Egan’s Chapter 6 Study Guide:
1. Absolute humidity: The mass of water vapor contained in a certain volume of air
2. Absolute zero: No kinetic energy
3. Adhesion: Attractive force between unlike molecules
4. ATPS: Ambient temperature, pressure, saturated
5. Avogadro’s Law: Equal volumes of gases contain the same number of molecules
6. The Bernoulli effect: Fluid passing through a tube that meets a constriction experiences a significant pressure drop. Fluid that flows through the constriction increases its velocity while the lateral wall pressure decreases.
7. Boiling: Heating a liquid to a temperature at which its vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure
8. Buoyancy in liquids: Occurs because the pressure below a submerged object always exceeds the pressure above it
9. Boyle’s Law: The volume of gas varies inversely with its pressure.
10. BTPS: Body temperature, pressure, saturated
11. Celsius to Fahrenheit: F = (C x 1.8) + 32
12. Charles’ Law: The volume of gas varies directly with its temperature
13. The Coanda effect: (Wall attachment) is observed when fluid flows through a small orifice with properly contoured downstream surfaces
14. Cohesion: Attractive force between like molecules
15. Combined Gas Law: Interaction of the other gas laws
16. Condensation: Change from gas to liquid
17. Conduction: Transfers heat in solids
18. Convection: Transfers heat in liquids and gases
19. Convert Celcius to Kelvin: K = C + 273
20. Critical temperature: The temperature above which the substance cannot exist in the liquid state
21. Dalton’s Law: The partial pressure of a gas in a mixture is proportional to its percentage in the mixture
22. Density of a gas: The ratio of its mass to its volume
23. Dew point: The temperature at which the water vapor in the air becomes saturated and condensation begins
24. Evaporation: When water enters the atmosphere at a temperature below its boiling point
25. Fahrenheit to Celsius: C = (F – 32) x 5/9
26. First law of thermodynamics: Energy can not be created or destroyed. Energy gain by a substance= energy lost by surroundings.
27. Fluid dynamics: The pressure exerted by a liquid in motion depends on the nature of the flow itself
28. Fluid entrainment: -The velocity of a fluid (gas) can increase greatly at the point of a constriction (sprayer on water hose). This can cause the lateral pressure to fall below atmospheric pressure. If an open tube is placed distal to the constriction, another fluid can be pulled in the primary flow stream.
29. Freezing: Opposite of melting
30. Freezing point: Temperature at which the substance freezes (same as melting point)
31. Gas pressure: Gas pressure in a liquid. Atmospheric pressure measured with a barometer.
32. Gaseous Diffusion: The movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to areas of lower concentration
33. Graham’s Law: The rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molar mass
34. Guy-Lussac’s Law: The pressure exerted by a gas varies directly with its absolute temperature
35. Heat transfer: Heat moves from hotter object to cooler one until temperatures are equal.
36. Henry’s Law: At a given temperature the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas above the liquid
37. Henry’s Law (Solubility of gases in liquids): The volume of gas dissolved in a liquid is a function of its solubility coefficient and its partial pressure
38. Hydrodynamics: The study of fluids in motion
39. Internal energy of matter: Potential energy, Kinetic energy.
40. Kinetic activity of gases: Gas molecules travel at high speeds in random fashion with frequent collisions. The velocity of gas molecules is directly proportional to its temperature.
41. Kinetic energy: Energy an object has due to its motion
42. Laminar flow: Fluid moving in discrete cylindrical layers or streamlines
43. Latent heat of fusion: The amount of energy required to change a unit mass of a substance from solid to liquid
44. Latent heat of vaporization: The amount of energy required to change a unit mass of a substance from liquid to gas
45. Melting: From solid to liquid state
46. Melting point: Temperature at which melting occurs
47. Molar volume of any gas: 22.4L at standard temperature and pressure
48. Partial pressure: The pressure exerted by a single gas in a gas mixture
49. Pascal’s law: Pressure depends on depth and density
50. Percent body humidity: -The ratio of the amount of water vapor in a volume of gas compared to the amount of the water in gas saturated at a normal body temperature of 37* C
51. Poiseuille’s Law: Predicts pressure required to produce given flow
52. Potential energy: Stored energy
53.Pressure in liquids: Depends on the height and weight density
54. Radiation: Occurs without direct contact between two substances
55. Relative humidity: The ratio of the amount of water in the air at a given temperature to the maximum amount it could hold at that temperature
56. Resistance: Causes a progressive decrease in fluid pressure as the fluid flows through a tube
57. STPD: Standard Temperature Pressure Dry
58. Surface tension: A force exerted by like molecules at a liquid’s surface
59. Surface tension: A measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid
60.Temperature scales: Kelvin, Celsius.
61. Thermal conductivity: The ability of an object to transfer heat
62. Three states of matter: Solid, Liquid, Gas
63. Turbulent flow: Loss of regular streamlines; fluid molecules form irregular eddy currents in a chaotic pattern
64. Vaporization: The change of state from a liquid to a gas
65. Viscosity of liquids: Force opposing a fluid’s flow (blood has 5x viscosity of water)
66. Water vapor pressure: The atmospheric pressure exerted by the water vapor in the air. It increases as the water vapor in air increases.
Egan’s Chapter 6 Practice Questions:
1. _________ have high levels of Thermal Conductivity.: Metals
2. *Combined Gas Law*: P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2 — the relationship between the pressure, volume, and temperature of a fixed amount of gas.
3. 2 Subjects of Thermodynamics: 1. Science studying the properties of matter at various temperatures. 2. Kinetics, (speed) of reactions of matter at various temperatures.
4. 2 Types of Vapor: 1. Boiling Point. 2. Evaporation.
5. 3 Physical Principles that Describe how energy is handled and transferred: 1. Conservation of Energy. 2. Thermodynamic Equilibrium. 3. Impossibility of Achieving Absolute Zero.
6. 4th State of Matter: Plasma (Fusion)
7. Absolute Humidity:
8. Absolute Humidity: The mass of water vapor contained in a certain volume of air.
9. Absolute Zero: (cryogenics) the lowest temperature theoretically attainable (at which the kinetic energy of atoms and molecules is minimal). The temp at which no kinetic energy exists. Molecules cease to vibrate; object has no measurable heat. It has not actually been achieved.
10. Adhesion: the property of sticking together (as of glue and wood) or the joining of surfaces of different composition. There is an attractive force between unlike molecules.
11. Air that if fully saturated w/water is fully saturated with water vapor has an absolute humidity of 43.8mg/L at 37 C, 760mm Hg, & water vapor pressure of 47mm Hg.
12. All matter has some kinetic energy.
13. Archimedes’ Principle: the buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.
14. Atoms of all matter at ordinary temperature are in constant motion.
15. Bernoulli Effect: as the velocity of airflow increases, pressure decreases with total energy remaining constant. Fluid passing through a tube that meets
16. Boiling (point): heating liquid to a temperature at which
17. Boyle’s Law: The relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas at constant
18. Buoyancy (Archimedes’ Principle): The property of something weightless and insubstantial. Occurs because pressure below submerged objects always exceeds pressure above the object. Gases also exert buoyant forces. Helps keep solid particles suspended in gases (aerosols).
19. Celsius: Metric unit for measuring temperature. On this scale water freezes at zero and boils at 100. At -273 degrees C is where kinetic molecular activity stops which is equal to 0 K.
20. Change of State ( Water to Steam)
21. Change of State (Kinetic Activity or Pressure)
22. Charle’s Law: a principle that describes the relationship between the temperature and volume of a gas at constant pressure. Volume of a gas varies directly with its temperature. If the temperature goes up, so does volume. If it goes down, so does the volume.
23. Cohesion: the state of cohering or sticking together. It is an attractive force between like molecules.
24. Components of a Barometer is a measurement unit.
25. Conda Effect: is observed when fluid flows through small orifice w/ properly contoured downstream surfaces.
26. Condensation: A slight cooling of gas that causes its vapor to turn back into a liquid state.
27. Conduction: The main method of heat transfer in solids, via direct contact between molecules.
28. Conservation of Energy: Energy cannot be created or destroyed
29. Convection: Mixing of fluid molecules at different temperatures. Transfers heat in liquids and gases (
K = C + 273
F = C 9/5+32
C = 5/9(F-32)
*5/9 = 1.8
31. Dalton’s Law: partial pressure of gas in a mixture is proportional to
32. Density: the ratio of a gas’ mass to
33. Dew Point: The temperature at which condensation occurs. 100% RH still exists.
34. Energy Gain by substance =: energy lost by surroundings
35. Enthalpy: Total Measure of energy in a system- A.K.A., order of system
36. Entropy: (thermodynamics) a thermodynamic quantity representing the amount of energy in a system that is no longer available for doing mechanical work. Amount of energy in a system not available for work. Lowest amount of organization system can achieve ( Chaos)
37. Evaporation: When liquid changes into gas at a temperature below
38. Evaporation/Condensation: Form of vaporization. Change of state from liquid to Gas or Gas to Liquid. You will use this form of heat transfer the most in Respiratory Care
39. Farenheight: a temperature scale where 32 is freezing and 212 is boiling
40. Flow Patterns: the pattern that flow occurs, along with its shape.
41. Fluid Dynamics: Pressure exerted by a liquid in motion depends on nature of flow itself. Progressive decrease in fluid pressure occurs as fluid flows through tube due to resistance.
42. Fluid Entrainment: Velocity of fluid (gas) can increase greatly at point of constriction causing lateral pressure to fall below atmospheric pressure. If open tube is placed distal to constriction, another fluid can be pulled into primary flow stream (fluid entrainment).
43. Fluid’s Viscosity is directly proportional to:: cohesive forces between
44. Fluidics: Fluidics is branch of engineering applying hydrodynamics principles in flow
45. Freezing: the withdrawal of heat to change something from a liquid to a solid
46. Freezing Point: The temperature at which a liquid changes into a solid
47.Gas Pressure: All gases exert pressure. Gas pressure in a liquid is known as gas “tension”. Atmospheric pressure is measured with a barometer.
48. Gaseous Diffusion: movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to areas of lower concentration.
49. Gases: No fixed volume or shape; WEAK attractive forces. Gas molecules exhibit rapid, random motion with frequent collisions. When these molecules collide they tend to bounce off of each other rather than attach to one another.
50. Gay-Lussac’s Law: Pressure exerted by gas varies directly with
51. The heart must use more energy when: blood viscosity increases, as occurs in polycythemia (increase in red blood cell concentration).
52. Heat Transfer: When 2 objects of different temp coexist, heat will move from hotter to cooler objects until both are equal. (Example of transitioning from higher to lower state of order).
53. Heat Transfer can occur in 4 ways: 1. Conduction, 2. Convection, 3. Radiation, or 4. Evaporation/Condensation.
54. Henry’s Law (Solubility of gases in liquids): -Volume of gas dissolved in a liquid is a function of
55. Hydrodynamics: The study of fluid in motion
56. Impossibility of Achieving Absolute Zero (statistical Law): At absolute zero all processes cease; entropy is at minimum.
57. Kelvin: Based on molecular motion. Used by SI (
58. Kinetic Activity of gases: Gas molecules travel at high speeds in random fashion w/frequent collisions. Velocity of gas molecules is directly proportional to
59. Kinetic Energy: energy of motion; makes up most of gaseous internal energy.
60. Laminar Flow: Fluid moving in discrete cylindrical layers or streamlines
61. Law of Thermodynamics: (Heat; Transfer); The principle of conservation of energy. Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
62. Liquid and Solid Phase Changes include what processes?: Melting, Freezing, or Sublimation
63. Liquid Oxygen Boils at: 183 degrees Celcius
64. Liquids: have fixed volumes, but adapt to the shape of their container. Atoms exhibit LESS degree of mutual attraction compared with solids. Shape is determined by numerous internal & external forces
65. Melting: Changeover from a solid to a liquid state
66. Melting Point: temperature at which melting occurs
67. Molar Volume & Gas Density: Ideal Molar volume of any gas = 22.4L at standard temperature and
68. Partial Pressure: the pressure exerted by single a gas in a gas mixture
69. Patterns of Flow: Laminar Flow, Turbulent Flow.
70. Pitot Tube: (modified Venturi Tube) lessens effect of downstream pressure on fluid entrainment
71. Plasma Can React: to electromagnetic forces & flow freely like liquid or gas. These are not known to be relevant to the practice of respiratory care.
72. Plasma is a combo of:
73. Poiseuille’s Law: the relationship between the pressure, volume, and temperature of a fixed amount of gas; it predicts the pressure required to produce given flow.
74. Polycythemia: a disorder characterized by an abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells in the blood
75.Potential Energy: Energy of position (attractive forces between molecules). Weak in gas state. Makes up most of internal energy in solids & liquids.
76. Pressure: the force applied to a unit area of surface. Pressure depends on height and weight density.
77. Properties of Liquids: Pressure, Buoyancy, Specific Gravity, and Viscosity.
78. Radiation: Occurs without direct contact between two substances
79. Relative Humidity: the ratio of the amount of water in the air at a given temperature to the maximum amount it could hold at that temperature. Ther % RH = Content (Absolute Humidity)/Saturated Capacity X 100
80. Relative Humidity (RH): When gas is not fully saturated. Water Vapor Content can be expressed in relative terms. Ratio of the actual water vapor content to its saturated capacity at a given temperature.
81. Reynold’s Number: NR=v*d2r/h
82. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is called conservation of energy and is described as:: The energy cannot be created, nor destroyed
83. Solids: have HIGH degree of internal order, Fixed volume and shape, Strong mutual attractive force between atoms, Molecules have the shortest distance to travel before collision. This motion referred to as a “jiggle”.
84. Specific Gravity: the density of a substance relative to the density of water. Ratio of density of one fluid when compared with the density of another reference substance (typically, water)
85. States of matter: Solid, Liquid, or Gas.
86. The stronger the cohesive forces the ______ the fluid viscosity: Greater
87. Sublimation: a change directly from the solid to the gaseous state without becoming liquid (Occurs because vapor pressure is low enough (like dry ice)).
88. Surface Tension: a phenomenon at the surface of a liquid caused by intermolecular forces. Force exerted by like molecules at liquid’s surface (why bubbles retain spherical shape).
89. Temperature: Is a measurement of heat (collision of molecules). Gas temperature is directly proportional to
90. Temperature Scales:
91. Thermal Conductivity: the ability of an object to transfer heat. A measure to quantify heat transfer between objects.
92. Thermodynamic Equilibrium: Given time all systems will achieve lowest possible energy state (entropy).
93. Transferring from K – C: To go from Celsius to Kelvin add 273. To go from Kelvin to Celsius subtract 273.
94. Turbulent Flow: Loss of regular streamlines; fluid molecules from irregular eddy currents in a chaotic pattern is predicted by using Reynold’s Number.
95. Two Major Types of Internal Energy: 1. Potential Energy, 2. Kinetic Energy
96. Vaporization: The conversion of a liquid to a gas or vapor
97. Venturi Tube: Venturi tube is modified entrainment device. It widens just after its jet or nozzle. Helps restore fluid pressure back toward preset levels.
98. Viscosity: resistance of a liquid to shear forces (and hence to flow). Force opposing fluid’s flow.
99. Viscosity of Blood: Blood has Viscosity five times greater than water
100. What is Radiation Heat Transfer: Heat Transfer That Occurs without Direct Physical Contact
Egan’s Chapter 6 Test Bank:
1. What is the ideal molar volume of any gas?: 22.4 L
2. Air that is fully saturated with water vapor at 37 degrees Celsius has a water vapor pressure of _____mmHg and an absolute humidity of _____mg/l.: 47, 43.8
3. Degrees Kelvin=degrees Celsius + ____.: 273
4. The lowest possible temperature that can be achieved and there is no kinetic energy.: Absolute Zero
5. The attractive force between unlike molecules.: Adhesion
6. A simple mechanical pressure gauge commonly used in homes.: Aneroid barometer
7. The law that states that the 1-g atomic weight of any substance contains exactly the same number of atoms, molecules, or ions.: Avogadro’s law
8. When a fluid flows through a tube of uniform diameter, pressure decreases progressively over the tube length.: Bernoulli effect
9. The temperature at which vapor pressure of a liquid exceeds atmospheric pressure.: Boiling point
10. Archimedes’ principle explains the difference in liquid pressure that creates an upward or supporting force. What is this called?: Buoyancy
11. A phenomenon in which liquid in a small tube moves upward against gravity.: Capillary action
12. The attractive force between like molecules.: Cohesion
13. What is the change of state from a gas to a liquid called?: Condensation
14. What is the transfer of heat by direct contact?: Conduction
15. What are the four ways heat is transferred?: Conduction, convection, radiation, evaporation & condensation.
16. The law stating that the total pressure of a mixture of gases must equal the sum of the partial pressures of all component gases.: Dalton’s law
17. The ratio of the mass of a substance to its volume.: Density
18. The temperature at which condensation begins.: Dew point
19. What is the first law of thermodynamics?: Energy can neither be created nor destroyed
20. What is the total measure of energy in a system?: Enthalpy
21. What is the term for the amount of energy in a system that is unavailable for work?: Entropy
22. What is the form of vaporization in which heat is taken from the air surrounding the liquid, cooling the air?: Evaporation
23. The law that states that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its gram molecular weight.: Graham’s Law
24. The pressure exerted by a liquid depends on what 2 factors?: Height and weight density (weight per unit volume)
25. The law that states the volume of a gas that dissolves in a liquid is equal to its solubility coefficient times its partial pressure.: Henry’s law
26. The study of fluids in motion.: Hydrodynamics
27. What is the energy of motion?: Kinetic energy
28. In this type of flow, a fluid moves in cylindrical layers, or streamlines.: Laminar flow
29. According to this law, the pressure varies directly with the surface tension of the liquid and inversely with its radius.: Laplace’s law
30. The extra heat needed to change a solid to a liquid.: Latent heat of fusion
31. Energy required to vaporize a liquid.: Latent heat of vaporization
32. The curved surface formed at the top of liquid in a tube: Meniscus
33. The pressure exerted by a single gas in a mixture: Partial pressure
34. What principle explains that the pressure of a given liquid is the same at any specific depth regardless of the container’s shape because the pressure of a liquid acts equally in all directions?: Pascal’s principle
35. What is the energy of position?: Potential energy
36. The volume of a gas that will dissolve in 1 ml of a given liquid at standard pressure and specified temperature: Solubility coefficient
37. The ratio of the density of one fluid compared with the density of another reference substance, which is typically water: Specific gravity
39. A force exerted by like molecules at the surface of a liquid: Surface tension
40. A pattern of flow that is irregular and chaotic: Turbulent flow
41. What is the change of state from liquid to gas called?: Vaporization
42. What is the force opposing a fluid’s flow?: Viscosity
43. The pressure exerted by molecular water: Water vapor pressure
More Study Questions:
1. The factors that influence the vaporization of water are: the boiling point and evaporation. The boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which its vapor pressure exceeds its atmospheric pressure. Evaporation is when a liquid changes into a gas at a temperature lower than its
boiling point. Both play a role in vaporization of water due to the change of states.
2. Heat transfer occurs among substances by: what the first law of thermodynamics that says: heat will move from the hotter object to the cooler object until the objects’ temperatures are equal. So, when two objects exist at different temperatures this is an example of transitioning from a higher to lower state; Heat transfer can be affected in these ways: Conduction, Convection, Radiation, Evaporation, and Condensation.
3. The principles that govern the flow of fluids are: 1. Flow resistance: equals the difference in pressure between the two points along the tube divided by the actual flow. 2. Laminar Flow: fluid moves in discrete cylindrical layers or streamlines: Poiseuille’s law- driving pressure increases whenever the fluid viscosity, tube length, or flow increases.
4. The properties that characterize the three states of matter are: 1. Solids: Have a high degree of internal order. Have a fixed volume and shape. Strong mutual attractive force between atoms. Molecules have the shortest distance to travel before collision (aka they “jiggle”). 2. Liquids: have a fixed volume, but adapt the shape of their container. Atoms show less degree of mutual attraction compared to solids. 3. Gases: No fixed volume or shape; weak attractive forces. Gas molecules show rapid, random motion with frequent
5. Substances undergo change of state by: their Liquid to Solid phase changes (melting and freezing) and Liquid to Vapor phase changes (vaporization). Each phase change also correlates to their Melting, Freezing, and Boiling points.
6. The three common temperature scales: Kelvin, Celsius, and Farenheight.
7. Water vapor capacity, absolute humidity, and relative humidity are related by: condensation; this is due to gas turning into a liquid. In clinical practice, the calculation of humidity deficit is helpful when it comes to the hygroscopic condenser humidifier. It simulates a real human nose by helping the patient humidify their air as they breathe.
8. When predicting gas behavior under changing conditions, including at extremes of temperature and pressure is because: of their weak attractive forces. High temperatures increase the kinetic activity of gas molecules far foreshadows these forces. Low temperatures, kinetic activity lessens, these forces become more important. Low pressures permit gas molecules to move freely about with little mutual attraction. High pressures crowd molecules together increasing the influence of these forces.