Evaporation is when a liquid changes into a gas at a temperature lower than its

boiling point. Both play a role in vaporization of water due to the change of states.

2. Heat transfer occurs among substances by: what the first law of thermodynamics that says: heat will move from the hotter object to the cooler object until the objects’ temperatures are equal. So, when two objects exist at different temperatures this is an example of transitioning from a higher to lower state; Heat transfer can be affected in these ways: Conduction, Convection, Radiation, Evaporation, and Condensation.

3. The principles that govern the flow of fluids are: 1. Flow resistance: equals the difference in pressure between the two points along the tube divided by the actual flow. 2. Laminar Flow: fluid moves in discrete cylindrical layers or streamlines: Poiseuille’s law- driving pressure increases whenever the fluid viscosity, tube length, or flow increases. 

4. The properties that characterize the three states of matter are: 1. Solids: Have a high degree of internal order. Have a fixed volume and shape. Strong mutual attractive force between atoms. Molecules have the shortest distance to travel before collision (aka they “jiggle”). 2. Liquids: have a fixed volume, but adapt the shape of their container. Atoms show less degree of mutual attraction compared to solids. 3. Gases: No fixed volume or shape; weak attractive forces. Gas molecules show rapid, random motion with frequent motion.

5. Substances undergo change of state by: their Liquid to Solid phase changes (melting and freezing) and Liquid to Vapor phase changes (vaporization). Each phase change also correlates to their Melting, Freezing, and Boiling points.

6. The three common temperature scales: Kelvin, Celsius, and Farenheight.

7. Water vapor capacity, absolute humidity, and relative humidity are related by: condensation; this is due to gas turning into a liquid. In clinical practice, the calculation of humidity deficit is helpful when it comes to the hygroscopic condenser humidifier. It simulates a real human nose by helping the patient humidify their air as they breathe.

8. When predicting gas behavior under changing conditions, including at extremes of temperature and pressure is because: of their weak attractive forces. High temperatures increase the kinetic activity of gas molecules far foreshadows these forces. Low temperatures, kinetic activity lessens, these forces become more important. Low pressures permit gas molecules to move freely about with little mutual attraction. High pressures crowd molecules together increasing the influence of these forces.